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urpose: The purpose of this assignment is to explore the role of nutrition and food labeling and understand the difference between health claims and nutrition claims using food from your own home. Also, you will explore the recommended calorie intake for a hypothetical “patient”.
PART I (23 points)
Complete the nutritional questions for the individual as indicated below. Make sure to take into consideration her gender, age, allergies, activity levels, and health conditions, as this will affect your answers.
– 60-year-old female.
– 210 pounds; 5’4”
– Health conditions include osteoporosis, diabetes, and obesity.
– Has an allergy to dairy products (lactose intolerant).
– Relatively inactive. Only receives exercise by going up and down the stairs in her house.
1. What is the recommended calorie intake for this individual to maintain her weight? (1 mark)
To maintain her weight, she would need to consume about 1,892 calories (Basal Metabolic Rate Calculator, n.d.) This number was determined by calculating her BMR which is 1,577 for her low activity level (Basal Metabolic Rate Calculator, n.d.).
2. Due to her allergy, she does not consume her daily required amount of calcium, which has led to her diagnosis of osteoporosis. Even though she takes a calcium supplement, her physician has recommended she consume more than half her recommended daily intake (RDI) in calcium through natural sources.
a) What is her RDI for calcium? (1 mark)
For her age, her recommended daily intake of calcium is 1200 mg (Innovation In Nutrition Education, n.d.)
b) Indicate 3 natural sources of calcium that she can consume that does not interfere with her allergy. *Note: Your answer cannot discuss using a Lactaid supplement to prevent allergy symptoms (1.5 marks).
Three natural sources of calcium that she can consume that doesn’t interfere with her diet are: fish with bones such as salmon, sardines, and anchovies (Managing lactose intolerance, 2019). Another alternative is vegetables such as bok choy, broccoli, rapini and kale (Managing lactose intolerance, 2019).
3. Describe what can occur if she eats too many foods with a high glycemic index without properly regulating her blood sugar and injecting insulin (1.5 marks).
If she eats too many foods with a high glycemic index without regulating blood sugar and injecting insulin hyperglycemia can occur (Felman, 2019). This is the most minor complication of failing to regulate blood sugar/injecting insulin. It is caused by high levels of glucose/sugar in the blood and occurs when the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin (Felman, 2019). Symptoms of hyperglycemia include frequent urination, blurred vision, fatigue, increased thirst and headache (Hyperglycemia in diabetes, 2018). In more severe cases, emergency diabetic complications can occur such as ketoacidosis and diabetic coma. Ketoacidosis occurs when there is not enough insulin in your body, therefore blood glucose levels rise, and your body begins to break down fat as a form of energy (Felman, 2019). Eventually this process will produce ketones which are a type of toxic acid. These ketones then accumulate in the blood and enter the urine (Felman, 2019). In the most severe cases diabetic coma can occur. This occurs when a diabetic patient loses consciousness when blood sugars ether become too high or too low (Roland, 2016). If responded to in a timely manner, it is likely that a doctor can balance the blood glucose levels and regain consciousness (Roland, 2016).
4. Explain the role of insulin in terms of the body’s use of glucose (5 marks).
The pancreas is responsible for the storage and secretion of insulin. When digestion occurs, foods containing carbohydrates are transformed into glucose (Morris, 2016).
Because these foods are now considered glucose, the amount of glucose in the blood rises and your pancreas is stimulated to release insulin (Morris, 2016). Insulin’s role in the body is to stimulate the use of glucose for energy (Insel, Roth, Irwin, Burke, Thomas, Mantler, Pearson, 2016). Therefore, the higher amounts of glucose in the blood, the more insulin is released to try and balance (Felman, 2018). Insulin signals cells to remove glucose from the bloodstream ultimately decreasing blood glucose levels (Felman, 2018) It does this by signaling muscles and fat tissue to increase their use of glucose, and in return limit the production of glucose in the liver (Insel et al., 2016).
5. She enjoys foods with high sugar content and does not plan on giving those foods up. Explain what she can do to prevent what can occur in question 3 from happening in the future (4 marks).
In order to maintain optimal blood glucose levels, as well as enjoy the food she loves she must implement a few things. First off, she can keep her blood glucose levels in a safe range by checking it regularly, as well as injecting insulin when her body needs it (Insel et al., 2016). Exercise is also another way to prevent hyperglycemia because when physically active your cells can become more reactive to insulin, meaning having to inject less insulin and having to take fewer medications (Physical Activity is Important, 2019). Eating sugary foods in moderation is considered to be fine as long proper maintenance in blood glucose levels is obtained (Nall, 2016).
6. What information is mandated and regulated by the Health Canada to be displayed on manufactured foods? Be sure to include specific details and at least 6 examples (3 marks).
Health Canada (2019), mandates many requirements to be included on manufactured foods. One piece of information requires is Nutrition Fact tables (Health Canada, 2019). Nutrition fact tables gives information regarding calories, serving sizes and percent daily values, as well as information on the 13 main nutrients which include: fat, trans fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, sodium, fiber, sugar, protein, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium and iron. (Health Canada, 2019). Another listed requirement is serving sizes (Health Canada, 2019). Serving sizes don’t suggest how much of the specific food you should eat, but instead tells you how much of the food was used to calculate the specific size (Health Canada, 2019). A list of ingredients is also required on food labels (Health Canada, 2019). Ingredient lists show all of the ingredients that are in that specific food (Health Canada, 2019). The lists are organized by weight category. Meaning that that the lists begin with the ingredient that weights the most, and it ends with the one weighing the least (Health Canada, 2019). Nutrition claims are another source found on food labels, that contain both health claims as well as nutrient content claims(Health Canada, 2019). Another requirement for food labelling is percent daily value. Percent daily value shows you how much nutrients is in the serving size (Health Canada, 2019).
7. What is the difference between health claims and nutrition claims? Provide two examples of nutrition claims and two examples of health claims that Health Canada allows on manufactured food products. You must be specific when providing your answers (6 marks).
A health claim is any statement that indicates that there is a connection or relationship between eating a food and your health, where as a nutrition claim is when a foods energy or specific nutrient is recognizable to maintaining good health (Government of Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, & Food Safety and Consumer Protection Directorate, 2019). Nutrient claims also highlight the amount of a specific nutrient in a food (Government of Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, & Food Safety and Consumer Protection Directorate, 2019). One example of a heath claim that health Canada allows on manufactured food products is claims about sodium and potassium and the reduced risk of high blood pressure (Health Canada, 2012).
However, the food must follow the following guidelines: must be high in potassium, low in sodium, low in saturated fatty acids, must have more than 40 calories, at least one vitamin or mineral, and it must be limited in alcohol (Health Canada, 2012). Another common health claim is those regarding calcium, vitamin D, and physical exercise reducing the risk of osteoporosis (Health Canada, 2012). To make this health claim the food must: have a limited amount of alcohol, contain more than 40 calories, must have a higher amount of phosphorus than calcium, be in fact very high in vitamin D, and high in calcium (Health Canada, 2012). An example of a nutrition claim could be a product that claims to contain nothing of a certain product (Health Canada, 2012). In order to make this claim it must: be less than 5 calories, have less than 5mg of sodium or salt, have less than 0.2g of saturated fatty acids as well as trans fatty acids, less than 2mg of cholesterol, and less than 0.5g of sugar (Health Canada, 2012). l Another common nutrition claim is when a food is stated to be a good/excellent source of a product. (Health Canada, 2012). However, it also has to fit into certain guidelines and must be no less than 15% of the daily recommended consumption for that specific product (Health Canada, 2012). The most common are vitamins and minerals (Health Canada, 2012). Vitamins fits into this category and it must be 30% of the recommended daily intake or else it does not qualify to be an excellent source (Health Canada, 2012).
PART II (19 points)
Using one food label from your home (or online), complete the following questions below (insert your answer directly following the colon). Use proper units of measurement for your answers. Make sure you use a label that has some amount of protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
1. Food product name:
Quaker Steel Cut Quick 3 Minute Oatmeal, Brown Sugar Cinnamon Flavor.
2. Company/ producer/ distributor name:
3. Origin of manufacture:
4. Serving size:
1 packet, or 48g.
5. Total servings per container:
8 packets, or 384g.
6. Kcal per serving (as indicated on the label):
7. Mg of sodium:
8. Grams of protein per serving:
9. Calculate actual kcal of protein per serving (4kcal/gm X gm of protein:
20kcal of protein per serving.
10. Grams of total fat per serving:
2.5g, or 4%.
11. Calculate actual kcal of fat per serving (9kcal/gm X gm of total fat):
22.5kcal of fat per serving.
12. Grams of carbohydrates per serving:
13. Calculate actual kcal of carbohydrates per serving (4kcal/gm X gm CHO):
144kcal of carbohydrates per serving
14. Calculate total calories per serving (fat kcal + CHO kcal + protein kcal):
186.5 calories per serving.
Total grade out of 42 includes providing a food label; formatting and page length; spelling, grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, verb tense consistency, and essay structure/quality; and APA referencing (includes unsubstantiated and unsearched claims, missed references, incorrect referencing, and/or plagiarism), amongst others (see syllabus).
- Basal Metabolic Rate Calculator. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://idealprotein.com/bmr-calculator-2/
- Felman, A. (2019, May 07). Hyperglycemia: Symptoms, causes, and treatments. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323699.php
- Felman, A. (2018). Insulin: Function and types. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323760.php
- Government of Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, & Food Safety and Consumer Protection Directorate. (2019, February 13). Health Claims. Retrieved from http://inspection.gc.ca/food/requirements/labelling/industry/health-claims/eng/1392834838383/1392834887794?chap=18#s41c18
- Health Canada. (2012, January 12). Health claims: What they mean. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/understanding-food-labels/health-claims-what-they-mean.html
- Health Canada. (2012, January 12). Nutrient content claims: What they mean. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/understanding-food-labels/nutrient-content-claims-what-they-mean.html
- Health Canada. (2019, January 22). Understanding food labels. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/understanding-food-labels.html
- Hyperglycemia in diabetes. (2018, November 03). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hyperglycemia/symptoms-causes/syc-20373631
- Innovation In Nutrition Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://bcdairy.ca/nutritioneducation/calciumcalculator/
- Insel, P. M., Roth, W. T., Irwin, J. D., Burke, S. M., Thomas, H. M., Mantler, T., . . . Pearson, E. (2016). Core concepts in health. Whitby, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Education.
- Managing lactose intolerance. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.unlockfood.ca/en/Articles/Allergies-and-Intolerances/Managing-Lactose-Intolerance.aspx
- Morris, S. Y. (2016). Insulin and Glucagon: How Do They Work? Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/insulin-and-glucagon#working-together
- Nall, R. (2016). Diabetes and Desserts: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes/dessert#types-of-sugar
- Physical Activity is Important. (2019). Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/fitness/physical-activity-is-important.html
- Roland, J. (2016). Diabetic Coma: Recovery, Prevention, and More. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetic-coma-recovery
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