Over population in Egypt and its dimensions, considers as one of the serious problems, which challenge Egypt community, as it relates to social, economic, political, and educational future to the nation, belonging to the risks, as results of big difference in population and foreign labor in general, this cause risks to nation security, nation domain and identity, so this case became as one of main cases that looks for solution, and the government gave it special interest as a case of identity, economic, security and education, and in this research I will explain this problem, causes, effects, and results, and some solutions and recommendations, the diagnosis of problem dimensions take varied sides, as a result of quantity growth in labor number, and the effect of the quality based of population in Egypt , this causes lots of hazards, and social, economic, and security problems which threat community and its future, in addition of difference in lots of employments especially in the private sector, this makes the problem so complicated, and leave citizens away from private sectors, so increasing problems and its interiors, let us accept this situation, so neither the continuing in the popularity situation is unacceptable nor the solutions.
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The definition of overpopulation
Lots of phenomenon which belongs to the demographic situations, differ from country to another, especially if relate to economic, social, political future of these countries, and the generation of problems and conditions which make difficulties to get red of, so social problems that face any community or nation, differ in determining level of importance in points view of society, and it may suppose exist different types of social problems, which can be distinguished in all groups in social process determine that phenomenon which represent social problems at first then increase to become multi sides.
Causes of Overpopulation
Egyptian people, like other people belongs to organic roots known Arabic, and connect with other Arab people in religion, language, and historical connectors, and it effects with tribal condition, that means its people belong to Arabic tribes, have their famous names, and parts, Egyptian citizens face to mix with foreign emigrants, especially which come from Africa, Iran, and India, instructing that littoral cities were more influenced with this emigrants than the interior, and desert ones, this effects in its economic, educational, social nature, while the Bouduin group still as it is, and kept its cultural and traditional concepts.
The changes which happened in Egyptian in the begins of the 70th century with the exploration of oil, and the started of construction process, that comprehend, economic, constructions, and traditions changes, in addition of appearing new concepts of life, so it is natural for old traditions and customs to disappear, and rechange with new concepts and ideas that suitable to the new life and, this derived to appear of new Egyptian person, who has new mental, contentment which different from how he lived before Union Revolution and oil exploration
The new cultural situation obliged big choices with it on the fast process of growth and improves luxury life level of person, which relates with developments of individual’s income, and developments of governmental and private services, the country became as a path of global market, so this leads cultural concepts with different forms, companied with big exist of external companies in Egyptian in addition of construct local organizations that depend on the foreign labor in both kinds, so this ease immigrants flow to the communities which increased over expectations
Problems Caused by Overpopulation
The overpopulation is the first national case in this period, and it should be take wide interests as population planning, and labor brought, and the need of it, increased to 90% from the total of labor force in the country, according to the last estimations, the percent of foreign people is 10% with citizens in Egypt , and there are 300 thousand new job opportunities available in Egypt , while 30 thousands of Emirates are workless, and this is another defection beside of the population one, and this what prime labor minister announced
In the other side we notice the domination of foreign labor of all production sectors, which focus in commerce, restaurants, hotels, constructions, and changeable industry, we under stand the percentage of foreign labor is the most in the country, this cause to defect the quantity of population construct, so the problem is serious, and more complex case which face country and government, in the next ten years on the political, and social and threats construction of the country and its association,
This situation which it obliged and the excepted solutions for it and I explore two causes:
The situation growth in Egypt aimed citizens to improve their economic, social, employment and educational levels, and today citizen changed to investor to bring laborite, and this way was very useful for him
The improvement of financial sector in the 70th century was the base of bring foreign labority in imaginative way, and it becomes now needs an opposite situation as a negative immigration, because the foreign aim is economic, to reduce present defect crises, by limit the labority, and the useful selection of it, and takes in considerations qualifications, skills, experiences and nationalities balances, and during the big growth of increasing population in Egypt of the foreign growth in enormous estimations, and the defection is still a threat effects on future of the country with its people,
Scarcity of Resources
This overpopulation according to the statistics pointed at level of danger, in which this problem carries, and consider local challenge to Egypt , especially after the next population in 2006, which doesn’t appear yet, so the danger should be faced that effect on the social, and quantitive composition, and changes the classifications of population in addition of its social, quantitive, educational, and safety risks, which domain the economical and live sectors in the society, in addition of the financial, and social charges which made more pressure in the local services, and this leads to increase the development budget, otherwise in the local, or union, which influenced in the citizens level
Egyptian government did and does more efforts to deal with all disadvantages, especially health sectors which results of present population construction in the organized images of the job law in the governmental and private sector and force woman in different jobs, from the first days of Egypt established, the specialist departments did big efforts to announce laws of emigration and residence, so lots of ministry laws and decisions in this case, the first union law number 6 in 1973 which followed with lots of modified like the council of ministers decision number 3 in 1977 to organize bringing foreign labors.
The first step that government did in the way of correcting the population situation in April 1980, it announced labor law number 8 in 1980, then law number 8 in 1984, in case to organize the foreign labor, that causes to manage use of labors, and work adults and women, with individual, and group firms and contracts, as salaries, working hours, vacations, medical protection, insurances and work end awards…etc, the application of this law causes to establish the organizing basis of bringing foreign labors, and it gave citizens the right to work and this come in 9th subject (work is a right for all Emirates citizens and it is not allowed for the others to work in nation, unless in the conditions which government does).
The law confirmed Environmental Issues in case of the unavailable of local labor, the priority offered to the Arabic labor then foreign labor from other nationalities, but this applied only in the governmental sectors, but the private sector doesn’t work to apply it although there are lots of citizens who look for job, it has supported this law with ministry decision in 1990, in case of organizing foreign labor forces in Egypt , especially the case of escaping from guarantor, or allow them work with others, the government interested in treating the defection in the population construction, so another ministry decision number 4 in 1994 in to organize bringing foreigners to their families and servants, and it has been allowed to limited number of categories who have big incomes like engineers, accountant, chemists, agriculture guides, teachers, and other careers, the law decided the limit salary for foreigners to bring his family 4000G monthly in case of the accommodation available, and 5000 G in case of there is no accommodation.
Environment getting worse
As it is in the lower level in the country during to decrease their families and servants, but the groups which the decision comprised were so little from the foreign labor, and as a result this decision did nothing but, raise the percentage of males more than females, and the fifth subject was amendment to become 3000 Dhr with accommodation and 4000 G with out accommodation, so this decision has not been studied well and patiently to connect between the fair of governmental income and private individual income, in addition of all who work in government are Arab,
I think it should follow with the quantitive population construction(male and female), and nationality, to solve environmental problems it should focus in private sector, in addition of that the labor ministry paused to give Visas to unspecific period, the decision pointed to 42 activities like tailors, and small carpentry work shop, and bakeries, the law number 93 in 1996, which announced from the interior ministry, that organize labority situations, especially for those whom are illegal in the country, from the decision announced 250 thousand illegal’s left the country, the council of ministers issued a decision to increase nationalism in banks 4% yearly, in addition it formed a high committee to population construction to find suitable solutions for population construction modification and organize it.
There is a real public health problem in the large numbers of Foreign employments especially Illegal foreign employments, that carries significant risks and threats to the state society, losing control over them that they cannot trace them or hold them accountable in event of serious crimes and the most dangerous if they carry with them into the country banned substances such as: ammunition, weapons or drugs, which affects the stability and security in society.
Are also a drain on food resources, peer wages they receive and the financial cost of these indirect employment as a result of a large number of state has to bear the high cost of these for through the support of direct and indirect services
The existence of fresh water in Egypt especially, some reasons belongs directly with economic side chiefly, in addition of many circumstances, and social, political, security, and economic …etc other wise from import or export countries of employments an important role to form this phenomena, otherwise it attract employment from import countries, or pressure fired from export ones, and this employment find this easy in period of EGYPT establishment, and the needs of workers and labors in all sectors in addition of the limits of EGYPT population and the fast developments of the country
Coastlines and oceans
The position of Egypt in two seas, made it, as a position of attractions, it locates in two seas, the Red sea and the mideterainian one, in addition of that there are long coast line, these things causes the overpopulation
The forest in Egypt distributed in both sides of the Nile river, but the overpopulation, caused many problems of these green areas and cancel most of them to, construct houses and buildings for people
The biodiversity of people in Egypt are in center of the city, industrial areas, in addition of the places which is near water, but after the overpopulation which happened in the recent few years, population diversity is every where in the country, and some times causes traffic
Overpopulation in Egypt derived lots of problems, in addition of traffic, climate now is not flexible, changeable due to the increase in all devices which cause pollution for example means of transportations, conditioners all these things causes changing climate,
Disadvantages of overpopulation
Overpopulation in Egypt causes lots of disadvantages:
1- The problems of security, ethical and social:
There is a real problem in the large numbers of Foreign employments especially Illegal foreign employments, that carries significant risks and threats to the state society, losing control over them that they cannot trace them or hold them accountable in event of serious crimes and the most dangerous if they carry with them into the country banned substances such as: ammunition, weapons or drugs, which affects the stability and security in society.
Are also a drain on economic resources, peer wages they receive and the financial cost of these indirect employment as a result of a large number of state has to bear the high cost of these for Through the support of direct and indirect services
Solution of overpopulation
The problem of the research taken in general form the general increasing in legal and illegal labors and the effect on the construction of population in the city this causes to more economic, social, society risks and problems, and threat the entity of society and its future, in addition of differences in citizens percentage, in lots of employs in the private sector, that makes the problem more complicated, and don’t work local people in private sector, the problem increases in its overlaps, and solutions,
So this balance in its difficulties, to accept the situation, as the population situation is acceptable or the solutions to mend up it also acceptable, the society and government role in front of the society limited in challenge.
The existing situation of Egypt needs to fix up the population constructions and looking for how we can treat its defection, to keep the nation’s security and citizens identifications, with taking in considerations cultural and social improvements in community, and relooks again to population constructions, and policy of emiratisation of people community, and this problem needs a more careful in a completed plan to achieve it, to decrease partly from it, and arrive to a stage which has useful results during to put all national and human possibilities in the process of treatment.
The relevant policies goals
The relevant policies have lots of goals and direction and the most important ones are:
To know the size of the problem, and clarify the causes of population defection, and its danger which forms in Egypt community
Clarify the local causes that cause to exist population defection with the growth and increase of labority
Identify the risks which causes by population defection
To know and apply rules which can get red out of population defection, and limit its traces.
To know if the emiratisation is a good solution, and look at its results
To point out to the active performance role of the formal department
Identify the steps that the government follow and force them in the community to fix up this problem, and avoid it in future
Put and apply effective recommendations to assist in preventing and solving population defection in Egypt
Prepare all local labor force, and direct it to a productive jobs and works, far away from workless, and decrease foreigner labority, and give the priority to productive employments in economic and social departments
Population defection overpopulation is one of the most important subjects which occupies Egyptian government , and public opinion and this problem takes lots of dimensions in Egypt because of the percentage defection improvement, comparing with other countries, and it is over 80%, and this makes the need strategic, importance and fast to correct population defection, that cause to retreat economic, productivity, political of local citizens, as flow of immigration and dependency on foreign labor, and the country became as camps more than nation in scientific and social concept, as these communities don’t characterized as community, that focuses on custom or tradition in the nature of generation and married, and percentage of male and female are similar for age and sex, and it has similar and cooperative techniques, and relationship, but these communities are very poor of education, and same nationalities especially for those who are not Arabic
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Egypt government did lots of ways, procedures and applied many rules and strategies to limit this defection, and fixing it today needs serious standing, rethinking, and reevaluating of policies and techniques which fall to treat, and look to the present situation to understand its components, dimensions, to cover its complex and troubles, this requires improving governmental and popular mentality and well, to apply useful policies to pass this problem in time, periodical, strategic plan
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