Please find my enclosed my report entitled :What kind of things that related with thermodynamics field can contribute our daily life. I trust you will find the report has covered the question in a comprehensive fashion. Should there be any questions regarding this report, please do not hesitate to contact me at the address. I will also include my email address, so that initial contact can be made and further arrangements made should that be necessary.
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The research report will describe that what is thermodynamics? What are the advantage of thermodynamics? How thermodynamics will make our life easy? The research report will show different branches of thermodynamics and how it works. The report will also highlight some histories of thermodynamics .On the other hand, there are some analysis and facts relating with our daily life easier and more efficient.
The main reason for choosing this report is because I’m interested in the thermodynamics, which is our daily exposure. I also want to specify my study in thermodynamics, which is major branch of my study which in mechanical engineering. Nowadays, thermodynamics technology are using everywhere and they make our life more convenient. So, I want to do research how thermodynamics works and how they contribute to our daily life.
Boiling water is hot. Ice is cold. The diversity between hot and cold is detected naturally ability to sense heat and its opposite. We measure heat with a thermometer and we assign it a temperature.
Dictionary definition of “hot” and “cold” relate those sensation to our normal body temperature.
Warm things have temperatures above our body temperature, and cold things have temperatures below our body temperature. In this way, humans are able to compare the temperatures of things and get a subjective sense of hotness or coldness. In one sense heat is a sensation in the mind. But we know that some physical process is causing our nerves to be stimulated in this way. What is happening in nature that causes us to feel these sensation of hot and cold?
It isn’t only human beings who respond to heat flow and changes in temperature. Heat affects all material objects and the environment as well. Temperature determines whether most substances exist in a solid. Liquid. Or gaseous state, Heating and cooling, if it changes the temperature of a substance enough, can change the state of matter. SO basic is the phenomenon of temperature that physicist consider it a fundamental property of matter. Along with volume mass, electric charge, and time. The word “thermodynamics” consist of thermo, meaning heat, and dynamics, which refers to movement or change. In this broadest sense, thermodynamics is about heat and how heat moves and changes. The fact that heat move at all was itself a discovery of considerable importance. It’s not at all obvious. You light a campfire and it warms you. It has heat. The fire goes out, and heat seems to disappear. Common experience will not tell you that none of that heat has really disappeared. Heat is a form of energy and energy can b neither created nor destroyed. That, as you will learn, is one of the most important of the laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is really all about the study of thermal energy and how it behaves.
Over time, Scientists and engineers learned that heat energy is related to work. The classic example is the steam engine, in which heat energy is used to boil water, creating steam to push a piston attached to a rotary shaft. The shaft can then be used to turn a train wheels or a ship’s propeller of the machines in a factory. In this process heat energy is converted into a mechanical energy, Understanding what heat and temperature are and how energy is transformed into different forms in essential to understanding the modern industrial world and how we get thing done. As we shall see, much of our theoretical understanding of thermodynamics did not come about until people could examine the functioning of real machines like the steam engine.
2.0 History of thermodynamics
The ancient Greeks believe that the world is built up of four basic elements: water, air, earth, and fire. However they did not understand the true nature of heat, the ancient Greeks learned to use it to operate simple mechanical devices. Little is known of the life of Hero of Alexandria. He wrote treatises on working with the simple machines, like the lever, the pulley, the wedge, the wheel, the gear, and the screw.
He described a primitive steam engine called an aeolipile. It consisted of a reservoir of boiling water connected by a tube to a large, hollow sphere with open, bent tubes coming out of it. The sphere was attached to a gimbal so that it could rotate. Heated steam entering the hollow sphere caused it to spin as it blew the steam out of the bent tubes. The aeolipile was the first device known to transform heat into ratery motion in effect, Hero’s device was the first steam turbine
The history of thermodynamics started with G.Galilel(1597) who introduced the theory of temperature and he also invented one of the first thermometers. It was G. Black (1770) who was the first to use the term “Thermodynamics”. In 1772 G. Wilke introduced the unit of measuring the a mount of heat a Calorie. It was W. Tompson (1859) who introduced term ” thermodynamics” into conventional use.
In the 20th century, thermodynamics became a basic independent division of Theoretical Physics dealing with the study of general properties of physical systems under equilibrium, as well as common regularities taking place with attaining equilibrium. Thermodynamics is divided into phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics
3.0What is thermodynamics?
Thermodynamics is a division of natural science related with heat, energy and work it defines macroscopic variables that show material and radiation and explains how they are related and by what law. Thermodynamics shows the average behavior of , large numbers of small divisions.
3.1Braches of thermodynamics
3.1.1 Classical Thermodynamics
Classical thermodynamics shows the changes of thermodynamic in terms, either of their time-balanced equilibrium states, or else of their continually repeated like clockwork processes, but, formally, not both in the same account. It uses only time-balanced, or equilibrium, small quantities that can measure in the laboratory, counting as time-consistence a long-term time-average of a quantity, such as a flow, achieved by a continuously repetitive process. Classical thermodynamics does not accept change over time as a central circumstance in its account of processes. An equilibrium state stands constantly without change over time, while a continuously repeated cyclic process runs repeatedly without change over time.
In the classical field closely and purely in terms of cyclic action, the best internal of the ‘working body’ of a cyclic process is not considered; the ‘working body’ thus does not have a characterized interior thermodynamic state of its own because no expectation is made that it should be in thermodynamic stability; only its inputs and outputs of energy as heat and work are considered. It is of course possible, and absolutely common, for the result in terms of equilibrium states of a system to show cycles composed of indefinitely many equilibrium states.
3.1.2 Statistical Thermodynamics
Statistical Thermodynamics, also called statistical mechanics, appeared with the development of atomic and molecular approaches in the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century. It shows an explanation of classical thermodynamics. It considers the microscopic cooperation between individual particles and their combined motions, in terms of classical or of quantum mechanics. Its explanation is in terms of data that rest on the fact the system is built of several species of particles or collective motions, the branches of each species individually being in some sense all alike.
3.1.3Laws of Thermodynamics
The laws of thermodynamics are different from others. There’re altogether four of them. They’re arranged from zero to four. Not because they are arranged by discovery in order but because they are numbered some especially. The second law is different from others and there’re no effect on others. It has different formulas. The first law describe the quantity of internal energy of a system, which was found from kinetic energy and from its potential energy which relates to its surroundings. The first law describe the transferring of heat between closed system as work. The second law include two theories which is known as temperature and entropy. Entropy shows the limit which is known as irreversibility from the beginning, on the work that can reach to an external system by thermodynamics process. The effects of temperature, which halfway showed by the zeroth law, which has quantities in the direction of energy flow as heat between two system in thermal connection and which is known as common sense of hot and cold
If the object A is thermally equal with object B, and B is thermally equal with C. So, the object A is thermally equal with object C. This is more a matter of relationship than of physics. If they have the same temperature, the two objects are thermally equal. If object A and object B has the same temperature, and the object B and C have the same temperature, then both A object and B object have the same temperature.
The most important thing in Zeroth Law is that, when a hot and cold object are place in contact together, the thermal energy will flow from hotter to the colder object until their thermal energy will remain equilibrium.
Let’s consider the first law as an isolated system. That means heat and energy can neither leave or enter the circle. Such system does not done any work. But we can imagine it with a certain energy inside it, namely U, which depends on the kinetic of the molecular system and also the system’s temperature. The internal energy is the same with potential energy because it has a property that does not work. But it still has the potential to do work.
The first law describes that the internal energy of the system increases if heat is added to a system.
The first law can just show another way of the laws of conservation of energy. As heat and work are another form of energy, if they go outside of the system, it will affect the internal energy of the system
The Second law is popular for its formulation of entropy. Entropy is a technical term for talking about confusion which is found in the 19th century. The same theory let us know that heat energy automatically flow cold from hot and they’re not flowing in the opposite direction. This also remind us that if the ordered system can turn easily into disordered system, But disordered system cannot turn easily into the ordered system themselves easily.
The third law of thermodynamics states that if an object reaches the absolute zero absolute zero of temperature (-273C), its atoms will stop moving.
4.0How Thermodynamics Works?
The system of the refrigerator cycle is continuous. We will show the system of refrigerator which uses with pure ammonia which keep the refrigerator cool in the following example. Ammonia boils at -27 degrees F. That’s why the refrigerator can always keep cool.
The compressor in refrigerator compresses the ammonia gas and they heats up as it reaches high pressure.
At the back of the refrigerator, there are coils that make hot ammonia gas to take its heat. When it reaches high pressure, the ammonia gas become liquid as it’s pressure is high.
The pressurized ammonia liquid let flow through the expansion valve. There’s a small hole within an expansion valve. One side of the hold let flow the high pressured ammonia liquid and other side let flow the low-pressure ammonia gas because the gas are sucked out of that side by compressor.
The ammonia liquid boils as the boiling point is very low and it vaporizes. The gas temperature dropping to -27F and that makes the refrigerator cold inside.
The cold ammonia gas sucked by the compressor and repeats the circle again and again.
4.0.2 Air Conditioner
There’re some major parts of an air conditioner which freezes and cool the air in two directions: Indoors and outdoors:
Evaporator, which works for the liquid refrigerant
Condenser, which work for transferring heat
Expansion valve, which make refrigerant into the evaporator
Compressor, which pressurizes refrigerant
For the cold side of an air conditioner, there is a fan which blows air over the freezed coil to cool down the air into the room and the evaporator. The compressor is in the hot side and also the condenser. Another fan is to release hot air coming off the compressed cool to the outdoors. Between those coils, there’s an expansion valve which release into the evaporator the compressed liquid. If the liquid reaches into the evaporator, it experiences the pressure drop and change back into a gas. The compressor is a large device that pressurizes the refrigerant gas to turn back into a liquid, which is also known as electric pump.
4.0.3 Microwave Oven
As it is a microwave oven, it simply uses microwave to warm up or cook food. Microwave is a kind of wave that stays between radio wave and infrared radiation. For the microwave system, the commonly used wave which has the frequency of about 2,450 megahertz. They have interesting effects. Water, fats and sugars absorbs such kind of waves. If they’re absorbed, they change them into atomic motion which transform into heat. These wave have another interesting effect too. They cannot be absorbed by most plastics or glass.
5.0Advantages of using Thermodynamics
The devices as shown above each of them have Advantages. By using refrigerator we can keep perishable food, such as, vegetables and milk for much longer periods. Refrigerators also have a freezing part that will keep frozen foods and make ice to use in beverages
By using Air Conditioner, it’s more comfortable and we can adjust the indoor temperature. In extreme heat, air- conditioning can be a life saver, improves the air quality and most air conditioner also reduce the humidity level, which helps both comfort.
For Microwave oven, it can cook many food about 1/4th of the time necessary on a gas burner. It saves time in heating frozen foods. Food gets cooked uniformly.
6.0 Disadvantages of using Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics not only have advantages but also have disadvantages. By using refrigerator it costs a lot of electricity to run. They are also environmentally unfriendly the refrigerator also contain refrigerant that can be damaging to the environment because of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) content. This material is suspected to be the cause of reduction of earth’s ozone layer.
When we frequently use the air conditioner, the air conditioning disease will occur. It is characterized by fatigue weakness, cough or fever and so on. Air conditioner’s energy consumption is considerable. It will consume a lot of energy. It also release CFC, which is environmentally unfriendly.
Microwaves can cook food in very short period. Due to short period of cooking, food does not become brown unless the microwave has a browning unit. Sometimes unwanted chemicals migrate to food from plastic cook ware or food packages. The short cooking time may not give a chance of blending of flavours as in conventional methods.
As a result of the research carried out, it appears to be necessary to understand all the field of thermodynamics. Future technologies are requiring new materials with unusual effects that will either be prepared by high-temperature techniques. One of the important thing that can affect the pollution to the environment easily are the new devices. Equipment using volatile fluids that can harm to the stratosphere and destroy the ozone will have to be replaced. Devices that emit sulfur oxides will have to be modified to reduce sulfur emission to very low values. The ability of solar energy used devices will have to be improved and nuclear power plants will have to be designed to make less serious accidents. So that energy production by combustion to carbon dioxide is greatly reduced.
The research report has taken information from various sources to understand what is thermodynamics; what are laws of thermodynamics; how they works; and how they make our life easier? It shows that thermodynamics used devices are very convenient to use. If there were no thermodynamics devices in this world it would be many difficulties to pass a day. By improving the uses and devices of thermodynamics, they can make our life more convenient and can reduce the environmental reduce the environmental side effects.
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