Influence Of Transnational Actors On Foreign Policy
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To make reference to this issue, is necessary know the relevance of different actors in the global field, because the conception of the state as the only actor, now is not valid for the apparition of new actors, which play a important roles. For that reason, it is necessary take in account those actors in the process of decision-making on a country. The focus of the article is in transnational actors, which can be divided into 2 classes. The first ones are the Non-Governmental Organizations, which place great importance to growth and can influence in so many aspects, because they can reach interconnect persons, governments, and International organization. ONG is any non-profit group of citizen volunteers, which is organized locally, nationally or internationally. With task-oriented and run by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring citizens' issues to governments, monitor policies and encourage community participation. They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms and help in monitoring and implementing international agreements. NGOs are characterized by be pressure and influence groups in the international society and they are active in various fields because of the interests of protecting the environment, development, peacekeeping and human rights. While many countries receive with gratitude these services, the services provided by other NGOs are often seen as barriers or attacks on the sovereignty of certain countries. In fact, given that NGOs have no link with the policy of one country in particular, their independence sometimes allows them to go against the policies implemented by some countries. One of the main NGO problems is the lack of international regulation, because they must have recognize of the good management, the reached goals, and they need to be regulated too, because frequently governments and people are not satisfied with their acts. The second topic are the Transnational Corporations in contradistinction to Non-governmental Organizations, TNC are corporations created for profit. They are gigantic factories that want to reach all countries, places in the world with the purpose of spread the power. The power is reflected in the influence that they have in the governments of all countries, industrialized and developing. They bring foreign direct investment that has benefits to countries. But are focus directly in the realization of economic activities in several countries, as well as joint development and implementation of a unified strategy, and to achieve it, have the ability to create a sphere of protection and promotion of individual human rights. Also Transnational Corporations activities have been criticized because of the affected in environmental stress and social changes and their great impact on the politics decisions to government protects their interests. All those aspects are reinforced in the article "The Power of Transnational Corporations": The economic and political powers bring the deepening of the disparity of wealth, impoverishment working conditions, corruption and pollution, deterioration of health and safety in production processes, loss of employment for many workers in the world and the human rights violation ""  . When the role of transnational actors is studied, it is every time more evident the influence in International Relations, because of the interdependence between all units in the system. The Non- Governmental Organizations have imposed new standards and codes of conduct as ethics, seals and certification. It is noted the need by an affirmation of international law as they tend to weaken national labor codes, as well as trade unions. But the main reason for existence of an NGO is to promote education for development, development aid, that is, financial cooperation, the supply of equipment and technical assistance or support personnel, concerning about removing obstacles to socio-political, economic and physical, that prevent the development of human potential, particularly the most disadvantaged sectors of Third World countries. The ONG need meet some characteristics like internal structure, to have their origin in an agreement between states, to be a democratic organization, their fines are not a profit-driven, they must pursuing international interests and must be constituted in accordance with the laws of the home state. The weight can be seen in important NGOs like Greenpeace, â€¨International Amnesi, â€¨Human Rights Watch, CARE, â€¨Médecins Sans forntiéres, Cruz Roja Internacional, â€¨WWF. Greenpeace for example is a " is an independent global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behaviors, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace"  . These types of Organization exercise their influence through oppression to reach the goals in front to environment. In United States Greenpeace has recently led a campaign to end the marketing of overfished seafood populations in American supermarkets. As a result, Stop & Shop and Giant Food are not selling Shark, Orange Roughy, and Chilean Sea Bass until the populations rebound  . Also had big challenges in case of Fisher Price in which the purpose was lead several types of phthalates from toys and child-care products. So With campaigns that help to spread information around the world, organization can play an important role in politics of governments that have influence in all countries because of the interdependence effects for commerce and shared politics. The organization gained attention by creating "mind bombs", or strong, visual messages distilling their position on complex environmental issues  . Another example of influence is with the Médecins Sans forntiéres is concerned about Armed conflict. Social violence, healthcare exclusion and Natural disaster which have had goals like politics adopted in countries to fight against maternal health "On April 27, 2010, the Sierra Leone government started implementing a policy of free healthcare for pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, and children under five. MSF welcomes the government's commitment to the new policy and hopes that this will improve the access to healthcare for these vulnerable groups"  . With those distinctions it can see the importance of NGOs because some who work around the protection, promotion and preservation of the environment with sustainable development through international cooperation and some that work in areas of immigration and refugees, disabled, sick, infants, and family, all of those institutions are focusing in a objective, the only one objective is work for the welfare of the community, so, NGOs have emerged as a response to needs which the State does not satisfy. Society organized civil search and complementary alternative solutions for the full development of these shortcomings. But some facts have made loss the credibility of the management of ONG because so many NGOs in some countries are making some corrupt practices, the funds acquired by international channels are often misused, and do not meet the targets set, decreasing the impact of these vulnerable society. UN Anti-corruption meeting develops worrisome trend: Algerian NGO blocked and a Gabonese activist faces difficulties: The Algerian government is blocking attendance of an Algerian NGO from an upcoming UN anti-corruption summit. This is a deeply worrying development, according to the UNCAC Coalition, a group of over 200 organizations seeking implementation of the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)  . It is necessary remains have the integrity, authority and influence of NGO but that is only achieved through transparency and good deeds. Another central issue is the importance of Transnational Corporations which has a very broad field of action, The area of influence of transnational corporations is not limited solely to the economic sector, but are linked to each other political and social processes. These companies are directly related to border trade, foreign investment, technology exchange, but there is a fundamental feature to be recognized as a transnational corporation, is necessary for the company concerned has branches or Subsidiaries Outside of home country. According to a study conducted by the "United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations, it was established that:
A transnational firm is defined as a company or group companies constituted by a parent company in accordance with law of a country which, from its headquarters abroad implants with its subsidiaries and direct investment (mergers, privatizations and acquisitions). With a global strategy designed to designed to remove any obstacle to the expansion and the free movement of powerful consortia and transnational monopolies  . These TNC have the capacity to exercise the effect to induce the increasing interdependence increasingly impossible for the country's economic incoherence, its import and export processes because of its influence in places where they are established, since they are very large companies with high profits, bringing foreign direct investment the country, which brings benefits such as increased employment and capital also covers the financing requirements, stable cash flows that do not harm the economy by his stay in the country. Means more growth, more and more foreign exchange per capita income in the host country, and so does increase the chances of decrease in the poverty rate. On the other hand, opponents to the TNC have clear reason to discredit their activities, using the argument of the disadvantage in maintaining the emerging market to compete to such large corporations as they have no capacity, no facilities and enjoy the competitiveness that they have acquired Over the years and have no influence on these countries' trade policies. With so much power, these corporations can exclude and exercise their potential economies in developing countries more than developed countries with which negotiations conducted in similar terms. "In this context, TNCs are at the heart of the concerns of the world labor and environment. The reasons are mainly the following:
"At the height of inequity on the planet are the CTN. The growth of economic operations of TNC in the decade that contrasted with the growth of poverty. In 2001, CTN, with 54 million workers at its subsidiaries abroad, sales were $ 19 billion, greater than that of Global exports of which, in turn, was for them to a third party"  . The biggest problem with government is its inability to monopolize and regulate all activities that a TNC can develop, as it can be said that they do not have an established global regulation issued by international standards or national norms constituted. The countries can be affected by the triangulation, regulatory arbitrage, the ease of transferring production from one country to another, because when companies take advantage of its spreading on the international market can perform operations that benefit them but harm to small businesses national. It can be conclude the transnational actors have an essential and central character in the system because the globalization the market opens the communication and increasing interdependence, the unification of markets, societies and culture governments need make a transition in resources, influencing the government politics because of relations among other countries taking in account the shared problems, risks and rewards according to social, political and economic issues. All these aspects lead the government to design policies for better development and management of newly emerging phenomena in the field. Y so to counteract facts put at a disadvantage both the government in taxing domestic policy as in the care of the industry as a vulnerable sector. In social terms the design of policies is even more important, the need for government to fight the interests of society, minimizing poverty and improving quality of life of the inhabitants, which is threatened by some unregulated corporations that bring the benefits and reduce unemployment for nationals. On the other hand, there is great influence of NGOs face the struggle for rights human, which arise, as a response to needs which the State does not satisfy. Civil society organizations are looking for alternative solutions and complementary to the full development of these shortcomings. No doubt that the function carried out with various projects to benefit promotes community development-oriented management. Pressures exerted by these organizations are governments reacting address problems identified, found and criticized by them.
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