Training and development is basically related with the Human resource management which is concerned with the activities of an organization aiming at betterment of the performance of an individual and groups in setting of organizations. The training and development is also well known with some of the other names which are employee development, learning and development and human resource development.
When we observe the international training and development, then it encompasses basically three main types of activities which are education, training and development. Training is a type of activity which focuses upon and evaluated against the job that is currently held by an employee whereas education is the activity that focuses upon the job which may be potentially held by the employee in near future and is evaluated against these jobs. The last activity is development which mainly focuses upon the activities of an organization that employs an individual or the individual is the part of or may take part in the future and almost impossible to eliminate.
The research is done on the methodology which shows us the relation between the international training and development and the performance of Multi-National Company. The process of training and development is applied on the employees to make sure that there is skilled and willful workforce present to work for an organization and in addition to that there are other four objectives which are also focused to meet the requirement which are Individual, Organizational, Functional and Societal objectives.
A well known observer Harrison that the other names of the training and development were endlessly discussed by the chartered institute of personnel and development during the review of the professional standards in the year of 1999 or 2000. Employee development was seen as the evocative of the master slave relationship between the employee and employer which have given the names to their employees as “associates” or “partners” which they are comfortable with. If we review history then Human Resource Development was rejected by academics which was objected due to a reason that is the people were considered as “resources”. Eventually the CIPD decided on the process of “learning and development” which was either not free of problems where learning was considered as ambiguous and over general name where the field is also known by some other names.
There are many conflicts which are the best part of the consequences of the career which take place between the employees and their bosses observing that there is a need of training and development which is a needed in the better performance of the Multi National companies.
Research Aims and Objectives-
Main aim behind performing the research on the topic is to understand the concept of the international training and development in the Multi National Companies and the performance which is affected by it.
The main objective behind the research is to find the use and benefit of international training and development which are performed by the Multi National Companies. There are many other objectives which are met from the international training and development such as individual objectives, organizational objectives, functional objectives and societal objectives.
There are two main type of doing research:
In this particular research Qualitative research methodology is used. This research is based upon qualitative analysis of data. Secondary sources are used for this research. Analysis of secondary resources is included in this section.
International training and development is one of the branches of the Human Resource management which is considered as the new term since 1930s. The international training and development is a sub system of the organization which ensures that the learning and behavioral change should be accepted in the structured format and the randomness should be reduced. There are two approaches towards the development of the international training and development which are
When we talk about the Traditional Approach then there was no term related to the training which was considered by the organizations applying the basic fundamentals like managers were born not made as it was running from decades. There were some views about the training that is it is too costly affair and not worth and some of an organization used to believe more on the executive pinching instead now the scenario has changed or seems to be changing.
When we look at the modern approach towards the training and development then some Multinational Companies have realized about the importance of the corporate training which could immensely effect their reputation or status in the positive or negative manner. It is nowadays more considered as the retention tool instead of the cost. The training systems used in the multi-national companies are basically aimed at creating smarter workforce and yielding the best results in favor of organization.
There are many objectives set by various MNCs which has principal objective of training and development division to make sure about the availability of the skilled and willing workforce to a Multi National company in addition with that there are four other objectives which are Organizations, Individual, Societal and functional objectives.
Essentiality of International Training-
Conventional training is basically required to cover up all the skills related to the work, techniques and knowledge and mostly sections deals with the positive approach to some sort of traditional approach of training.
There are many ways to develop people or employees but the best way to make development in people is quite different from the traditional approach of training from the conventional skills training and it is the most effective way to allow personal development and learning with all that this implies. As soon as we have covered the basic work related skills training there are many other things which is described in this section which focus on the development and learning of the people as individuals which has extended the range of development apart from the traditional work and knowledge and make way for more creative work which creates opportunities like liberating, motivational and exciting for people.
As we all know about the Profit which is achieved through approachable training and development of the skills of the people well with the development of the people enabling of profit take place. The Multi National Companies which approach international training and development with an aim of fostering people who have performed well and progress is seen in their progress card and should stay in the company for the long time to become perfect at what they do and also help others to become so. As we have many times used the term training for our daily purpose which is features heavily in the coming paragraphs but the term learning could be used as improved way to approach a subject as the term learning relates with the term learner whereas trainer generally belongs to the person who needs training that is trainer or the organization. When we observe the training from the realistic perspectives then corporate attitudes and expectations from the term training cannot be changed overnight and most of the organizations perform training so as to improve the work skills, classrooms and power point presentations. There are many other ways to develop people apart from the traditional skills of training for example – (Green)
Facilitating personal development
Enable learning to become learner.
It helps people to achieve and identify their potential
Training ideas and Outline process-
There is relatively simple overview present of the models, processes and tools which are found for the effective delivery or planning of the training required in the organization. Various points which are included in the above process for international training and development in the Multi National Companies are-
Various training needs should be understood well and there should be some sort of training needs analysis process or DIF analysis conducted to improve the training process or the drawbacks which the company is facing could be retrieved through the analysis resulting in the improvement of those points which commonly happens in the appraisal process. This type of training analysis involves the people who identifies and agrees on the relevant aligned training and considers the values of company and ethics and spirituality at work. Some light should be thrown at the recruitment processes so that there are no point training people who are not capable of doing the job.
There should be creation of training and development specifications which identifies about our training and in the development of the people which must be break down into the manageable elements and each element should be attached with standards, measures or some parameters. There are many tools which are useful in this kind of training purposes but the best tools which can be used are 360 degree process and template, training planner. The skill sets and the training needs analysis which we have learnt in the above point should be revisited which can help in organizing and training elements assessment on the large scale.
There should be difference in the learning styles and personality which should be considered as people’s learning style greatly affect in the types of training which can be found to be most easiest and effective and sometimes personality types are also considered and it should be always remembered that we are dealing with the people instead of objects as they are filled with the feelings, skills and knowledge. Models like Erikson model and Johor Window is the wonderful mean to better understand this type of training and the team or their group also helps in the understanding the training needs which could be helped by the Adair’s theory and Tuckman model.
There should be better planning and evaluation which is to be performed that considers effectiveness of the evaluation training including before and after measurements. Various models are also included in this kind of training need such as Kirkpatrick model and that helps to structure training design. Bloom’s theory should also be considered that can help us to understand about what type of development we are addressing to with this theory there are other activities which should be considered which are team activities and exercises. The tips like self studying program design should be observed as they offer more opportunities than ever.
Design materials, methods and deliver training are the tools which can be used to determine the needs of training and development in the company. The methods which are innovative should be considered such as business balls communities which have lots of providers and ideas. Running meetings, workshops and presentations should also be considered as an important aspect for delivery. The training provider’s selection template could be used on the sales training page which is adopted by the providers and services.
There are many ways or methods of training and development such as
Internal training courses
On the job training
The training is also available outside and beyond the classroom where most importantly training and learning are the topics which are indeed to look at from the trainee’s view where view refers to the offer is learning and developmental experience. There are various aspects which are included in the international training and development such as ethics and morality, leadership and determination and attitude and behavior in addition with the skills and knowledge.
We have seen that many organization’s face various challenges of developing answer findings, initiatives, self-belief and predicament solving capabilities within their people. There are certain requirements of organizations where they need self sufficient, creative, autonomous and resourceful staff at all the levels which can contribute to the overall performance of an organization. The behavior of the staff tells about the operations which they can perform at the higher strategic level which makes their company more productive and competitive in the market where people’s effort are more considered to produce bigger result. There are many types of training which we have studied in which conventional skills training provides people with the new methods and techniques which will not help in their courage, maturity and belief that are essential for the progress of the managerial capabilities which focus on developing the person instead of their skills.
In the period of training there can be participative workshops which can be included in the beginning as it involves people right from the starting and focus on what they want. There could be also personal development questionnaire to set the scene and examples should be provided of alternative learning opportunities.
General Training Tips-
The tips which will be mentioned below is applicable to usual work related training for the transfer of necessary job and work related skills instead these tips do not apply automatically to the other forms of personal development and learning which can involve much wider development methods and experiences. During the planning of the training these are some of the points which should be kept in mind-
Number of trainee
Methodology and usage of format
Time period of training
Location of training
Effectiveness of training
Reaction or feedback of the trainees
Whenever some Multi-national companies provides skills training to a trainee, they use these five step approach –
Prepare the trainee- they provide time to relax them as some of the employees could find learning new things stressful in the beginning.
Explain the job, task- the methods, standards, necessary tools, equipments and system should be explained and discussed.
Provide a demonstration- a step by step process is more complex as more and more steps could be difficult to learn so always show the correct way and accentuate the positive in addition with feedback and check understanding.
The trainees should actually perform the job which would help in learning more by practical applications of the equipments and services.
The progress is monitored which gives positive feedback and people should be encouraged, coach and adapt with the pace of development.
These were the five steps which are provided to the trainee in their training period so as to make perfection in their actual work performed in the company. Creating charts and using them could be helpful as they are essential for complex work where we cannot measure it and it is essential to use the training tools for various purposes such as accessing, recording, planning, measuring and following up the person’s training.
Training Planning Factors-
The guidelines which will be provided below will be dealing with the conventional work skills training and development beyond which the issues of personal development and learning will be the most noteworthy areas of the personal development which is to be focused on.
There are various areas which should be included to plan the traditional training of work skills and capabilities which link the improvement of the organizational performance which needs to identify the needs, priorities and gaps in the organizational performance. It will not be possible to include so many aspects which determine the need of the training or there are various training drivers which will produce the results which is cost effective in terms of business performance which are- (rae)
Surveys on customer satisfaction
Financial reports and ratios.
Statistics and reports on business performance
Feedback on the training needs
Relevant qualification and certification program.
Staff Assessment centre and training audits.
Management feedback on the needs of the employee
Competitor analysis and comparison which could be done by SWOT analysis.
Strategic priorities and Director driven policy
The indicators and results are picked from the chosen driver to produce the priority needs of the training as per the staff which will enable staff and management to accomplish improvements required by an organization.
Development of Resources for Training-
There is a need of resources to perform a fully fleshed training with all the facilities which can result in becoming independent in work and life. People who are having plenty of resources are tend to be well developed individuals, capable of teaching and leading others, enabling and assisting the change in groups and organizations, able to convey the enjoyment and advantages finding the answers. Resources help in answering questions that are considered as one of the indispensable needs of work and life.
Resources are generally used for developing people or making improvement is something which could be small and realization for a single individual and if you build effective relevant resources then obviously it will become effective and more relevant.
Training is given to make sure the accessibility of both skilled and the workforce which is willing to work to an organization and this is the main objective of training and development union. Information that is shared through training is one of the most valuable tools for developing the most valuable asset which are employees. The main aim of all the training whether it is local or international is the empowerment of the employees and increment in the productivity. All the multinational companies give training to their employees for making the process more efficient also more effective and the main reason behind this is the satisfaction of the customer. For improving the overall performance of the organization is also related to the proper training of the employees of that organization. Nowadays international training is very important because it helps in maintaining the skill levels and the advance skill and knowledge given to the employees improves their performance which finally results in increasing the profitability which includes productivity and manpower. International training given to the employees by the multinational companies helps in establishing the standards for work practices. The frequent changes in the technology affects the requirements of jobs but the proper training can respond to the changes in technologies and also to the organizational restructuring. Development of the career is very important for a working person or an employee of multinational company; proper training supports the career development of the employees. For every successful employee training is very important because it fulfills all the needs of the employees which are required for their growth and development. These days the multinational companies give more emphasis on the international training of the employee rather than the local training because the international training give more ideas about the whole world and also develops the mind of the employee for facing all the bottlenecks that comes regularly in the path and this results in the all around performance of that employee. (Sims, 1998)
Most of the multinational companies invest huge money for developing and purchasing of assets used in training and the main purpose behind this is to build and extend their capabilities. According to the survey of one of the multinational company it was found that in 2009 that company gave international training to their 3500 employees and also provided the self training courses. These companies’ also provides various types formal and also informal training programs for helping their employees to acquire the special skills. Formal training given to the employees by the company helps in building of their experience and also their practical knowledge in real life.
Employees are given training for achieving various mission and goals of the company. Training and development gives knowledge to the employees about delivering of the quality solutions with the help of practical tools and methods. This development provides the further progress and gives various opportunities like to master a core-curriculum. This curriculum depends on certain factors and it changes with the level of the employee, deployment of growth platform and specialization but it involves the developing features like expertise of technology and industry, professional skills like leadership, management, business selling etc.
These days’ multinational companies are also focusing on the online training for their employees. In this type of training employees of the company are trained on the computer and there is no need of going somewhere which means travelling is not required in this training by the employees. International training offers great advantage to the employers and the employees and its good effects are seen when an employee is send to an external program of training or in a seminar. This type of training increases the confidence and also the mental growth of the employees working in the multinational companies etc.
Proper training and development of the training capabilities of the employees leads to increment in the advantages for organization. The employees should be made familiar with the goals, strengths and weakness of the company, environment culture etc. All these factors give a unique advantage to the employees over the trainer who has the responsibility to learn all these factors like company strengths and weaknesses, environment culture etc. The high performing multinational companies are recognizing the needs of using various practices for training and development for enhancing their competitive advantage. For every multinational company training and development is an essential tool if they want to harness and grows the potential of its employees. There is a clear link between the strategic training and development initiatives and the bottom line present in the company. The image of a multinational company and its employers are reflected by the quality and also the extent of training of staff and development. In today’s business world all the multinational companies are facing the shortage of the experience and the skillful staff and because of this companies are facing the competition which includes both internal and external for quality employees. An employer who gives 100 percent with full seriousness in the field of training and development gets the entire benefits of a working environment which is enriched with the staff retention of the higher level and also the increased productivity and the performance of the employee in all fields of work. There are various key drivers of training initiatives and these three drivers are health and safety, changes in technique and the last one is the customer service. Now day’s multinational companies are using training and development as a gift for retaining and motivating the people and to be treated as the employer and also giving staff the skill and knowledge which is required for the technological change and services related to the customer. According to one of the survey most of the multinational companies gave support to the employees for perusing the outside educational programmers related to the work of their company. This support of the company for their employer consists of financial aid and also the time off for both study and the exam leave. The benefits of both these initiatives are very difficult to qualify but the fields like turnover of the staff and morale are main factors of the success in this field. The amount of money spend and the number of days spend on the training of the staff is very useful in getting an overview of the multinational companies which are committed to the development and the training. But the success of the multinational company is determined by the approach and the content of the initiatives of the training and by their assessment and follow up. The initiatives of the training requires the strategically alignment to the mission and goals of the company and they requires design and delivery for helping the staff for achieving their departmental and the personal goals also. The training initiatives become more targeted, measurable and effective when strategic approach is adopted for the training and development. Training delivery also requires assessment in terms of reaction, learning, change of behavior etc for the determination of the added value to the company.
There are various things about training like some of the employees of the multinational companies are worried by the external training or it may also give them feeling that company is not doing fare job by sending them on the offered courses. This is the situation where the appraisal system helps greatly because training is directly linked to the job role and objectives. Most of the employees of the multinational companies welcome the opportunities for developing new skills and for gaining further qualifications. Training and development opportunities can be important factor in retaining staff only when it is offered to the staffs that are keen and interested in their progress. There are various types of trainings but the multinational company should choose that sort of training for their employees that suit both company and the employees. There are many benefits in having a training and development in multinational companies and they are:
All the training and the development programmers are agreed between the employees and the company and they linked with each other for meeting the company’s objective. Another benefit is that all the employees of the multinational company get equal access and equal opportunities for training and development. Because of international training and development employees can gain recognition for the knowledge and also the skills by achievement of qualifications which are vocationally relevant. The activity of training and development is evaluated for ensuring that it is meeting the identified needs.
In order to help the individual to develop perfect curriculum vitae, records of the activities of training are kept. There are various methods of training and development:
First is the on the job training and this training is related to the formal training on the job. Due to job over time worker becomes experienced due to the modification in the behaviors of the job at the point of acquisition of skills.
Second is the orientation method which is carried out for entrants on the job for making them familiar with the overall requirements of corporate which includes various norms, ethics, values and all the rules and regulations.
One method of training is apprenticeship and it is a method of training where a skilled person is understudied by the unskilled person.
Another method of training and development is the demonstration and in this type of method the jobs are performed by the skilled workers and it is observed by the unskilled workers with the purpose of understanding the job.
The last method of training and development is termed as the vestibule and this type of method is performed through industrial attachment for the objective of transfer of skills and technology. In this method training and development is achieved through the placement of an individual in another area of relevant work or another company. This process has effects on the individuals in acquiring the practical and the specialized skills. There is one more method of training and development that we have discussed above and that method is the formal training which includes the practical and the theoretical process of teaching. Trainings are often neglected by some of the companies because of urgency of need, time of the training, cost of the training, turnover of the employees, due to the diversification of the workers etc. But these should not be kept in mind by the companies for training and development.
Training and development is very useful for many purposes but the significant importance of international training and development is the increase in sales. As training and development expands the business of the multinational company and it also provides the better customer service which in turn helps in increment of the sales of the company. Training and the development programmers helps employees a lot because these programs value employees to put some time into making them better and the best thing about training and development is that they value the thinking of the employees of the company and due to these programmers only the employees of the multinational company don’t quit the companies. Training and development gives more time to the supervisor for management, standardized performance, less turnover, more customers and finally the better service. Training and development gives confidence to the workers for doing their jobs properly, reduces the tension of the workers, morale boosting, satisfaction of job to the employees and it also gives them the chance of advancing their skills, knowledge etc. For the multinational companies international training and development provides a good image which is most important for every company and which finally results in more profit for the multinational companies. After all the discussions it is concluded that training and development is very important for all the multinational companies.
Training and Development which is also referred as learning and development are one of the most tactful aspects of our lives and work. As we observe our culture we have given more values to the training which is till now followed by various Multi-National Companies despite of attending so many years of schooling there are many amongst us who does not have knowledge about carefully designing an approach to training and development. The research of the training and developments performed shows us about various types of training which can be performed on the trainee and analysis of the development should be monitored timely so as to make decisions on the gaps coming in the performance of the trainee. (McNamara)
There are explanations given on the basis of the performance of the Multi-National companies adopting some certain criteria to fulfill their needs of the training and to study the scenario which is changing day by day with the passage of time. There is a need of resources to fulfill the needs of training and development in the companies which are described above. There has been discussion performed on the training field of the multinational companies and development which can be seen in the performance of the trainee. The whole scenario describes about the benefits and the use of training which was not considered in the past.
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