This part of study converse about advertising taglines and its relationship with advertisements and related studies. Taglines have been used as a component in advertising campaigns extensively. In the United States, the researchers thought that the consumers will have seen about 350,000 advertising by the age of 18 (Brierley, on 1995). Advertisers ordinarily use repetition and aim at continuity and maximum suspension; thus, advertisers are one of the most to a great extent divided experiences in life of most people (Wright and snow, in 1980; Mitchell, Macklin, and Paxman, in 2007). Taglines can have positive effects on brands and can act as a carrier of the brand equity (Dahlen and Rosengren, 2005; Rosengren and Dahlen, 2006). They normally consider that Taglines are of value in fact to construct leading equity since they help in the establishment and in the preservation of a strong leading identity and always appear everywhere in the campaigns of advertising (Reece, Bewrgh and Li, on 1994). In general, investors react positively to the announcement of advertising Tagline changes, resulting in higher market values for enterprises. Mathur and Mathur (1995) indicated that announcements of advertising Tagline changes affected an enterprise’s annual profits increase by an average amount of US$ 6-8 million.
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2.2The Definition of a Tagline
A Tagline ‘ is a short expression which is used to help, to establish an image, identity, or position for an organization to increase memorability ‘ (O’Guinn, to all, and Semenik, in 2003, p. 428).A tagline of an advertising is an appearance which is written for its memory and potential of memory to evoke, often repeated to boost its memory (Wells, Burnett and Moriarty, on 1989) and support the consumer in fact to remember the particular mark of the patron when they meet with all alternatives (recalled game) (Katz and Went up, on 1969).
This can be astonishing or be unexpected and can use parallel building, alliteration, rhyme, or rhythm (Moriarty, Burnett, and Wells, in 1989). It can transform a potentially negative image into a positive one, and can serve the function of producing and maintaining of clear images, the connection of the product with immaterial values, and concentrating upon aspects except the product achievement (Forbes, 1987). In the branding literature, a Tagline is normally identified by the core of its general goal: “Tagline are short expressions which convey vivid or convincing message of a brand “(Supphellen and Nygaardsvik, in 2002, P 386).
2.3 Previous Research on Taglines
The intention to fulfil a clear outline of previous studies on taglines, the Table 2.1 shows the majority of the articles published in last two decades in the consumer – based studies attached to Taglines. In general, it is believed that review is rather rich to give a broad vision of what been examined in the research of Taglines and that the applied methods of sampling, the methods of applied research and research conclusions are. A lot of studies concerning the tagline examined correlated effects in leading notability. Memory and recognition are two main elements of memorability commonly used to assess leading notability. A research stream on the advertising of research concentrated on consumers’ capacity to reminisce Taglines, or was concerned how to make Taglines unforgettable. For instance (Dotson and Hyatt,2000) declared that by the age of ten, the children have so much conscience of Taglines of advertising as their parents. (Yalch,1991) noted that It was easier for individuals to remember taglines when incorporated with clink, a tune, or a melody.
Likewise, Reece, Bergh and Li (1994) discovered the expression of linguistic devices (quantity and type of banter) employed in Tagline followed in better rates of identification, has been well thought out to be brand recall, and that the usage of television was in a significant manner attached to remember. On top of that, the age was in a significant manner attached to remember the capacity with the younger adults, with the best memory capacity that the older adults. Besides, the men have the best memory capacity than the women. Besides, the correlation between complicacy Tagline and memory was examined. For example, (Bradley and Meeds,2002) showed that versions of simple syntax were favourable in detection. The Advertising of Taglines with transitional syntactic problem had an influence in a significant positive manner on the memory of free morphemic and attitudes towards advertising. Another research stream of Tagline examined the effects ‘ of the ignition’.
According to Fiske and Taylor (1984) ignition exists if regular and present ideas with the bigger comfort occur than ideas which are not activated at the moment or regularly.
In the research of the advertisement ignition has been used to raise the effectiveness of the data processing and recall (Biehal and Chakravarti, 1986; Homer and bald, 1986; cellar, 1991; Maclnnis, Moorman and Jaworski, 1991; smith, 1992; smith and park, 1992). Taglines were applied to different main attributes of a phoney brand of soup. (Boush, 1993)His results revealed that the lengthening of the brand was valued more enough than, as one perceived, they fitted with the Primed attributes. Later,Pryor and Brodie (1998) repeated late Bouch (1993) studies and reached logical results.
These contributed complementary proofs of the power of Taglines in the regulation of perception of the brand. Other authors, Dahlen and Rosengren (2005) showed the results about brands equity, which is a important determining factor, that affects the learning and appraisal concerns of the Taglines. Without taking into consideration the ability of the persons to compare them properly to a brand Taglines with a strong brand are better preferred and more familiar than the Taglines with a weak brand. Their results showed the connection has a bigger influence between the Tagline and the brand if persons confuse competing Taglines with each other. In competing surroundings Taglines confusion can increase between brands and bring disadvantage to the strong brand and advantage to the weak brand if compared inexactly with brands. Thus the main function of a Tagline with a strong brand should remind consumer of her preference for the brand.
Conversely, Tagline with a weak mark should pick the advantages of general implementation of Tagline and less strong connection of Tagline-brands. Additionally, Dahlen and Rosengren (2005) noted that the fact of evil to match marks and Taglines came from different processes of memory used by the individuals. They suggested to use variations of Taglines as the creation of annoying and irritating Taglines. It can be favourable for Taglines in a blocked environment.
Besides, practical importance of investigating Taglines seemed well to changes in market value of companies, following announcements of changes in the tagline. The survey was conducted by Mathur and Mathur (1995) noted an increase in market prices shortly after the changes to advertising Taglines being announced and proposes thoughtful use to communicate Taglines was honoured for societies. This conclusion implicit allusion added value to the Taglines and investors. Ennis and Zanna (1993) noted that Taglines could affect the confidence of the product, illustrating the direct support for the value of Taglines. Molian (1993) applied inquiry on a large scale to the decision-makers of advertising of companies. Conclusions suggested that, the communities should see Tagline first and considering it as a primary issue with regards to corporate identity. Dowling and Kabanoff (1996) used the technology of analysis of the text helped by computer to assess the senses 240 Taglines advertising.
Supphellen and Nygaardsvik (2002) recommended a three-stage model for testing country Taglines. The first phase includes a qualitative evaluation of associations elicited by Taglines, the second phase evaluates Tagline recognition and recall, and the third phase investigates the Tagline in a commercial situation (e.g., integrated into advertisements) with the aim of gaining realistic measures of advertisement and brand awareness, brand attitudes and brand images. However, they only revealed results of the first phase testing of a Tagline, leaving the applicability of the other two stages of the model unresolved.
Of late, Dimofte and Yalch (2007) examined consumer’s answers to polysementic Taglines. Their conclusions showed that people differed in their answers to the advertising of polysementic Taglines, as there was difference in the capacity of people to access automatically secondary concepts contained in Taglines. Therefore, it is important to understand difference between people ‘s automatic approach in secondary importance and their capability to respond in advertising. The miller, Clinton and Camey (2007) noted that motivations, needs and participation are important factors affecting participants’ priorities for a certain conscription of military Taglines. In the articles of Kohli, Leuthesser and Suri (2007) studied by the different theoretical fields which have associations with Taglines and identify publications of industry for appropriate studies of case and directives suggested to create efficient Taglines. Their suggestions to conceive efficient tagline are:
fact to put mark in a obvious manner,
by linking up Tagline stigmatized,
by repeating Tagline,
by using clink,
by using Tagline in the beginning and to be innovative with the long-term objectives.
On this basis, it is Taglines are useful in building brand equity (Rosengren and Dahlen, 2006). A study of the relationship between communications Tagline change and economic performance, Mathur and Mathur (1995) showed that changes in brand Taglines affect a company’s profits significantly, as mentioned above.
This finding provides indirect value associated with Taglines by marketers and investors. Taglines studies have been found to influence evaluations of brand (Boush, 1993;Pryor and Brodie, 1998) and beliefs of products (Ennis and ZANNA, 1993) to support the value of Taglines (Rosengren and Dahlen, 2006). Researchers have found many positive results Taglines brand, such as withdrawal brand, improving product differentiation and enhancing product loyalty and brand evaluations. The survey showed that Taglines with wordplay, ambiguity, high images using jingles, and moderately complex syntax was more memorable and popular.
A lot of studies were dedicated to valuation Tagline and to study, by examining the effects of demographics characteristics of consumer, exhibition of mass media, usage of product and terms Tagline and modality. Nevertheless, all these studies were conducted in western countries and it was positioned on western outlook. Except the studies conducted by Reece, Bergh and Li (1994) which employ equal interval sampling , convenience samples were used by majority of tagline survey research. All employed research methods were either qualitative or quantitative method. In an interesting manner, the position of emotion in advertising and literature of behaviour of consumer has changed for 1980s and attracted big interest to give publicity and the consumer based literature. However, as much as this researcher can make sure, there is no research which models consumers’ emotional answers to Taglines and their effects in advertising of Taglines, by leaving editions undamaged and stayed without answer.
2.4 Identified Theoretical Research Problem in consumer’s Emotions and Advertising Taglines
In general, Tagline related research conducted to a great extent shows the consequences attached to brand awareness, issues related to making a memorable Tagline and the relationship between consumer demographic characteristics and Tagline discovering and assigning. However, since 1980s the circumstance of emotion in advertising and consumer behaviour literature has transformed. The study conducted in (1980) by Zojanc’s shows that emotion can function without cognition and should be examined as being in a main position as mentioned earlier.
Later, emotion attracted considerable attention and was considered to be a mediator mattering between the cognitive answers of consumer and behaviour in advertising (Poels and Dewitte, 2006). In addition, significant work on emotions, by assimilators from neuroscience such as Damasio (1994) and LeDoux (1996) has directed common understanding that emotions are vital factors for a intellectual decision making behaviour (Poels and Dewitte, 2006). Based on the above mentioned -views, advertising and marketing researchers have stressed all -important nature of emotion in decision making and consumer behaviour (Ambler, Ioannides and Rose, 2000; Ambler and Burne, 1999; Du Plessis, 2005; Hall, 2002; Haimerl, 2007). Therefore, it is clear that cognition and emotional control required being the main feature in the advertising process. It is essential to examined the role of emotion played by advertising taglines. Specifically,
How emotional reactions of consumers to promote advertising Taglines affect advertising performance?
How do consumer’s emotional responses to advertising Taglines affect advertising effectiveness?
This must be treated in the advertising literature to explain the role and nature of the emotions drawn, and influence of taglines on the growth of advertising effectiveness.
Moreover, no work modelling consumers’ emotional responses to advertising Taglines and their effects on advertising effectiveness in the literature exists. In addition, all the Tagline-related studies were conducted in Western countries, either in America, Canada or Europe (Table 2.1); with no researcher taking an Eastern viewpoint. This research is the first Tagline research work conducted in an Asian country (Taiwan); and, more specifically, testing the Taglines in Mandarin Chinese, which is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world (see Chapter 6). It is the first study to model how consumers’ emotional responses to advertising Taglines affect advertising effectiveness. Thus, this research aims to fill the research gap with the intention of making a significant theoretical contribution.
2.5 Advertising Taglines and Consumer Perceptions toward Brands
Brands carry a variety of functions for consumer. They identified the source of the product to determine the manufacturer or supplier liability, reduce risks and costs for product search; guarantee or contract with the manufacturer; and as a symbol of quality (Vranesvic and Stancec, 2003 pg. 812-813).
There are customers and they will buy the brand: One of the unwritten contract, customers wants the company to consistently meet their advertising goals. Second, they expected their companies to treat them with respect, to be honest and straightforward business. When a company or brand achieve theF desired time and time again, and acts according to the image they want to portray, customers began to trust the development of brand and reputation. As the reputation and trust increase, the failure of more expensive brand (Frischmann, 2008)
The process of brand creates a special significance. Brand distinction, takes the form of a sign, symbol, or symbols, a character, a slogan, a jingle or packaging of products or services. As strong brand stands apart from the competition, it encourages consumers to purchase a particular product or service. Thus, offering continued satisfaction which affects buying decision and customer satisfaction making them loyal towards brand (Wells, Moriarity and Burnett, 2006 pg. 33; Reece, Vanden Bergh and Li, 1994 pg. 41). Advertising process behind branding creates acquaintance. It is by acquaintance that leading equity is constructed. Brand equity as a reputation is the result of value and meaning earned by brand name or symbol over the period. (Wells et al., 2006, pg. 33). Finally, the value, meaning of the brand dwells in the consumers mind. (Tellis, 2004, pg. 33).
Advertising taglines are utilized to reward the brand name, sum up the brand’s subject matter, produce an image and convey the consumer about brand. (Rosengren and Dahlen,2006, pg. 265). A good tagline is a key factor for building and maintaining a strong brand image.
Finally, Advertising taglines are utilized to create gist on brands and are conceived to build a brand identity by endorsing a strong brand name and so are considered useful for building brand equity.(Reece et al., 1994, pg. 42; Rosengren et al., 2006,. Pg. 263). Tagline for acting as the carrier of brand equity, the brand must first affect the tagline so that brand equity “rubbed off” brand slogan. Research on brand equity has found that brand equity affects the analysis and interpretation of the brand-related information to the information in this case, the brand slogan, fits with previous consumer perceptions of brand (Dahlen and Rosengren, 2005, pg 152).
2.6 Classifications of cultural values
Although every individual has distinctive set of values, these set of values has tendency to penetrate in a culture. The cultural values differentiate themselves from private values, as they structure the base on which their culture stands (McCarty, 1994). All these cultural values are transformed through various spring such as family, media, upbringing in school and others have tendency to be broad, lasting and comparatively firm (the Samovar,1998). The theoretical foundation for analysing culture values confronts standard problems and challenges across all different nations. These problems and challenges can be dealt in variety of ways similar the analysis of cultural values across nations is that all cultures face up similar problems and in challenges, which can be treated in a variety of ways. Exactly how they are treated reflect the value system of a particular culture. The analysis of cultural values takes into account the comparison of similarities and difference between different cultures (Kluckhohn and Strodbeck, 1961). A Research on cross-cultural category identifies all the useful cultural values in the description of cultures. A leading models display cultural dimensions which serve to explain a significant scoop of disagreement of country -to-country. Up to date, all research under taken in this were very much relied on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. In a lesser measure, the researchers also used the cultural dimensions of Trompenaars and Hampden- Turner and Schwartz in their research work. A new dimension added by Trompenaars and Hampden- Turner ( 1998,2000) offers new alternatives.
2.7 Cross-cultural studies US and India
Watson, (2002) tells, every culture has one of the important social processes, a strong impact on consumer perception and behaviour is the result of using exerted marketing communication. Methods used in international marketing and advertising, help in studying various components of culture in order to compare and contrast the affectivity of persuasion across culture. Subsequently, the process of persuasion is substantially affected by cultural orientation (Triandis, 1989, Aaker and Maheswaran, 1997). Hall (1976) states that culture strongly influences the meaning of content and serves as a rigid screener. The author also suggest that the encoding and decoding of content is unlike in different culture, especially in eastern and western countries in topic whilst Aaker (2000, p. 340) mentions:
“due to differences in culturally based traditions, religions, and histories, individuals in distinct cultures tend to hold a different set of values and preferences. These cultural differences are, in turn, reflected in the content of marketing communication.”
In accordance to this perspective, Aaker and Maheswaran (1997) discovered that heuristic hints, general agreement plays a vital role in persuasion in a collectivised culture than in an individualistic culture, as the views of the group members are accented in collectivised culture. They also detected that in individualistic culture the individuals utilize elaborated taxonomic processing or forced capability processing strategy to measure fresh data more frequently than collectivistic cultures. To support this statement, the individuals grown in Asian cultures are inclined towards the information of general agreement, Information about the opinions of the others to an opinion object to a great extent because of growing needs of acculturation. Conversely, information of general agreement is sensed as comparatively non-diagnostic in the USA as the needs to acculturation is lower (Jun and Lee, 2007)
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In addition to this, investigators in this area of advertising communication have indicated that the potency of persuasive style and schemes are different in different culture. (Jun and Lee, 2007). For as example, Glenn and o (1977) notes that the Americans prefer an inductive-factual convincing style. They suggested that Americans should consider a congruent style with culture to fulfil purposes of communication. The existent literature concentrating on cultural difference between India and the United States pointed out that effects to commercialize communication would differ according to their cultural orientation, as high or low context, confrontation or value direct, indirect / harmony-seeking behaviour and individualistic behaviour or orientated by group (Miracle et al,1992). The culture of India classified as a comparatively high nation of context and the United States as a low culture of context (Hall, 176). People living in high cultures of context are characterized as indirect and meditative person, although people living in the low cultures of context are represented as analytical and orientated by action. For instance, to great extent American contents depicts well disposed attitudes towards advertising and brands following high levels of information of advertising than Indian contents (N. Ahmed, 2000). Also, the Indian advertising of magazine depended heavily on emotional evoke by comparison with American advertising, although this tendency varies across the categories of product (Jun and Lee, 2007) discovered that American advertising used characteristics of product and utilitarian’s needs for products (the low context) more often than Indian advertising, while Indian advertising used metaphor (the high context) more often than their American counterbalances.
Gudykunst (1987) and Kang (1988) also noted that Indians has tendency to communicate non-confrontational communication and prefer indirect speech, while the Americans prefer the approach of confrontational and a direct speech. American advertisers have tendency to represent brands, products and company name since its inception for advertising (Steward and Furse, 1989). Indians too led to nullify the confrontational communication compare to Americans. In this case, the Indian style of communication is considered to be “accommodation orientated” rather than ‘ confrontational orientated” because Indians inclined to put more value on indirect communication to avoid refusal by others (Jun and Lee, 2007). Therefore, to differentiate the brands from its rivals, a comparatively direct and an approach of confrontational would be used in the United States, while comparatively more a couple of direct references to the brand name would seem in the advertising of Indians (Stewart and Furse, on 1986). Miracle (1992) came up with blueprints concerning in the advertisements in television in India and United Sates.
According to the findings of Steward and Furse’s (1986), the name of the company was noticed comparatively later in advertisements in India. However, very few of US companies represented their company name in their advertisements whereas all most all Indian companies showed their company name in advertising in India. Conversely, with earlier research findings, the authors discovered that in Indian advertising consumers tends to identify brand name, logo, and packaging of product at first compared to US advertisements (Stewart and Furse, 1986). The authors also included that the:
“Indian advertiser must feel that consumers usually base purchases of most products and services at least in part on the reputation of the company, whereas in the US the reputation of the company seems to be considered important to consumers in only about half of television commercials” (Miracle et al., 1992, p. 15).
According to Hofstede (1980), the United States is located at one end and India is located in middle of Individualism scale. Among the 53 countries, United States ranked 91with higher score while India ranked 41 with low score (out of 100) after the measure of value placed on Individualism scale. Therefore, the advertisements used in U.S. has individualistic appeal than Indian advertisements which inclined toward collectivistic appeal (Cho et al,1999), and the consumers were convinced towards the appeal corresponding to their culture orientation with country of origin (Han and Shavitt, 1994).
In other words, the U.S. advertising emphasized independence, self-reliance, self-improvement, and personal rewards, and less likely to emphasize interdependence, family integrity, the Group’s objectives and concern for others (Belk and Bryce, 1986; Muller, 1987; miracles., 1992). Previous studies pointed out that the advertising reflecting local culture value are more convincing than those with less persuasive culture value. Therefore, cross-culture advertising of product has been a core topic to be research in the area of marketing communication. However, there is still less information available regarding the use of taglines in different cultures and how creative they are to create an impact on consumers mind with regards to the brand name they carry. Therefore, the present study involves in understanding the use of creative taglines and its appeal in cross culture country like US and India providing more information to international marketers.
Culture Dimension background of Trompenaars and Hampden -Turner
The previous study conducted on brand designing and its appeal in culture differences (Jun and Lee, 2007) was based on the culture dimensions of (Trompenaars and Hampden Turner, 1998,2000).
In the current existing differences the cultural dimensions of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner suggest that there is no single “better” way to organize culture differences. To allow the changes in the perceptivity of the debate of “globalization” and “Localization” and to differentiate one culture to other culture there was a need to develop culture dimensions. To fulfil these purposes, a model of five culture dimensions was suggested by Trompenaars and Hampden-turner (1998) to understand the culture differences in better way in business circumstances. The following are the culture dimensions in relationship with other people involved.
Universalism versus Particularism
Individualism versus Communitarianism
Neutral versus Emotional
Specific versus Diffuse
Achievement versus Ascription.
Among these culture dimensions the ‘specific’ versus ‘diffuse’ was employed in previous research the understanding of brand designing in different culture (Jun and Lee, 2007). Taking this into account, the current study also consider this dimension for this research as it is new compared to the culture dimensions of Hofstede (1980). These culture dimensions deals with some parts of Hall ‘s dimensions (1993) and (Hall and Hall, 1987)
Hofstede (1996), suggested that specific versus diffuse dimension is correlative to
According to Trompenaars and Hampden Turner, 1998), The specific versus diffuse culture means:
“How far we get involved?
It is as degree in which responsibility is specifically assigned or is diffusely accepted. In a specific culture, people first analyse the elements individually and then put them together, the whole is the sum of its parts. People’s lives are divided accordingly and, only a single component can be entered at a time. Interactions between people are very well-defined. Specific individuals concentrate on hard facts, standards and contracts. A diffusely oriented culture starts with the whole and sees individual elements from the perspective of the total. All elements are related to one another. Relationships between elements are more important than individual elements.”
Trompenaars and Hampden – Turner (1998) suggested that in a given situation “a boss asks a subordinate to help in paint his house” out of 100 percent, 35 per cent of Indian respondent will paint compare to 18 percent of US respondent.
In the specific culture, personal dominions are evidently differentiated from public life and have considerable freedom to direct speech. Individuals in diffuse culture can feel insulted for the phrase “Do not take this personally,” which is frequently used in specific culture(Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998). Similarly, the statement mentioned in literature review above on culture dimension of confrontational (direct speech) versus accommodation (indirect speech) supports the argument. Americans favour direct speech and confrontational communication, while Indians prefer a direct and non-confrontational communication (Yum, 1987; Gudykunst 1987,Kang, 1988). Culture values vary between these two countries and are visible in their advertisements. For instance, American advertisement identify their brand , product and company names forthright and more repeatedly than advertisements in India. (Stewart and Furse, 1986) Therefore, based on above affirmations we can draw two hypothesis and they are as follows:
American Brand taglines will appeal more culturally specific values than Indian brand taglines
American brand taglines will contain more direct speech than Indian brand taglines.
The above literature review (chapter 2) produces relationship between advertising and taglines affecting consumer perception towards brands, its cross culture appeal in US and India with critically analysing the literature related to this area of marketing communication. First five sections discusses about the taglines and its relation with advertising as part of branding, further, the section provides a detailed information about the advertising taglines and its uses with relevant to its theoretical framework in terms of positive effects of it in campaigns and how does it help in carrying the brands message and improving companies profitability and covering the loss. This section also provides definition of taglines with view to various authors.
The majority of the previous studies on taglines in the last two decades have focused on investigating influences connected to brand awareness, issues regarding how to make taglines memorable, and relationships between consumer demographic characteristics and taglines learning and assessment. Nevertheless, to the researcher’s knowledge, there no existence of any works modelling consumer’s responses to adverting taglines and their effects on the advertising effectiveness. All the taglines-related studies were conducted in Western countries, with single or no work taking place in an Eastern country. This research, modelling consumers’ responses to advertising taglines and its appeal with cross-culture perspective thus, creating impact on consumer’s attitude on the advertising effectiveness, is the only second taglines related research work conducted in the Asian country.
The Last four sections discusses about the cross-culture difference in US and India with regards to classification of culture value and use of advertising taglines. It also provides a detailed literature and reason for choosing
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