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An organization that produces a desired effect or is effective without a lot of waste has the characteristics of an effective organization. Leadership, decision making, people, systems and structure and culture make up organizational effectiveness. An organization’s ability to perform at a high level in areas of financial performance, long term planning, internal structure and sticking to the organizations core values are critical when it comes to understanding and implementing organizational effectiveness. There’s no concrete formula in organizational effectiveness, law enforcement often relays their results through an assessment of specific goals achieved and desired.
Theories of Organizational Effectiveness to the Management of Criminal Justice Personnel
There are three main theories of organizational effectiveness when it comes to the management of criminal justice personnel. Agile, bureaucratic and managing by an objective theory are all working parts in organizational effectiveness. Four principles; labor division, authoritative hierarchy, structure and extent of control are all components of the bureaucratic theory in organizational effectiveness. “Bureaucratic theory is an essential tool for understanding capitalist democracy. No longer bound by the power of kings, or political or religious leaders, social life is now shaped by the desire to act efficiently toward democratically established ends justified based on scientific knowledge articulated into rules and regulations. The aesthetic of bureaucratic action is “without regard to person,” its impersonality”(Spender, J. (2013). Bureaucratic leadership is often found in law enforcement agencies with an emphasis on specialized positions and not the people who fill those positions. Bureaucracy can be effective if the top-down leadership have their hands on the heartbeat of the organization and truly understand how it operates.
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An agile organization is one that can have a quick response to changes. Leaders in this type of organization realize to be agile, they must make decisions quickly, make decisions at the right time, maker decisions that achieve the desired result and act on those decisions. One of the most crucial qualities within an agile organization is how well employees or members make results that produce the results that are needed. “ The lens’ of agility‘; a mental model that makes it easy to see where the greatest opportunities exist to improve the outcome of almost any decision. When practices fail, it’s almost always because key decisions aren’t being made well or at all”(Denning, S. (2016).
Managing by an objective is when management personnel aim to improve the performance of an organization by defining objectives that are clear to both employees and managers. Employees can often find their duties spelled out in standards of operating procedure booklets that are provided by managers. “Employees in their own way contribute to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Every employee has his own role at the workplace. Each one feels indispensable for the organization and eventually develops a feeling of loyalty towards the organization. They tend to stick to the organization for a longer span of time and contribute effectively. They enjoy at the workplace and do not treat work as a burden”(Arshoff, A., & Latham, G. (2013). One major disadvantage to the MBO theory is it increases comparisons between individuals at the workplace which can cause tension. Employees can turn to nasty back stabbing and unproductive ways to outshine their competition within the organization. The MBO process can sometimes feel as if employees are just machines and do what they’re told because they must or else.
Methods for Exerting Control in an Organizational Setting
There are a few methods that top managers can use to control their organizations. Corporate mission statements are often drafted and displayed to communicate what a company or a criminal justice entity expects from their employees. Top managers can maintain a fair amount of control by implementing performance standards. Some companies have a policy that you must adhere to their standards and prove you belong in a 90-day probationary period before getting finalize the employment deal. “Top managers also use performance appraisals to discuss where employees exceed or fall short on performance. Those who do not meet certain performance standards may be fired. Some may be put on an action plan to improve performance. An action plan can include additional training or education”( Amann, M. (1996). Methods for exerting control can also be determined by a manager who knows how to manage work flow. Company executives often strive to create organizational structures that fit their needs.
Organizational effectiveness measures the big picture as it pertains to performance of a business or even a law enforcement agency. Creating a clear list or criteria to assess helps an organization determine its effectiveness. Every organization has a different list which is why many for profit and non-profit organizations evaluate effectiveness through self-assessment practices. When organizations get creative and invent strategies to beat ineffectiveness, a stronger and more loyal workforce is created and gives employees the motivation to work with a sense of purpose and dedication to the task at hand. Treating weaknesses within the organization as a road map to make future changes is a way to maximize an organization’s effectiveness. Substantial growth and development are a requirement for an organization to be considered effective. Every officer within a police department contributes to the organization’s effectiveness. Officer’s bring different skills to the table and it’s wise for leaders to recognize where they excel when it comes to placing them in specialized units. If an organization is effective, it will produce valuable results without excuses. Waste is a word that can’t be linked to organizational effectiveness because inefficiencies aren’t allowed in order to sustain success. If a law enforcement agency has the organizational effectiveness and efficiency, then it will achieve the goal of keeping the public safe while maximizing the use of its officers without wasting taxpayer money. Additional factors in organizational effectiveness may be growth data and even survey results from the public to signal if they are pleased with the job that’s being done/.
- Spender, J. (2013). Bureaucratic theory. Encyclopedia of Management Theory
- Denning, S. (2016). How to make the whole organization “agile”. Strategy & Leadership, 44(4), 210.
- Arshoff, A., & Latham, G. (2013). Management by objectives. Encyclopedia of Management Theory
- Amann, M. (1996). Performance management part 1: Setting goals and objectives. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 44(5), 260-261. doi:10.1177/216507999604400516
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