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This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted
on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to
computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their
definitions and uses of CMC. Butler and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF)
interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as “email,” in creating
feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore,
offer different results. This paper examines Cummings, Butler, and Kraut’s (2002),
research in relation to three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC
should be studied in order to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline
This paper examined the reasons why athletes should not be overpaid of short-term food deprivation on two
cognitive abilities—concentration and perseverance. Undergraduate
students (N-51) were tested on both a concentration task and a
perseverance task after one of three levels of food deprivation: none, 12
hours, or 24 hours. We predicted that food deprivation would impair both
concentration scores and perseverance time. Food deprivation had no
significant effect on concentration scores, which is consistent with recent
research on the effects of food deprivation (Green et al., 1995; Green
et al., 1997). However, participants in the 12-hour deprivation group
spent significantly less time on the perseverance task than those in both
the control and 24-hour deprivation groups, suggesting that short-term
deprivation may affect some aspects of cognition and not others.
Have you ever imagined yourself being a professional athlete? If yes, how would you visualize your life? Being a professional athlete comes with many perks that go far beyond the sport itself. Players in the fields of basketball, baseball, hockey, and many more, have been known to make a lot of money. Some probably make more in one year than many of us will ever make in our entire lives. These high payoffs are the cause of many heated debates constantly taking place, both by sports teams and the working society. Some people view it as a problem and others do not. Recently a research that had been done by Forbes Magazine entitled Average Player Salaries In Major American Sports Leagues proved that professional athletes are extremely overpaid. According to Robert Brokamp (2016), the average NFL team made $261 million during the 2010 season, which is a total of $8.4 billion for the 32 teams. The average salaries of these athletes are absolutely appalling and absurd (Forbes). According to Bleacher Report (2009), the highest paid Cubs player will make 19 million dollars in 2012. Their lowest paid Cubs player will make $417,000 in 2012. In overall, the average Cubs player will make over 6 million dollars in 2012, this is just a mind boggling statistic. The numbers above do not include endorsement deals or any bonuses. In a time when many people are struggling to make mortgage payments, student loan payments and find good employment, it sometimes becomes frustrating to hear about someone who makes millions playing a game demand more money and then get it. They simply play a game that they love and make so much money they literally do not know what to do with it. Moreover, based on Forbes (2016), Jared Goff, who is a rookie, will earn approximately $27,946,656 over his rookie contract with the Los Angeles Rams, including a $18,515,839 signing bonus which is surely more money than the normal working society will make in several years. The results of the researches above surprises public especially the common working society. A lengthy disputation about the benefits and drawbacks of overpaying athletes among the working society have been discussed widely towards scholastic research. According to Jamal E.M. Cummins, some people agree that athletes do not deserve the excessive sum of money they are paid because they are just entertainers while others feel that they do deserve that their high salaries because athletes have to sacrifice most of their family time for training. After we had done a detailed research, we have come to a conclusion that we disagree that athletes should be paid more than economical beneficial occupation because of three reasons which are they do not offer society an essential function to improve the world, biasness paying salary of athletes and they tend to display bad example to young generation.
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According to McKay (2016), a professional athlete is a person who competes individually or as part of a team in organized sports including football, basketball, soccer, tennis, golf, running, hockey, rugby and baseball (TheBalance). Out of the three major sports in the United States which are basketball, baseball and American football, athletes require hardly any education to enter into their desired game. Based on New York Times (2014), NBA, National Basketball Association requires their players to attend at least one year of college. The NFL, National Football League also requires at least one year of college. MLB, Major League Baseball requires no prior education. If you compare this to the requirements to become a doctor it is insane. Most doctors have to at least attend college for 6 to 7 years (University of Malaya, 2017). Also professional athletes are usually given a free education because they can play a game, and they completely use a school just to get to the next level. According to Dorfman (2014), “Some people are aware enough to realize that student athletes on athletic scholarship are essentially paid already because they receive free tuition, room, meal plans, and some money for books and miscellaneous expenses” (Forbes). While these athletes are taking their education for granted, people are out there working two jobs just to pay for college (CNBC, 2014). Besides that, athletes can still become successful even after being criminally charged while most professions do a background search and if you have any record you’re immediately not a candidate for the position. For instance, Aaron Hernandez, former NFL player, became a prime suspect in the death of Odin Lloyd, who was found dead from five gunshot wounds at a North Attleborough, Mass industrial park June 17. He’s being held without bail on one count of murder, two counts of illegal possession of a firearm, two counts of illegal possession of a large capacity firearm and one count of carrying an illegal firearm, said Gregg Miliote, spokesman for the Bristol County District Attorney’s Office. He then returned to the field with a bonus money and was slated to make an average of $5.7 million a year (Spotrac, 2013). Lastly, athletes truly only need one thing to make it into their field and that is God given ability. Almost any other occupation the U.S requires hard work, many years of college or at least a GED, and a clean record in order to get hired. With all this in mind it’s absurd athletes make the money they make.
Firstly, the reason why these athletes should not be overpaid is because athletes do not offer society an essential function to improve or enhance our world in comparison to other professional occupations. According to Mihir Bhagat (2010), “Professional athletes are making too much money in a society where salaries and wages are traditionally based on the value of one’s work” (Bleacher Report). Researchers in Nova Southern University had also found the same idea after they had done a further research regarding overpaying athletes. They claimed that athletes simply provide entertainment to the masses and should not be paid more than individuals who have a greater impact on society. This means that one should be paid according to the job’s economic importance and their value to society and athletes seems to convey less significant value or impact to the society. However, the scenario today shows that athletes are being paid more than other professions and this is clearly irrelevant. Mihir Bhagat (2010), once said that teaching is one of the most economically important occupations because our future economy relies on the education of its youth (Bleacher Report). If you could see, teachers are conveying more significant value to the society but they are being paid low. This can be proven when the statistics by United States Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that a teacher makes $55,000 per year. Meanwhile, Kobe Bryant earns $168,493.15 per day (Terrill, Newsday, 2015). Besides that, according to Peltz (2017), “put another way, even the lowest-paid players in baseball in Major League Baseball minimum is $480,000 a year earn which $80,000 more than President Obama” (Los Angeles Times). This statement is then supported when Mihir Bhagat (2010), also mentioned that “Obviously, what these individuals must not be aware of is the most important man in our nation, the president, who makes critical decisions that affect the entire world every day, only makes $400,000 a year. While President Obama is hard at work reviving the economy, the unproven rookie in the MLB is earning way over that figure” (Bleacher Report). Society does not value entertainment enough to warrant such high salaries such as those of many professional athletes. There is no reason that these athletes should demand these tremendous amounts of money. This is why we have to put into question their reasoning for demanding such high salaries. Therefore, based on the researches mentioned above, we strongly believe that athletes should not be overpaid as compared to normal professions.
Next, the second reason why these athletes should not be overpaid is due to the biasness paying salary of athletes. According to Farmer (2014), “An injured player gets paid for as long as he’s unable to play, no matter what his contract says. A team can’t release an injured player until he’s cleared” (Los Angeles Times). This was proved when a research by Shergold (2015), found that most rookie contracts include something called an “up-down,” which is two minimum salaries negotiated in the collective bargaining agreement. The “up” is the minimum active salary, which is around $420,000, and the “down” ($303,000) is the minimum inactive salary. If a player is injured after eight games, he is paid eight weeks “up” and nine weeks “down”. However, for most veterans, there is no “down.” They will receive whatever they are scheduled to earn (Daily Mail). This proves that athletes worry less about getting injured or unable to play because they are guaranteed a certain salary. This contradicts with normal occupation where workers do all they can to avoid being sick because in extreme cases, this could lead to unemployment. In addition, owners of sports teams will also have to pay for the treatment of the injured athletes besides paying their salaries. According to Shergold (2015), Premier League clubs pay an average of £123.3m for treatment to injured players each season (Daily Mail). For example, Arsenal superstar, Jack Wilshere, was unable to play for 90 days during the 14/15 season due to Malleolar injury (Transfer Markt). However, he was still earning an average of £413,000 each month which include his wages earned, the costs of treating injuries, and insurance premium costs (Bleacher Report, 2015). The cost for an Ankle arthroscopy surgery is $6523.45 which does not include consultation and physiotherapy fees (BMI Healthcare). Based on Fox Business (2015), a registered nurse on average will earn $14,400 per month. If a nurse had to undergo an Ankle arthroscopy surgery, she will lose almost half of her monthly salary. By having saying that, it is clearly unfair that average Americans usually the fans of these larger-than-life athletes are struggling to make ends meet, pay medical fees and make mortgage payments, while athletes are raking in the cash for sitting on the bench. This is why we have to put into question their reasoning for authoritatively mandating such high salaries. Therefore, based on the reasons mentioned above, we strongly believe that athletes should not be overpaid as compared to normal professions.
Lastly, athletes nowadays tend to display bad example to society especially our young generation. Based on ESPN, Alexander Emmanuel “A-Rod” Rodriguez born in July 27, 1975 is a Dominican-American former professional baseball shortstop and third baseman. He played 22 seasons in Major League Baseball for the Seattle Mariners, Texas Rangers, and New York Yankees. Rodriguez was one of the sport’s most highly touted prospects and is considered one of the greatest baseball players of all time. Alex Rodriguez is one of the highest paid athletes in Major League Baseball making $29 million dollars annually according to Spoctra. According to ESPN news, Alex Rodriguez admitted to the use of performance-enhancing drugs during a meeting with the Drug Enforcement Administration in January, DEA documents show. When you are being paid that much money, why would you feel that need to cheat? Mimir Bhagat, a senior analyst, once said that , if Alex Rodriguez earns the same amount of money as it would take to feed the nation’s poor for a year, he can’t cheat and take steroids. What kids learn from successful ballplayers like him is that “It’s okay for me to use illegal substances, because in the long run, it will pay off by earning me an enormous contract.” This supported by Stenson (2010), among students in grades 8 through 12 who admitted to using anabolic steroids in a confidential survey, 57 percent said professional athletes influenced their decision to use the drugs and 63 percent said pro athletes influenced their friends’ decision to use them ( nbcnews ) . Another example of athletes that shows bad example to society is Micheal Phelps, the most decorated US swimmer in Olympic history, has been suspended from the sport for six month following his arrest for drunk-driving according to (Independent 2014). The kids who sees him as an idol, role model and icon will tend to follow his bad behaviours. According to Ziemer (2014), while many American children believe athletes motivate them to follow their dreams, they’re also mimicking the bad behavior of their sports heroes on the playing field, a new study says (abcNEWS) . In order for these players to gain respect, they need to have a more significant impact on the community. Ziemer also stated that,” kids ranked famous athletes among the most admired people in their lives (73 percent) — second only to their parents (92 percent)”. With the salaries of these athletes in mind you realize just how much money they have and all the things they can do. On many many occasions athletes spend their money in a very unproductive fashion. Most all athletes spend their money on material things such as cars, mansions, clothes, and jewelry. According to TheSportster, from Cadillac’s to Ferrari’s, Audi’s, BMW’s, Aston Martin’s and any luxury car in between, one of the first errors players make in the playbook of bad decisions is splashing out on a car. This is truly just a slap in the face in our opinion hardworking military personnel who risk their lives drive pontiacs while pro athletes have ferraris. To sum up, youngsters who believe their sport heroes are the most fantastic people in the world and can do no wrong are vulnerable to disappointment. Why? Because examples of fallen stars are many, such as Alex Rodriguez and Lance Armstrong who admitted to the use of performance enhancing drugs. When a revered athlete goes astray, it can create disillusionment and even trauma.
“Life is not just about the good things or not just about the bad things. It is both. It all depends where you focus your attention” quote by Ann Marie Aguilar. In other words, Ann was trying to convey that not all bad things are bad. According to Cummins (Gigare Lifestyle Magazine), sport superstars are worth their high salaries because the time they spend practicing. Firstly, with the duration of the average sport season lasting between four and seven months, athletes practice nearly every day include the offseason. Others may argue that athletes earn just what they deserve financially because they have worked hard enough to become a professional and only few selected athletes who are good enough make it in those top leagues. For example, NBA teams have only 14-16 players under contract throughout a given season. These 14-16 players are the key COGS (Cost of Goods Sold) that make the NBA money machine tick. In 2006-2007, the average salary for a player from the Milwaukee Bucks was $2,537,880 dollars (Bleacher Report, 2008). Although the revenue of the Milwaukee Bucks that same season is not publicly available, it is widely believed that most NBA teams bring in between $200 and $300 million annually. After breaking the numbers, we can look at the bigger picture of just how big of cash cows professional sports have become but athletes still earn a sufficient amount money from the revenue they generated. However, according to Bleacher Report (2010), a research done on Jamarcus Russel (the former No. 1 overall pick in the ’07 draft) tells us that he is on a six-year $68 million contract, with $31 million guaranteed. In simpler terms, that means that despite currently being recognised as one of the biggest busts of all time, and even if he were to get injured tomorrow and never play again, he will still have $31 million in the bank. Secondly, athletes deserve to be overpaid because sports fans are one of the major contributors to the athletes salaries. For instance, one Arsenal season ticket costed £1,014 (BBC,2016). According to Rainbow (2016), the capacity of the Emirates Stadium is 60,432 (World Soccer). Even if Arsenal only manage to sell 30,000 season tickets, they will still easily earn £30 million pounds. This figure does not include the money they get from merchandise sold. In our opinion, we suggest that the owners of the sports teams should channel the money they get to a more society beneficial path instead of giving it to the athletes. For example, England’s best football team, Manchester United, has established a program called Manchester United Foundation which uses football to engage and inspire young people to build a better life for themselves and unite the communities in which they live. Dedicated staff deliver football coaching, educational programmes and personal development, providing young people with opportunities to change their lives for the better. Hence, by doing this, sports will be considered as an economical beneficial occupation.
In a nutshell, we have made our arguments as to why we believe that professional athletes do not deserve high payments. This is because they do not offer society an essential function to improve the world, biasness paying salary of athletes and they tend to display bad example to young generation. Comparing their requirements, lifestyle, and work put into to that of other jobs it is hard to say that they are worthy of such pay. Athletes are truly paid too much to simply entertain us with a game when others need to struggle in their studies just to reach their goals. In our opinion, professional athletes deserve to receive high wages but it all depends on their performance. Besides that, if athletes were to be overpaid, we think that they should use a portion of the money that they get for charity and by doing that they will automatically offer society and essential function. Therefore, in our opinion, there are other occupations in the country especially the one who does a job that involves making life changing decisions and actions that deserve a pay raise while athletes need a deduction. In a society where jobs should be paid in respect to it importance or con contribution to society. We found it absurd that athletes get paid several millions every year. Finally, it all comes down to the fact that the system of paying professional athletes is broken. They are swimming in money, much of it totally undeserved or unearned, and it needs to stop.
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