Training and development is one of the important part of business growth. Any organisation or a company always provided training on their employees for further achievement. Moreover it can also be mentioned that training is the key point for both employees and the companies to fulfil their target. My research is the based on the training system of Tesco's employees. I choose this company because it is one of the leading retailer companies in the UK. My research is to finding the employee potentiality in their concern department. And I have to find how training will helpful for organization as well as individual growth. I have to identify the employees who needs training program and I have to find how company can make the employees to show interest for attending the training program. I have to submit the results what can company get after giving the training to the employees.
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The main objective of doing this project is to study employee attitude concerning the training program and the settlement of the training program. During this course program period I have to accomplish something which is helpful to the development of me and some value addition to the company. Getting more business to the company because of training program is the major objective. It gives me good exposure of myself and creating good consciousness of corporate mind.
î€€To find out the payback of the training program to the employee and to the organization.
î€€To find out what is the outcome for the organization because of giving the training to the
î€€To find out what are the training requirements in concern area.
î€€The main objective of this study is to be familiar with the employee opinion
regarding the training program.
I have to approach the employee who is working for Tesco's and should find out are they feeling training will be helpful or not to increase of the performance of the employee. After that I have to find out what are the belongings should we cover in the training program depending upon the concern department.
The project will use qualitative methods including focus groups, semi structured interviews, participant observation and documentary analysis to meet the research objectives. The all of the employee in Tesco's, primary data collection from different Tesco's shops, analysis on those training system and development. . Primary data for this research study was collected through a direct survey and the secondary data for this study is collected from various research Management books, Tesco's website and net as well.
Training and development system from Tesco's web site and Tesco's case study from news papers (the times 100).
Primary data from different Tesco's branches (south London area).
Analysis about this research based on research management books (your research project by Nicholas Walliman, business research methods by Alan and Emma).
Some useful websites like Wikipedia, business ball and so on.
Prepare proposal by..........................2 days
Complete literature review...............4 days
Complete fieldwork by......................3 weeks
Complete analysis by........................2 weeks
Complete final report by...................2weeks
A strategy of innovation implies modify that will have to be managed, and requirements for new skills as new products, services or processes are developed. All of these call for skills training. Training about new skills and multi- skilling can also contribute to the scene of security. Employees develop a higher level of employability through the gaining of a wider range of skills, and so feel more secure about their future employment prospects. Tesco's HRM department has undertaken a range of training programme for the upgrading of employees by which they can show their potentiality on customer service.
Tesco's plan to expand and diversify requires the business to have the right people, in the right place, at the right time. Many factors affect workforce planning:
Employees with a wide skills range who can work agreeably are more productive for the business.
In-store and non-store based posts may require different methodological skills and competencies.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
The opening of new stores in new locations means that Tesco must adjust to different demands made by consumers. For instance, stores in highly populated diverse areas may need to sell a high proportion of speciality goods to meet the needs of its customers, so selecting that stock requires a clear understanding of the customer profile in that area.
Tesco employs people from a wide range of backgrounds and all employees have the opportunity to grow up and develop. Tesco frequently evaluates the performance of its employees in order to anticipate any possible skills shortages. This helps managers and employees decide whether they have the correct knowledge, skills, understanding and resources to carry out their job effectively. Through annual reviews and career discussions, employees are able to apply for training suited to their needs. For example, managers in stores, Distribution Centres and Head Office can spend a week in a store jointly, learning about each other's work. This makes each part of the Tesco operation more strong. The training programmes have been set by the HRM department at Tesco's.
Training is the gaining of knowledge and skills in order for a person to carry out a specific task or job. Training benefits employees in several ways:
They become better thought-out, productive and flexible and are better able to meet the needs of internal and external customers.
New skills and abilities in areas such as decision-making can make powerful staffs, which makes them more effective.
It increases their intelligence of ownership in the business.
Why training is important at Tesco's:
To modify in values and attitudes for staffs
To support and trainer subordinates and to encourage trusting relationships
To break down the restricted approach of managers
To accept and assign responsibility
Tesco's Options programme provides a long-term scheme for development. It offers, for example, workshops focusing on both leadership behaviours and effective skills. The employee's Personal
Development Plan includes Activity Plans, a Learning Log (to record what the key learning points of the training were and how they are going to be used) and a 'Plan, Do, Review' checklist to observe when plans are completed. This allows trainees to carry out their own analysis of progress.
Personal development helps to produce long lasting competencies. This means employees become more optimistic, productive and valuable to the organisation in the long term.
Recruiting new staff is more expensive than retaining existing staff, so for Tesco, retaining staff is extremely important. Development also helps raise the level of employee motivation.
Motivation theorists put forward that if people are given the skills to do their jobs well, the support to grow their abilities and greater responsibility; this makes them more effective in their roles.
Tesco requires staff who can be flexible and who can become accustomed to change. It also needs to ensure it has the right quality of staff to build its management team of the future.
Why development is important at Tesco's:
To monitor individual performance to give feedback
To operate under clear defined objectives at all levels of operation
To make positive leadership and motivation.
To address parochialism and to discourage departmental challenge and secretiveness
To think in a businesslike way and to analyse risk
1a) to develop the organisation's image of 'helpfulness'
1b) restructuring the organisation's activities
1c) to establish a pool of capability within the company
Approach of this Research:
Now I am going to discuss in details how these objectives were achieved over the period by the effective management of Human Resources at Tesco's and how these activities can be related to different types of methods. First of all I think that it could be better to take some idea about different types of research methods which are shortly described in the bellow. Then I am going to discuss about this research design and data collection.
Research methods are typically divided into quantitative, qualitative and participatory each with differing underlying approaches, tools and techniques. Quantitative, qualitative and participatory approaches have different disciplinary origins, developed individual tools and each has developed its critique of the other approaches.
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Quantitative method: Quantitative methods as they are commonly conceived derive from experimental and statistical methods in natural science. The main concern is with rigorous objective measurement in order to determine the truth or falsehood of particular pre-determined hypotheses.
The major focus is on measuring 'how much is happening to how many people'.
The main tools are large scale surveys analysed using statistical techniques. Quantitative measurable indicators relevant to the pre-determined hypotheses are identified and joint into questionnaires.
Questionnaires are then conducted for a random sample or stratified random sample of individuals, often including a manage group.
Causality is assessed through comparison of the incidence of the variables under consideration between core sample and control group and/or the degree to which they co-occur.
Qualitative method: Qualitative methods have their origins in the humanities: sociology, anthropology, geography and history. They differ from quantitative methods in aiming, not primarily at precise measurement of pre-determined hypotheses, but holistic understanding of complex realities and processes where even the questions and hypotheses come forward cumulatively as the investigation progresses.
Typically focuses on compiling a selection of micro level Case Studies investigated using a combination of informal interviews, applicant observation and more recently visual media like photography and video.
questions are broad and open-ended and change and develop over time to fill of differing accounts of 'reality', unravelling which may be said to be generally 'true' and which are specific and subjective and why.
Different sampling methods are combined: different purposive variety techniques, identification of key informants and also 'random encounters'.
Causality and attribution are directly investigated through questioning as well as qualitative analysis of data. Computer programmes are used to compact systematically with large amounts of data.
Typically requires long-term immersion of a skilled researcher in the field who engages in a automatic process of data collection and analysis.
Tesco's HR policy (training and development)
Primary data (questioner, collecting from employees and managers at different stores in south west London)
Secondary data (from net, journals, and books)
Evaluation with research methods
According to "Claire Seltiz", a research design is the arrangement of condition and analysis of data in manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.
Nature of Research:
Research is mainly of two types.
1. Descriptive research
2. Explorative research
1. Descriptive Research: These studies are concerned with describing the feature of a particular individual or a group.
There are two main sources of data.
1. Primary data
2. Secondary data
Primary Data: It consists of original information collected for particular research. Primary data for this research study was collected through a direct survey to obtain this primary data a well structured questionnaire was organized by the researcher.
Secondary Data: It consists of information that already exists somewhere (net, books, journals, and newspaper etc.) and has been collected for some specific purpose in the study. The secondary data for this study is collected from various research Management books, Tesco's website and net as well.
Questionnaire: A set of questions containing a few Technical questions and more number of taking sides questions are prepared for the employees of both Centralized and Decentralized sections of HR Department at Tesco's.
Questionnaire is the most frequent instrument in collecting Primary data. In order to assemble primary data from viewers the present questionnaire consists of following type of questions.
Open ended questions,
Multiple choice questions,
Closed ended questions,
Open ended questions: It has no fixed alternatives to which the answer must be conventional. Thus, respondent answer in his/her own words at any length they prefer.
Closed ended questions: Closed ended questions have no other options other than the selecting the one that close matches the respondent's opinion or feelings.
Dichotomous questions: A dichotomous questions refers to one, which offers the respondents a choice involving only two alternatives.
Multiple Questions: A multiple choice question refers to one, which provides several sets of alternatives for the respondents' option.
Ranking questions: These questions are given when there are many points to be considered and to be ranked in precedence.
Tesco's HR policy about their training and development system:
This section of the paper will discuss Tesco's approach to HR and compare this to current thinking.
Tesco's have strategically integrated HR into their overall plans. Managers have been to utilise aspects of HR in their decision making. This has shown high commitment to HR, attempting to gain acceptance from all employees, and offering to all employees basic and extended training (Beardwell I 2004). The big picture of Tesco's strategic direction is discussed with all employees. This helps the individual employee to understand their role and importance within the organisation. Therefore, they place a high value on their human resource.
Definition of Training:
The systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes are required by an individual to perform satisfactorily a given task or job. Training refers to efforts that help improve employee skills for carrying out the present job. According to Edwin B Flippo, training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular work.
Needs for training:
â€¢To develop the current job performance of employees
â€¢To enhance the creativity, adaptability and flexibility of the employee sand to facilitate
at the work place
â€¢To change the skills, understanding and attitudes of the employees on a permanent basis
â€¢to keep up knowledgeable work force.
â€¢To increase competitive advantage through a knowledgeable work force.
â€¢To promote organizational growth throughout individual growth.
â€¢To familiarize employees with the policies and events of the organization.
â€¢To help employees supervise their careers.
â€¢To get ready employees for future job.
Areas of training:
â€¢Company policies and events.
â€¢Skill based training.
â€¢Problem solving training.
â€¢Human relations training.
Employees need more than bosses... They require mentors: Professionals skilled at assessing employee development needs and dedicated to guiding employees toward professional success.
Team Leadership Workshop provides managers with established techniques for effective personnel management. By helping leaders understand and address their employees' requirements, this interactive seminar offers considerable benefit to managers at all levels. New supervisors gain a solid grounding in the idea of ''leadership,'' while more experienced managers refresh their obligation to teaching and coaching their team members.
This training program provides healthy perspectives for managers at all levels, building it an ideal morale-boosting leadership development experience for mixed groups of front-line supervisors and senior staff members.
Leadership Training for Success
All managers need methods. Leaders need to know the most useful techniques for guiding teams, mentoring individuals, and validating the results. Without solid methods, managers will reverse use a one-size-fits-all approach to leadership that reflects the leader's personality rather than the employees' needs.
Committed, mentoring leadership is essential to employee confidence, productivity, and retention.
A Results-Oriented Training Program
Team Leadership Workshop provides established methods and procedures for successful people management. Participants receive a step-by-step preparation for guiding each employee toward success.
This workshop includes elements of Frank Whyte's nationally respected Team Building Workshops expanding upon that foundation to assist leaders:
â€¢Identify each employee's personality preferences and supervisory needs.
â€¢Align their leadership technique with those of their bosses, colleagues, and subordinates.
â€¢Schedule their management responsibilities to certify that nothing is left to chance.
â€¢Use practiced, real-world scenarios to resolve challenges and remove obstacle.
â€¢Develop competent and committed employees by mentoring and
Guiding their employees toward achievement
Training Program done by Tesco's
Training is must for every individual when he enters into the organization. Even though the applicant has experience he also should get training. Why because the organization culture, values and idea are different from one organization to other. That's why the training program plays a key role in each organization.
Training program following by Tesco's is different at various levels.
Mainly in training program the company concentrates on managers, team leaders and team members.
Tesco offers employees both on-the-job training and off-the-job training. On-the-job training methods at Tesco include:
â€¢ shadowing - A person already in the job shows the employee how to do it
â€¢ coaching - A manager or designated colleague will help trainees work through problems and inspire them
to find solutions
â€¢ mentoring - A more experienced member of staff acts as an adviser
â€¢ Job rotation - The trainee has the opportunity of covering their target role, taking full
responsibility on a temporary or limited basis.
Tesco provides tools for highly structured monitoring and evaluation of training and development. This includes scheduled tasks, timetables, measures and checklists. Employees assess themselves by setting objectives in Activity Plans, Personal Development Plans and recording outcomes in Learning Logs. These continue to measure their improvement in performance after training. Activity Plans need to have SMART objectives:
Specific - describes exactly what needs doing
Measurable - has a target that can be measured against
Achievable - is possible within the trainee's current role, skills and experience
Realistic - is achievable within the time and resources available
Time-framed - has a clear deadline.
Tesco also uses a method known as 360-degree appraisal. This means all stakeholders who have contact with the employee assess the person's performance and give feedback. For example, a store department manager may get feedback from their manager, their 'buddy', other department managers, the HR department and their team. This helps to identify areas that may require further development.
Training program for managers and all of the staffs:
â€¢The training program duration is 2weeks to 12 months, it depends on the employees
level and their progress.
â€¢They get training on product knowledge.
â€¢Motivating and encouraging Advisors.
Justification their progression from training:
Managers and trainees hold a weekly informal review session as well as more formal four weekly sessions to track progress against their personal development plans. The feedback is recorded and is carefully scored. Trainees are given a colour coded development rating:
â€¢ Red - where progress is not on schedule
â€¢ Amber - where some elements need more work
â€¢ Green - where all activities are on target
â€¢ Blue - where the trainee is ahead of the programme and using skills to add value.
Required skills for employees in Tesco's:
â€¢Excellent communication skills.
â€¢Capability to motivate others.
â€¢Interest to be trained.
â€¢Trained employees can work more powerfully.
â€¢Training makes employees more reliable to an organization.
â€¢Training makes an employee more useful to a determined.
â€¢Training enables employees to secure promotions easily. They can
Realize their career goals comfortably.
â€¢Employees can avoid mistakes easily on the job. They can also handle jobs with
Confidence. They will be more pleased on their jobs.
â€¢Training can contribute to higher production and fewer mistakes. Also, it can enable
employees to cope up with organizational, social and technological change.
Literature review about this project:
HR and training literatures highlights the organisational benefits to be gained from adopting a systematic approach to HRD, therefore the ongoing development of employees' skills underpins the wider business objectives. This systematic approach to training often includes models that identifying needs, planning, delivery and evaluation. Harrison developed an eight stage model to identify monitor and evaluate training. The evaluation stage is possibly the most problematic part of the training process. The organisation has seen the advantages that training can give, and has fully incorporated this into their business. The process of training is formalised through recognition of the need and continual review.
î€€Create awareness: The Company has to take care of awareness creation about the
products and services.
î€€Charges: The Company has to decrease the mortality and administration charges.
î€€The Company has to give cyclic (360Â° appraisal) training.
î€€Product promotion strategies should be improved.
î€€Company should consider the present competition and should take steps according to the
î€€It should be long term training like Fundamental Carrie class, basic Carrier class which
helps the team leaders in different stages.
1. The survey was conducted within the different stores of the company, basically in south
2. And in survey I have to interact with the employees but the employees were busy their
3. Getting the good response from the employee was difficult because of their busy schedule.
4. Time to interact with employees inside the branch is not satisfactory.
5. Time Period of my research is one of the limitations.
6. Cold weather also affected to collecting primary data from different stores.
Learning's from this research.
1) Importance of the training program.
2) How the training program will help for the individual and also organizational growth.
3) The way to develop communication skills.
4) The ways to behave people in corporate world.
In this Knowledge-based economy, training helps people to learn how to do the things in a different way or to the different things. Products are now progressively more knowledge-intensive; for these employers are responsible for providing opportunities for continued learning. To handle with the challenges and competitiveness in the world, every organization needs the services of trained persons for performing the activities in the systemic way. So, training program plays an important role in individual as well as organizational performance.
Literature review and data collection:
Armstrong, M (2005) (9th Edition) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice Kogan Page, London
Beardwell, I. et al, (2004) (4th Edition) Human Resource Management a Contemporary Approach Prentice Hall, Harlow.
Blackwood T, (1995) Accounting for Business Business education Publishers Limited, Sunderland
Buchanan D, and Hucczynski A,(1991) Organisational Behaviour Prentice Hall, Padstow
Garrick (1999) Informal Learning in the Workplace: unmasking human resource development, Routledge Press, London.
Harrison, R (2002) (3rd Edition) Learning and Development: CIPD Publishing, London
Hawkins, P. (1994), The changing view of learning in Burgoyne, J., Pedler, M. and Boydell, T., Towards the Learning Company: Concepts and Practices, McGraw Hill, London.
Keep, E. (1989). Corporate training: the vital component?' New Perspectives on Human Resource Management, Routledge Press. London
Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996) Core Personnel and Development IPD Publishing, London.
Mullins, L (2005) (7th Edition) Management and Organisational Behaviour Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Edinburgh
Reader A, Strategic Human Resource Management (1998) Sage Publications, Pitman, London
Reid, M. and Barrington, H. (1997). (5th edition) Training Interventions: Managing Employee Development IPD Publishing, London.
Walton, J (1999), Strategic Human Resource Development,
Prentice Hall Padstow
Anonymous (2003) Human resources deliver Tesco's bright Future Human Resource Management International Digest, Bradford: Jul/Aug 2003 Vol.7, Iss. 4
Guest, D (1999) Human Resource Management-The Workers' Verdict Human Resource Management Journal, London, 1999.Vol.9, Iss. 3;
Nixon, B. (2004) Creating a cultural revolution: the 21st century challenge for HRD Training Journal, Ely: Oct 2004
Paauwe, J & Boselie, P. (2003) Challenging 'Strategic HRM' And The Relevance Of The Institutional Setting Human Resource Management Journal 2003.Vol.13,
Poulter, S. (2005) 2billion Tesco, Daily Mail. London (UK): Apr 13th 2005
Rogers, S. (2004) Power To The People Managers People Management, London: Sep 2004. Vol. 10
Treen, D. (2000) Strategic Human Resources Ivey Business Journal, Jan/Feb 2000.Vol.64,
Whitelock, N. (2003)Tesco's new recruits see the big picture
Training & Management Development Methods Bradford: 2003.Vol.17, Iss. 1
DTI (1998) Building the Knowledge Driven Economy Green Paper, accessed through www.dti.gov.uk/