Water Crisis between India and Pakistan

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8th Feb 2020 International Relations Reference this

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Comparative Periodical

Article 1: Country of Origin: India

Chaudhary, Archana, Chris Kay, and Faseeh Mangi. “Water Crisis Brews Between India and Pakistan as Rivers Run Dry.” The Economic Times-India, 26 Jan. 2019, www.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/water-crisis-brews-between-india-and-pakistan-as-rivers-run-dry/articleshow/67700195.cms?utm_source%3Dfacebook_web%26utm_medium%3Dsocial%26utm_campaign%3Dsocialsharebuttons.

 Pakistan and India are in danger of severe water scarcity in the near future. The rivers that run through India and Pakistan provide much of the drinking water for the citizens, but the water levels are decreasing. In 1960, both India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty, which states that the water from the rivers will be equally distributed between both nations. In 2016, Pakistan bombed one of India’s Army Camps, and since then, the distrust between both countries has increased tremendously. The animosity between both nations can potentially lead to a war for water that will affect both countries’ agriculture as well as access to clean water. As the years progress on, each country is attempting to determine whether the other country is violating the guidelines of the treaty. Although Pakistan and India know the potential consequences for fighting a war over a natural resource, both continue their actions. Despite the lack of trust between the two, India and Pakistan’s relationship seems to be at a constant state. Both countries have a lot to lose, whether it is related to their economy or the health of the general population. The lasting effects of participating in a war will root from the anger for each other and will continue to destroy each nation. Overall, both nations have many political problems that stem from their need of water and both are using massive retaliation against each other.

Article 2: Country of Origin: United States of America

Gettleman, Jeffrey. “India Threatens a New Weapon Against Pakistan: Water.” The New York Times, 21 Feb. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/02/21/world/asia/india- pakistan-water-kashmir.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FWater&action=click&contentCollection=timestopics&region=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=3&pgtype=collection.

 The current relationship between the Asian countries of Pakistan and India was altered after some men from Pakistan bombed an Indian Army Camp. Although India was the first to confirm the threat, it is questionable as to how and to what degree India will limit Pakistan’s water resources. Ever since the attack, both countries have threatened each other with ultimatums. Although neither country has made progress in completing these ultimatums, the feeling of fear has overtaken both countries, as neither is sure of the other’s capabilities. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, approved surgical strikes in Pakistan to attack those who were involved in the bombing of the Indian Camp. As India is trying to gain favor from other powerful countries, they make sure that they do not cross their boundaries because Pakistan has strong relationships with other countries, and India does not want any of their actions to backfire and create an even bigger chaos. Overall, the water crisis between both countries does not seem significant yet, but if both countries don’t renew the Indus Treaty and adjust according to their new circumstances, there will be larger problems to come as the water sources continue to decrease.

Comparison:

The Indian article focuses on the fact that the “water war,” will affect populations from both India and Pakistan, as well as certain uses of the water like agriculture. The authors claim, “water has the potential to become a major flashpoint between arch-rivals India and Pakistan” (1). The American article does not state that water will be a turning point in the animosity between both nations, but it does claim that  “A full-blown water war could be catastrophic to the hundreds of millions of people in India and Pakistan who depend on river water” (1). Although both articles do not agree on the severity of the issue, they do agree that the possibility of a water war occurring will harm many people as well as many means of production.

Additionally, the Indian article claims that “relations between India and Pakistan appear to be stable, and even looking more positive” (2). The Indian article believes that the current relation between both countries is not as bad as it seems, but the tension is likely to increase as access to clean water begins to decrease more. The American article asserts, “India and Pakistan have traded barbs, threatened and insulted each other and, at the same time, tried to woo other countries to their side” (2). The difference in opinions between both articles implies that the relationship is complicated and can be interpreted differently, depending on how carefully the situation is observed.

The Indian and the American articles use statements from people who are actively involved in this water crisis, which allows a new perspective to be seen as well as the thought process behind certain decisions. The American article also states that “I don’t see any imminent threat to Pakistan” (5), whereas the Indian article claims that “We have a near crisis” (5). Although both articles do not agree on the progression of the issues between India and Pakistan, both certainly agree that the nations have some of the highest rates of water scarcity and there is potential that war will occur in the future. They also agree that in order to decrease the threat of a water war, both nations have to work together and manage the resource more carefully. Overall, the American article focuses on the current relationship between Pakistan and India, as well as the politics behind the issue. The Indian article focuses more on the effects of the impending water crisis but brushes on the relationship between India and Pakistan as well.

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