Skin care products with whitening and lightening function have been introduced to the Asian market over the past decades years and it recorded as the best-selling product categories in the Asian beauty industry. (Ashikari, 2005)According to the study title The Quest for Beauty: Asia’s Fascination with Pale face (2009) stated the total whitening marketing is forecasted the market will be continuing to $18 billion and the rate of growth is around 12 per cent annually. (Deirde,B, Helen, C, Mark, D, F, 2010, p26) In South East Asia, there are more than 62 skin lightening products were introduced in year 2008. Besides, the involvement of women in the workforce increases in their income and wealth. Most of the women tend to buy the whitening product to lighten their skin. (Deirde,B, Helen, C, Mark, D, F, 2010) To fulfill the consumer needs, the whitening product was still developing to match the market demand. (August, 2008) The result of the Asian women using skin lightening products is shown in the Table 2.1
Table 2.1: Result of Asian women using skin lightening products
Estimated % of Women Using Skin Lightening Products
(Source from The Quest For Beauty: Asia’s Fascination With Pale Skin, p27, 2010)
There are a lot of myths about fair skin tone. In the current social context, fair skin tone not only symbolizes women’s beauty, but also will project women’s marital prospects, job prospects, social status, and earning potential. (Ashikari 2003b; Goon and Craven 2003; Leslie 2004) One of the surveys was conducted in The Quest for Beauty: Asia’s Fascination with Pale face shown Malaysian men thought their partners would be more attractive with a fair skin tone. (Deirde,B, Helen, C, Mark, D, F, 2010) In the same study, it also stated that different culture may result in different interpretation on the meaning of whiteness. To provide a clearer picture, in Japan, fair skin is equal to wealth and high education level. As in Thailand, the fair skin is always associated with the higher social status and wealth. As contrast to the white, black, in Indian culture symbolize as underprivileged people and often related to dark, dirty, wrong, hell, and etc. On the contrary, Indian culture prefer lighter skin tone as it associated with the Bright side of the culture. White, in Indian culture, is regard as a sign of beauty, purity, cleanliness, happiness, and symbol of power. (Arif 2004).Moreover, fair skin is also presented as good marriage in India. Overall, “whiteness” is an important predictor for presenting the positive image in the Indian society
Desires for “whiteness,” under this chain of associations, is pursued Despite of the diverse cultural different in Asia region, they are holding the common belief to have light skin. However, some of the academics, activists and sociologists reflect the marketing of skin-lighteners as “racism”. (Sage, 2009; August, 2008; BBC News, 2003) In this research study, not only focus on the advertisement of women magazine in Malaysia, but also focus on whitening body care product.
There are several items will discuss in the session of background which included beauty products for women, the fairness is more craze, discrimination of people, advertising in general for these products, printed advertisement and magazine advertisements.
2.2.1 Beauty products for women
People’s needs and desires to be beautiful are supposed to be identical all over the world. With the aid of beauty product, people can gain confidence and stand in front of crowd without fear. In this modern society, the first impressions brought to people are crucial. People are increasingly emphasis on the appearance rather than other more durable criteria (Barthel 1988: 3) and emphasize on the decoration of the female body, with the aids of the fashion and cosmetic products (Barthel 1988: 8) Based on this reason, the latter product categories, the hair care, fragrance, and personal products are frequently used to enhance the attractiveness and the degree of sexuality on the person. Moreover, “beauty also refers to traditional make-up, which included lipstick, mascara and foundation, as well as contemporary make-up, such as tinted/flavored lip balm/gloss.” (Pawlowski, 2007)
2.2.2 Fairness is more craze
According to Bray (2002), there are almost half of 35 to 54 years of Asians used skin care product with whitening function, some analysts have said it could be worth billions of dollars. In Asian countries, that has been a trend of growth of whitening and lightening product since that have long histories of utilizing fair skin as a key criterion of personal beauty. There is a Chinese idiom ‘One whiteness can cover three kinds of ugliness’. In people perception, fair skin is always a symbol of elegance and nobility. “White jade” is often used as a metaphor to describe such fairness. The preferences for “white” of fair skin are common in the modern Asian market. “In India, for example, a significant part of many Sunday newspapers is dedicated to personal advertisements by men seeking fair-skinned brides” (Leong, 2006)
2.2.3 Discrimination of people
Although skin whitening product can lighten people skin tone, it may indirectly discriminate the races that have darker skin tone. For instance, that is an argument in India due to the Fair and Lovely advertisement. “The advertisement showed a young, dark-skinned girl’s father lamenting he had no son to provide for him, as his daughter’s salary was not high enough – the suggestion being that she could neither get a better job or get married because of her dark skin.” (BBC News, 2003) This advertisement has an overwhelming responces.
According to Luce and Merchant (2003), 90% of Indian women want to use whitening product and that is a phenomenal trend growth in the number of skin-lightening products. In their perception, fair skin represent good education and more likely to marry well. However, some of the sociologists and academics pointed out that is not only a wrong moral value, but also pollute the young generation’s mind. . (BBC News, 2003) According to Lipsitz (1998, p. 3), “the power of whiteness depended not only on white hegemony over separate racialized groups, but also on manipulating racial outsiders to fight against one another, to compete with each other for white approval, and to seek the rewards and privileges of whiteness for themselves at the expense-literally-of other racialized populations”.
2.2.4 Advertising in general for these products
Television, radio station, internet, and even outdoors advertising are categorized as broadcast media. The different promotional tools will deliver different benefits to the advertisers. Due to this reasons, majority of global advertising adopting more than one type of advertising tool to promote their product
2.2.5 Print advertisement
Print advertising defined as the dissemination of advertising messages using visual, printed item, such as newspapers, catalogs, mailers, flyers and magazine advertisement. (Jade, nd) Under the strong competition with other broadcast media, such as television and radio, print advertisement still place an important role to the advertiser. Compare with other broadcast media, print advertisement allow to present more detailed information. By the way, print advertisement such as newspaper and magazine refer as a high involvement of media, it means printed advertisement is more selectivity and it can help the company reach the specific target readers and customers.
2.2.6 Magazine advertisement
Through magazine advertisement, the company can reach the certain target market in and educated the reader about the product knowledge in the short period. Besides, the cost of the advertising on magazine is much cheaper compare with other communication tool, such as television and radio. From the 1880s onwards, advertising has played a vital role in shaping the form and content of women’s magazines. And, it has a clear and strong relationship between advertising and women’s magazines. Besides, magazines were designed as forums for national advertisements aimed for women. According to Veronica (2010), there is no indication for change in the near future as the pattern has existed for more than 100 years. Magazines advertisement is essential tool for marketer because it provides a forum for gender targeted advertising. Marketer can effectively deliver their message to the target audiences.
According to McCracken (1993), women’s magazines refer as a powerful advertising medium since ‘advertising occupies up to 95 per cent of the space in some women’s magazines, earning these publications the more appropriate title, “women’s advertising magazines”. Women’s magazines, are a sphere of activity that readers view as an area of freedom, free choice and free time’ (McCracken 1993) and the advertising within creates new wants and needs. The statement from McCracken (1993) indicates the high readership for women magazines. The role of women magazines is slowly changing to the “storytelling mechanism of society” because of the increase of advertising material. (Jhally 2000: 30).
2.3.1 Size of the advertisement
In general, the options of the size of the magazine classified into half page, one page, double page or more than two pages.(Pu, Y,R, 2003) According to McCracken (1993), women magazine’s contained 50%-60% of full-page advertisement. There large size of the advertisement provides a clearer advertisement detail and advertiser more easily to correct it. In the recent article, one of the researcher, double page of the advertisement can attract more one-quarter of reader than one page and one page of size advertisement can attract more one-third reader than half page. (Print Ad Placement, 2011) Some of the marketer will prefer half page size of advertisement, if they faced the tight budget problem. In the research study of L. Wasylkiw, A.A. Emms, R. Meuse, K.F. Poirier, (2009), the one page size of the advertisement are majority which is 85%. This may due to the price of advertising is reasonable and it is more easily to attract attention.
2.3.2 Advertising layout
In the study conducted by (Anna, P, Peter, W, 2006) states that are 3 components in term of layout consists in the printed advertisement, which are visual information, verbal information and brand name. Different of advertisement layout reflect the different characteristic of product. According to the study of Pu, N, R, (2003), the author found that both personal and cosmetic product present their advertisement with visual and copy layout. In general, visual consider as visual element and copy defined as words. This may due to the visual element in the advertisement can serve to the visualization and verbal element serve to the verbalization.
2.3.3 Advertising copy elements
Advertisement is a tool that used by marketers to deliver the intended message to their targeted customer. It is crucial to ensure the concept of the advertisement fit with the overall marketing objectives. For print advertisement, display copy and body copy are the two elements of copy sheet. (Anna, P; Peter, W, 2006) As defined by Wells et al (2006), display copy is the entire element that the reader able to see at the first glance, such as headlines, subhead lines, taglines and slogans. In general, headline is the words in the leading position of the advertisement and it also reflects as selling idea in the advertisement. (Anna, P; Peter, W, 2006; Major elements of copy for copywriting, nd)
Usually, headlines of the advertisement presented in the large size and obvious position. With the aims of enhance the readability of the message, sub headlines normally presents in the new paragraphs with larger size and bold type. (Anna, P; Peter, W, 2006) Body copy defines as the text with smaller size typed which to provide a clear and further explanation about the product. (Anna, P; Peter, W, 2006) According to the Anna, P and Peter, W (2006), slogan regarded as a motto for a campaign, brand and company. To increase the probability to recall the advertisement, marketer usually integrated the slogan in the advertisement, to better address the product’s attribute. (Advertising Strategy, nd)
Color is a powerful element which represent for brand identification, feature reinforcement and differentiation. (Anna, P, Peter, W, 2006) Other than that, vibrancies of color also more easily to catch the attention of the audience, provide realism, establish moods and build brand identity. (Anna, P, Peter, W, 2006) According to the Pamela S. Schindler (1986), color advertisement had the higher response rate and better recall probability when compare with the dull blank and white advertisement.
In the other aspects, color can be classified to warm color tone, cool color tone and earth color tone. Red, orange and yellow are the example of warm color tone; green, blue and violet are present in cool color tone and earth color tone reflects neutral color. The different colors always associated with different characteristics. Due to the same advertising pattern, some of the color associated in the characteristics of femininity, cultural interpretations or even emotional responses. (Pamela S. Schindler, 1986) For instance, “the use of the color red ‘symbolizes love and passion’, while the color white generally signifies purity and virginity.” (Pawlowski, 2007) “Pink is seen to be very feminine which can also be deemed as sexual while pastel type coloring generally refers to non-sexual.” (Pawlowski, 2007)
2.3.5 Visual element
The roles of visual element in the advertisement not only for catches the attention of reader, but also importance of creating brand awareness and brand beliefs (John R. Rossiter, 1982) According to Kosslyn and Alper, 1977; Kosslyn, 1980, larger size of the visual element can produce the better learning . And, other than memory responses, the visual size also influence on the evaluative responses. (Rossiter and Percy (1978; 1980) and Mitchell and Olson (1977; 1981)
Today, English is regarded as an international language. It acts as an important and common language in the world, you can used English in every part corner of world. The statement proved by 72 of in flight-magazine around the world used English as main language. (Veronica, 2010)
Although English is a universal language, but the advertiser of some countries, such as Taiwan, South Korean, and United States still prefer their local language to present the message of the advertisement. (Jaehee, J& Lee, Y,J, 2009; Veronica, M, S, 2010) As global company advertises their product globally, the languages they used are vary according to the social context. They are usually ignoring the local nuance, and translate directly from their original copy. (Veronica, 2010) Communication with customers is essential in the marketing perspective. The local language can integrate with the local community effortless. In the multi cultural country such as Singapore and Malaysia, there is a diverse market opportunity for each of the races. Hence, by targeting different group of customers, the publisher have to publish different languages of magazines to better address the need and wants of the different groups of people. By publishing different languages of magazines, they can better deliver the message to their reader by the languages that they are familiar to.
2.3.7 Type of Appeal
Generally, there are two type of appeal which is rational appeals and emotional appeals. In advertising, rational appeals defined as the element used to motivate consumers through information and logical arguments. (Jeon, George, Bruce, Joseph, 1999) Visual elements were coded as rational if the advertisement contained picture of the brand, before and after comparisons, product demonstrations, or comparatives portraying the competition. The use of rational appeals can be apply by reduce the uncertainly requires, distinct logical, and direct information from the communicator. (Zandpour etal. 1994) Nevertheless, emotional appeals reflect the images and feelings to mold consumers’ perceptions toward the brand. Among the emotional appeal are storytelling, metaphors, and aesthetics. (Jeon, George, Bruce, Joseph, 1999) Advertising appeal usage can be applied in different product types.
According to Cutler and Javalgi (1993), the overall content of the advertisement can be categories into rational, emotional or both. In the past research, the authors found that advertisement for durable goods tend to presents more information than advertisement for nondurable goods. (Abernethy and Franke 1996) However, service advertisement is more emphasize on emotional appeals. (Abernethy and Butler 1992; Cutler and Javalgi 1993)
In the research conducted by Golden and Johson (1983), they examined the impact of thinking versus feeling appeal in print ads on various measures of advertising effectiveness. The author defined thinking appeal as “appealing to the ‘rationality’ of the receiver,” and feeling appeal as “creating a mood and appealing to the emotions.” (Golden and Johson, 1983) In this study, they concluded that the underlying reason for the popularity of thinking appeals is the rich of product information, and elicit higher purchasing intentions. (Golden and Johson, 1983)
According to a research conducted by McGuire (1969), he denied the effectiveness of emotional appeal in the advertisement after directly comparing the rational and emotional appeal from the advertisement. Based on his research, neither of the rational and emotional appeal outperform of each other. The core idea behind this is that emotional message can also be rational, and vice versa
2.3.8 Product Categories
Product categories in the advertisement can be divided into 22 categories. (Nelson & Paek 2007) Beauty product was defined broadly, which consisted cosmetic, jewelry and clothing. In addition, special group of products such as women’s apparel, perfume and cosmetic categories occupy large portion of total marketing costs. (Veronica, 2010) In the recent study, the authors classified apparel product, perfuse and cosmetics as self-image projective product. (Veronica, 2010) The targeted market segment would affect the marketing strategies applied in different market. (Veronica, 2010)
In the other researches, product categories can be categories into hedonic or utilitarian element. (Crowley, 1992) “Hedonic products are primarily related to sensory attributes and concentrate on consumatory effective gratification whereas utilitarian products are mainly associated with functional and non-sensory attributes and focus on fulfillment of instrumental needs.” (Crowley, 1992) According to the research of Jung and Lee (2009), Korean and United Stated beauty magazines consisted a lot of body-related products than non-body related products advertisement, with a ratio 91.1 to 8.9. The body-related products include clothing, beauty product, diet services, and accessories.
2.3.9 Product origin
The country of production has certain degree of influence on the consumer’s decision making process. Zhou (2004) provided some evidence in study that Chinese consumer is willing to pay more on the western product, mainly because of the common belief to reflex the prestige and social status. There is some opposite point of view from Nelson(2004). He stated that there is growing population who are supporting the local product and cultural identity.
2.3.10 Whitening function of the product
Skin whitening product is a global trend throughout the world. There is a huge market opportunity for Europe, Asia and the United States market. (Deirdre, B, Helen, C, Mark, D, nd) According Ashikari (2005), whitening and lighten product growth rapidly in Asia which influence by the Asian wealth and growing consumer cultures. Mostly, the whitening function of product can classified to UV features, whitening effect and function in both way.UV features of product can decrease the damage and protect the skin from ultraviolet rays and long time exposure under the sun. In additional, the role of whitening effect shows the product focus on lightening complexion of women’s skin, which from the yellow or darker skin color to white and fair skin color. (Johanson, 1998) The example of products with whitening effect are Kose, Za, Olay, Lancome, Nivea and Sk II, normally we can found it in shopping mall. With the trend of whiteness, a lot of companies introduce a lot of whitening and UV function of product, and then customer can kills 2 birds with one stone with the multi-functional product.
2.3.11 Degree of sun protection factor (SPF)
In the market, there is a lot of cosmetic and skin care product contained sun protection factor (SPF), which can protect our skin from the direct ray from the sun. The different degrees of SPF have different functions. In the research conducted by Autier et al. (1999), they assessed the impact of the 2 different degree of sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF) of unlabeled product on the duration of sun exposure in two groups of young people. They concluded that the volunteers who used SPF 30 were exposure 25% longer than these who used SPF 10. The result of the finding is not surprising. The doubt in this research is on the basis of increased exposure, there was no difference in sunburn or skin-reddening episodes in the two study groups.
2.3.12 Origin of model
Model can be classified into different ethnic groups, such as Asian (Chinese/ East Asian, Malay or Indian), Caucasian, or mixed. In the study by (Eric P. H. Li, Hyun,J.M, Kimura, J, Russell, W. B, Bahl, S, 2008; Cheng, H, Katherine, F, Shaw, P, 2005; ), authors found that most of the Asian beauty product advertisements using Caucasian model. The underlying reason is the globally recognized beauty standard. According to Goon and Craven, “the popularity of Caucasian and Eurasian models reflects the postcolonial structure of commoditization and consumerism and is still influenced by a colonial past.”
In the other study, it also revealed 70.2% Caucasian model was used frequently in Korean advertisement to promote their product. (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y, J, 2009) This phenomenon happened because the fair skin has been aggressively marketed across Asian culture over this past decade. According to (Sean, R, 2003), white women with those characteristics such as lean, pure and radiant images are representing the feminine ideal and identification. Whiteness also presumes the ideas of purity, integrity, decency and auspiciousness. (Russell, Wilson, and Hall 1992; Sean, R, 2003) By the way, model of the advertisement always plays an important role to deliver the message to the targeted audiences and it pervasive to our daily life. The particular magazines readers will project themselves as the models appear in the magazine’s advertisement, which enable them to make a positive impact to them, and inevitably make a good evaluation to the product.
Besides, the researchers also found that Caucasian women were more willing presented in sexual portrayals which compare with Asian women. (Cheng, H, Katherine, F, Shaw, P, 2005; Christina N. Baker1, 2005) This reason may due to the Asian women are influence by the Confucian culture and philosophy of them has not yet been prepared. (Cheng, H, Katherine, F, Shaw, P, 2005)
2.3.13 Demographics of model
Age of the model of the advertisement also acts as a factor influence the consumer behavior. (Chang, C, C, 2008) People are keen to be fresh, beauty and look younger than their actual age. If the model of the advertisement is forties or old featured, then the young generation of consumer may categorized the product as “not for me” based on this factor. (Chang, C, C, 2008) The result analysis of Women Stereotypes Portrayed in Print Ads by Luxury Fashion Brands found that most of the young model are majority in the advertisement of magazine which is 72.7% (15 and 30 years old). (Carlos, M, M, Paloma, D, S, 2008)
2.3.14 Celebrities Used
Celebrity endorsement is the growing trend in the magazine advertisement. “A celebrity endorser is defined as any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement.” (McCracken 1989, pg. 310). Credibility and attractiveness are the two important criteria to improve the persuasiveness of the advertisement. Hence, the companies are strike to determine the element of credibility and attractiveness to present their advertisement to public. (Kahle and Kahle 2006).
Furthermore, Friedman and Friedman (1979) showed that celebrities’ endorsement is more eyes catching than expert or typical consumer endorsers in advertisement recall and brand name recall, in spite of the product type. In the other research also showed there are a positive effect between adolescents ‘word-of-mouth intentions and brand loyalty among the celebrity sports athletes. (Bush, Martin, and Bush 2004) “Besides, female teenagers’ word-of-mouth intentions are more affected by female celebrities than male celebrities, and female teenagers agree more than male teenagers that they are affected by celebrities in buying certain brands.” (Bush, Martin, and Bush 2004)
By applying attribution theory, Mowen (1980) used it to explain on the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. The effectiveness of celebrity endorsement is largely correlated to the consumers’ willingness to understand the causal reasons for a celebrity to endorse the product. The celebrity endorsement strategy works best if consumers think that the celebrity endorses the product because the celebrity can symbolize the product, rather than the financial incentives. Mowen (1980) Furthermore, Asian celebrity perceived their success is highly related to their fair skin. (Eric, Hyun, Russel, Junko, Shalini, 2008)
2.3.15 Appearance of model
Based on the research conducted by Thomas and Treiber (2000), the advertisers prefer to use gorgeous model to represent their product. It can indirectly inform the reader they can as beautiful as the model after them using the product. In the research study named “Real Beauty in Advertising: Fab or Fad”, appearance was the main subject. It usually used to refer the link between the usage of the particular product and the consequences after of using that product. According to the research, model likes to apply the heavy makeup, such as applied lipstick and particular perfume to become more attractiveness and appeal to public (Reichert& Lambaise, 2003, p126).
2.3.16 Apparel of model
There are different degree dressing of the model, however nudity of the model becomes a rising trend in the advertisement of the magazines; it also associated with the idea of sexual attractiveness. (Bridgette Desmond, nd) Generally, there are 4 categories of the nudity which are demure, suggestive, partially clad and nude. (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y, J, 2009) According to (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y, J, 2009 Reichert, T, Carpenter, C, 2004), “demure dress was defined as ‘everyday dress which included walking shorts, but excluded short-shorts or underwear. “Suggestive dress defined as partially exposed the upper body, such as unbuttoned blouses or muscle shirts.” (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y, J, 2011; Reichert, T, Carpenter, C, 2004), According to the studies conducted by scholars, “Models were considered partially clad if they were shown in underwear or bathing suits.” (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y, J, 2011; Reichert, T, Carpenter, C, 2004) Nude was represent models were holding only a towel or if the photograph was composed so that genitals were concealed. (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y, J, 2011; Carpenter, C, Reichert, T, 2004)
Sex approach is more appeal to the male consumer, given the evidence that in year 2003, four out of five women who are appeared in the advertisement were suggestively dress, partially clad, or nude. (Bridgette Desmond, nd) An interesting study conducted by the Desmond, B (2008) stated that society nowadays becomes more sexually explicit and adapt with the high degree nudity level in the advertisement. Even so, there are some the magazines also prefer demure dress, since they target the wider variety of groups. (Bridgette Desmond, nd)
2.3.17 Hairstyle of model
In the judgment female beauty, hair color, hair length, and hair style plays a vital role in positive rating on attractiveness. In the research of Mbure, 2009, 63.6% of models, 63.6% had long hair length, and 36.4% of model had short hair length. Besides, in the same research, the author found that 70.8% of model had straight hair and 29.2% of model non-straight hair style, such as kinky, wavy, medium curly, braided and so on. (Mbure, 2009)
2.3.18 Degree of model’s “whitening”
Skin color stratification is a crucial sociological issue, which included the difference between lightness and darkness of skin tone. (Micaela, 2005) According to Hunter (2002), light skin tone works as capital to women. Moreover, it symbolizes status, educated person, and high income. Light skin tone also associated with sexual attractiveness. In her analysis, it showed that light skin of African American women represent the higher personal earnings and higher spousal status. According to the other research, the author found that prominent models were more likely prefer to be light skin tone than medium skin tone or dark skin tone. However, models minority were less likely to be seen in the workplace than whites but more likely to be portrayed in leisure places and school than whites. Low volumes of studies emphasize on the interpretation of white beauty idea among Asian female. Meanwhile, Sahay & Piran (1997) also revealed that the desire to be light skinned was higher the darker among South Asian-Canadian females.
In the research title “Comparisons of Cosmetic Advertisements: Strategies for cultural adaptation in Women’s Magazines in Taiwan” also shown that most models in Nong-Nong and Elle Taiwan magazines were displayed in a light skin tone; regardless whether the model was western or Asian looks. (Pu, Y, R, 2003) Furthermore, in another research also reflects that light skin tone is ideals in advertising. It were advanced using a diversify of strategies consisting the promotion of benefits related to skin lightening such as skin related (e.g. Increased moisture), emotional (e.g. Increased self confidence) and relational/social (e.g. increased attention from the opposite sex). Mak (2007) Furthermore, among 58 models, 30 models were light skinned, 16 models had medium brown skin tone (mid-point of dark and light brown) and only 9 models were dark skinned. (Mbure, 2009)
2.3.19 Most frequently shown body part
Study of Carlos, M, M, Paloma, D, S, (2008) defined human body as dressed body, and the external appearance, such as hand, neck and face play an important role of the first impression while meeting someone. On the same time, different kind of body part shown in the magazine’s advertisement conveyed the different kind of messages that convey messages to the magazines reader. Most often, marketer emphasized certain body display based on the product categories, such as face with skin care product or upper body part with body care product. In the recent study, researchers found that the advertisement in Korea and Taiwan more focus on the model’s face rather than body. (Jaehee, J, Lee, Y.J, 2009)
2.3.20 Number of models
Number of model in the advertisement plays crucial roles to present the product message. That is a significant relationship between th
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