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What Is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Nursing Essay

Info: 1270 words (5 pages) Essay
Published: 1st Jan 2015 in Nursing

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Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. Diabetes mellitus is where the body cells cannot use glucose properly for lack of or resistance to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes can lead to serious complications over time if left untreated. The high blood sugar levels from uncontrolled diabetes can cause serious long-term diabetic complications. Eventually, they damage the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, reducing insulin output.

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Type 2 diabetes is also known as the non-insulin dependent diabetes and is the most commonly found type of diabetes in the world. Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong chronic disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes tend not to respond effectively to insulin and their fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin either, which is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar is not able to get into these cells to be stored for energy. And when sugar cannot enter the cells, high levels of sugar build up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can’t use insulin properly.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs slowly over time and most people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at first or it may even take years. Some early symptoms of diabetes may include; bladder, kidney, skin, or other infections those that are more frequent or heal slowly. You may experience some fatigue, hunger, and increased of thirst. Other important symptoms like increased urination, blurred vision, erectile dysfunction, and pain or numbness in the feet or hands. A hormone produced by the pancreas called insulin helps sugar in our blood get into the cells of our bodies.

There are several tests that can be done in order to confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The doctor can order a fasting plasma glucose test or casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. They can also use the oral glucose tolerance test, for this test you have to fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you have to drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next several hours.

Routine screening for type 2 diabetes is normally recommended at the age 45, especially if you are overweight. If the results are normal then you should repeat the test every three years. If the results are borderline, your physician will tell you when you should come back to retest. Screening is also recommended for people under 45 and overweight especially if you have heart disease or a family history of type 2 diabetes, or blood pressure above 135/80.

There is no cure for diabetes but it can be controlled, but it does require a lifelong commitment to blood sugar monitoring, healthy eating, regular exercise, possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy. The main goal of treatment is to first lower high blood glucose levels and the long-term goal of treatment is to prevent problems from diabetes. The main treatment for type 2 diabetes is to exercise and diet. Type 2 diabetes can basically be controlled by following a few steps; As long as you test and record your blood glucose, know when to eat and when to eat, how to take your medications if any are needed, and how to recognize and treat low and high blood sugar. It can take several months to get the hang of these basic skills but as everything else it will become second nature.

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There are several types of medication that can be prescribed by your doctor if diet and exercise does not keep your blood sugar at normal or near normal levels. Some of the drugs prescribed help lower your blood sugar levels in different ways, so therefore your doctor may have you take more than one drug. Some of the most common types of medication are as follows: Alpha-glucose inhibitors (such as acarbose), Biguanides (Metformin), Injectable medicines (including exenatide, mitiglinide, pramlintide, sitagliptin, and saxagliptin) Meglitinides (including repaglinide and nateglinide), sulfonylureas (like glimepiride, glyburide, and tolazamide), and Thiazolidinediones (such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). Rosiglitazone may increase the risk of heart problems, so before you take this particular medication make sure to discuss any possibilities of heart problems with your physician. These drugs may be given with insulin, or may be used alone. You may need insulin if you continue to have poor blood glucose control. It must be injected under the skin using a syringe or insulin pen device. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth. Women who have type 2 diabetes and become pregnant may be switched to insulin during their pregnancy and while breast-feeding because it is not known whether hyperglycemia medications taken by mouth are safe for use of pregnancy.

Although long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually, they can eventually be disabling or even life-threatening. Diabetes can lead to more serious problems after many years. You can develop eye problems, including trouble seeing especially at night, and light sensitivity, and you can even become blind. Your feet and skin can develop sores and infections. After a long time your foot or leg may need to be removed. Diabetes also makes it harder to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. This can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other problems. It makes it harder for the blood to flow to your legs and feet. The nerves in your body can get damaged and cause pain, tingling, and loss of feeling. And because of nerve damage you could have problems digesting the food you eat. You could feel weakness or have trouble going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can also make it harder for men to have an erection. High blood sugar and other problems can lead to kidney damage. Your kidneys may not work as well and they may even stop working. In order to prevent problems from diabetes, you should visit your health care provider or diabetes educator at least four times a year and discuss any problems you are having.

You should always pay close attention to the symptoms of Type-2. If you have a dry mouth, increased hunger, blurred vision, headaches, fatigue, and unexplained weight loss, then you have the most common symptoms. Do not ignore any of these symptoms and get medical attention as soon as possible. Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when you’re feeling fine. But diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications. Good management of your type 2 diabetes includes using your medicines exactly as your doctor prescribes them, making smart food choices, and being physically active. Always remember one thing “your body is your temple” and we must learn how to take care of it and treat the body right so the body can be good to us in return.

 

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