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Organisational Behaviour Essay
Organisational behaviour is a study of the way people interact with one another within a group. The study is applied in order to attempt at making business organisations more efficient. This essay explores how motivation, teamwork, culture and stress impact employees within an organisation and how the negative aspects of these factors could be overcome which is demonstrated within the companies such as BFGym.
‘Motivation is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals’ (Prachi Juneja, 2008). The lack of motivation shown by the staff at BFGym can be examined through a number of process theories. Nick is presented as being treated “unfairly” and “taken advantage of” by his colleagues. Nicks’ lack of motivation can be justified through Adams Equity Theory (1965). ‘Employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others’ (Benjamin B. and Tom H. 2009). This suggests that employees lack motivation due to inequalities by judging equity by using ratio of inputs to outcomes for others, as well as perceiving whether the ratios remain equal for them. This is shown in Nicks’ case where a comparison is made between his shifts with his colleagues. He’d been allocated the unwanted shifts, mainly at demotivating times of the week such as early mornings as well as weekends. However, the equity model does not include further perceptions of how fairness should be allocated. If the workplace is kept equity, there are no defined roles between employees meaning management roles are the same as support roles and everyone should be gaining the same rewards as each other. For Nick to feel more motivated, his co-workers and managers should take time out to listen to him and he should be conferred about classes he is to run in order to make him feel more involved in his role. As well as Nick we have also seen Robin feeling demotivated due to him finding the class routines boring, however, he has stated he makes ends meet with his current role, and he is not thinking of leaving. Robins mindset can be linked to Vroom’s expectancy theory (1964). ‘Behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximise pleasure and minimise pain’ (Benjamin B. and Tom H. 2009). Vroom uses a range of variables such as expectancy, instrumentality and valence to justify this. Robin claims that meeting ends with his current role matters most, which relates to the expectancy factor that if he increases his efforts it would result in a higher performance. Following from this, Robin may feel motivated from the thought that if his performance is high, the reward shall be high which is an instrumentality factor. On the contrary, according to Porter and Lawler the simplicity of Vrooms model is a criticism due to the theory not expanding on the different levels of effort individuals, such as Robin, have carried out. As well as this, the theory assumes employees are motivated through rewards in order to increase their efforts. It has overlooked that rewards could cause a negative effect on the employees, such as increased amount of tax being paid by employee due to higher reward. In order to increase Robins’ motivation, management should ask him what he might want to do in order to find his work more appealing and enjoyable in order to increase his motivation and performance levels. Motivation plays a significant role within a business in order to insure employees are not reducing their efforts due to a lack of motivation.
The lack of motivation discussed above can alter performance levels of employees when they work together as a team. We can see at BFGym that the team’s behaviour in the team meeting has been impacted. The behaviour conducted in the meeting can be studied by Steiner’s Process Losses theory (1972). ‘A groups actual productivity is equal to its potential productivity minus process losses, which result from either faulty coordination of member resources or less-than-optimal motivation by members’ (Thelma S. Horn, 2008). We can see in the group meeting that Jane “actively tried to come up with creative solutions” which instantly relates to the performing stage in Tuckman’s 5 stage model of group development (1965). This stage is where the group members work towards completing their goals. Jane considered her own as well other trainer’s preferences when voicing her opinion leading to the team taking on board her ideas to present in the group presentation. This demonstrates process gains as group members agreed and were motivated which can potentially increase performance. ‘Process gain refers to the performance improvements that occur because people work together rather than independently’ (Phillips and Gully 2013). However, process losses result from lack of coordination of the group due to factors such as lack of motivation. Jo and Robin were agitated at the meeting timing and “wanted to get it done with”. Philip confronted them by stating they were being “negative” and “impending the groups progress”. This can be seen as a progress loss and can be linked to the storming stage in Tuckman’s model. This is when ‘group is in conflict, members resist being controlled by the group, and disagreements arise concerning leadership in the group’ (David C. 2018). Moreover, proposals can be put in place for the team to improve their group roles. “Nicks input is somehow discarded” “He refrained from voicing his opinion” shows that Nick has conserved his thoughts possibly due to the lack of recognition by co-workers as well managers acting harsh to their employees’ ideas. This could be overcome if the management department were to be more welcoming to the idea of employees contributing their ideas and voicing their opinions which could also aid the problem of demotivation. Jane demonstrated a welcoming attitude throughout the meeting however Philip did not. Shown by Jo and Robins approach to the meeting “whatever Philip suggested, they adopted” as well as Philips role “Philip instantly assumes the leadership position” shows clearly the belittle of others as well as whom may disagree with other members of the team. In order to improve this, suggestions for Philip would be to take on a more encouraging role to obtain strong relations with co-workers so the team is able to achieve more as the whole group will be actively involved in the meeting. Overall, within an organisation it is important to work together in a team effectively, so the performance of the company enhances as well as employee motivation at work.
There are a number of different types of cultures including power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture. Culture is ‘the unique configuration of norms, values, beliefs, ways of behaving and so on, that characterise the manner in which groups and individuals combine to get things done’ (Eldridge & Crombie, 1977). BFGym has culture which is strongly demonstrated by power culture. ‘In an organisation with power culture, power is held by just a few individuals whose influence spreads throughout the organisation’ (tutor2u.com,2018). This is shown in the bureaucratic structure in BFGym, there’s a group of managers that communicate directly to employees with no middle. However, this has caused decisions to be made without the consultation of the employees which affect employees such as removing the break room, an increase in classes to be run and whom they are assigned to without employees knowing. This shows the company takes advantage of this structure. However, ‘power-orientated organisations are able to exploit opportunities and react quickly to threats or danger’ (OM Manetje, 2009). As well as this, power culture can offer direction and confidence, it also reduces conflict and confusion in the time of emergency. I believe BFGym should alter their type of organisational culture to a person culture, as this would suit the organisation most. ‘The person culture is one in which the individual is the central point. The organisation exists only to serve and assist the individuals in it’ (Michael Armstrong, 2006). Employees and management are able to voice their opinions when decisions are made. Moreover, this allows less disagreements and misunderstandings between employees and managers allowing the business to operate smoothly.
Stress can be defined in terms of ‘how it impacts physical and psychological health; it includes mental, physical, and emotional strain. Stress occurs when a demand exceeds an individual’s coping ability and disrupts his or her psychological equilibrium’ (lumenlearning.com). Stress is seen to be occurring within BFGym because of the changes after a rise in subscribers, which causes stress factors to arise. ‘relationships at work, organisational structure and climate, and intrinsic to job’ (Michie, 2002) are factors which can cause stress which can affect the organisation as well as its employees in an undesirable way. High customer service may not be maintained due to high levels of stress, which can be resolved if interventions are put in place. Stress from relationships at work take place when there is a poor relationship between colleagues. Nick being a prime example in BFGym where he is disregarded by co-workers as he is a newly transfer as well as taken advantage as his colleagues leave him with jobs nobody else is willing to do. Secondary intervention, specifically team building, would be most suitable in order for this to be overcome. Team building activities will let Nick and his colleagues to bond with one another as they are required to complete a set of activities together. This encourages the co-workers to speak to each other and get to know one another which can benefit the organisation as the employees will not have any stress between them which could’ve prevented the business from performing highly. The employees would learn to work efficiently together. Organisational structure and climate are when there is minimal participation permitted for employees in decision making which management conduct. The break room removal is an example where employees were not consulted of the decision made and had to adjust to the new changes without warning. Philip had been stressed from this decision made as there is no longer a space where the employees could relax between classes which has affected the communication between colleagues. An intervention that can help resolve this stress factor could be providing a break room for the employees. This is seen as a primary intervention. This allows the employees to rest and socialise with one another when not running a class which can benefit the performance of the trainers as they will have energy to teach and will get along with their colleagues more. Intrinsic to job refers to an overload of work for the employees. Jo is suffering from work overload as she had been switched from personal training to running classes. As she is exhausted she would be unable to run classes to her best ability which causes her performance to fall. This can result in subscribers receiving poorer customer service compared to the past. Improvements can be made thought primary interventions. This ensures employees will do their job to the best of their ability as they are able to cope with their workload which isn’t overwhelming to them reducing their stress levels resulting in better performance and the gym running smoothly.
In conclusion, the topics discussed were motivation, teamwork, culture and stress which can all lead to the performance of the gym to fall if not taken care of by management. If employees are consulted about any changes, co-workers are encouraged to talk to one another through activities, another break room is provided and management are more welcoming to their employees, the gym will run smoothly as everyone is co-operating to ensure performance levels of BFGym remain high.
- Prachi Juneja (2008) – What is motivation. [online] https://www.managementstudyguide.com/what_is_motivation.htm Accessed on 29th December 2018
- Benjamin B. and Tom Hallez (2009) – Stacey Adams equity theory. [online] https://www.yourcoach.be/en/employee-motivation-theories/stacey-adams-equity-theory.php Accessed on 29th December 2018
- Benjamin B. and Tom Hallez (2009) -Vroom expectancy motivation theory. [online] https://www.yourcoach.be/en/employee-motivation-theories/vroom-expectancy-motivation-theory.php Accessed on 2nd January 2019
- Thelma S. Horn (2008) – Advances in Sport Psychology – page 217 Accessed on 6th January 2019
- Jean M. Phillips and Stanley M. Gully (2013) – Organizational behaviour: tools for success – page 397 Accessed on 6th January 2019
- David Cantliff (2018) - OB Week 6 – Groups and Teamworking Presentation Accessed on 20th January 2019
- Tutor2u.com (2018) – Handy’s model of organisational culture. [online] https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/models-of-organisational-culture-handy Accessed on 20th January 2019
- OM Manetje (2009) – Chapter 2 organisational culture – page 20 http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/1133/03chapter2.pdf Accessed on 20th January 2019
- Michael Armstrong (2006) – A handbook of human resource management practice – page 310 Accessed on 20th January 2019
- Lumenlearning.com – Stress in organizations [online] https://courses.lumenl earning.com/boundless-management/chapter/stress-in-organizations/ Accessed 20th January 2019
- Susan Michie (2002). Causes and Management of Stress at Work. [Online] Available from: http://www.oem.bmj.com/content/59/1/67 Accessed 20th January 2019
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