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Turkey and UK Relations

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Mon, 02 Oct 2017

Introduction:

The relationship between Turkey and United Kingdom is well-rounded and covers economic, politic, military and social aspects. In this paper, the relationship between Turkey and United Kingdom was divided as four section. These sections are information about United Kingdom, historical background of relationship, conflicts and cooperation between Turkey and United Kingdom. Nowadays, the relationship between United Kingdom and Turkey is seen in a golden age after the intensive mutual high-level visits and the Strategic Partnership Document in 2010.[1] The argument of this paper is even if there were some conflicts and historical grievances between UK and Turkey, the current relationship has a stringent links with the trade relations and alliances.

Information About United Kingdom:

As an European country United Kingdom has some differences from Continental Europe such as geographical and political. This differences have significant effect to determine the position of United Kingdom about the European Union membership of Turkey. United Kingdom as an island state do not have territorial neighbors and land borders so UK has an abstraction and isolation from Continental Europe. As political, United Kingdom has a constitutional monarchy unlike Europe. This system includes items from democracy, aristocracy and monarchy. While Queen who has a symbolic effect in policy of United Kingdom, symbolizes monarch items, on the other side elections, juristic system, political parties and House of Commons exhibit the democratic structure of United Kingdom. Besides, House of Lords shows the aristocratic items of United Kingdom. In the foreign policies of United Kingdom, USA has a significant role. According to Winston Churchill, United States of America should be preferential in the spheres of interest of United Kingdom. Therefore, generally foreign policies of UK are coordinated with USA. For instance, United States of America and United Kingdom had common operations such as Iraq War in 2003.In this regard, Turkey had and still have some common policies with United Kingdom. For example USA, Turkey and UK are the same side about the support to Syrian opposition. To understand the effect of United Kingdom in the foreign policy of Turkey, we should know the historical background of the relationship between UK and Turkey.

Historical Background:

The diplomatic relationship between Turkey and UK has started in sixteen century to against Spain as the common enemy . The first ambassador of United Kingdom in Ottoman Empire was William Harborne in 1583.[2] Ottoman Empire has established its first permanent embassy in UK in 18.century and Yusuf Agâh Efendi as the first ambassador of Ottoman Empire in London, started his mission in 1793.[3] This diplomatic relations with United Kingdom was used by Ottoman Empire as a balance policy against Russia. Ottoman Empire was able to win Crimean War in 1853 against Russia with the assistance and alliance of United Kingdom. Moreover, Napoleon’s attack to Egypt was stopped by Ottoman Empire with the assistance of navy of United Kingdom. The balance policy of Ottoman Empire has availed until 19.century and UK has tried to protect Ottoman Empire’s territorial integrity against Russia until1878.After 1877-1878 War( 93 Warfare), UK changed its policy about protect the Ottoman Empire’s territorial integrity and tried to establish buffer zones against Russia.[4] Apart from alliances, United Kingdom and Ottoman Empire have been at war in World War One. In First World War, United Kingdom and Ottoman Empire have fought in Gallipoli Campaign and Middle East Campaigns. After the war and the defeat of Ottoman Empire, Ä°stanbul was occupied by United Kingdom and UK established mandates in Iraq and Palestine which was a part of Ottoman Empire. During the National Struggle Period, there was no a hot conflicts with United Kingdom. After the establishment of Republic of Turkey, political conflicts with UK has started about the Mosul issue.

CONFLICTS:

Despite there is no a current and serious conflict between UK and Turkey now, Mosul and Cyprus Dispute were important events and conflicts between Turkey and UK. After National Struggle , UK as a mandatory of Iraq had tension with Turkey towards on Mosul Issue. On the one hand, Turkey argued that Mosul is in National Pact , on the other hands United Kingdom believed that Mosul is significant and necessary for the dependence of Iraq because of the strategic location and oilfields of Mosul.[5] After the Lausanne Peace Treaty, Turkey and United Kingdom were not able to solve issue so UK applied to League of Nations. League of Nations has prepared a report which gave the region to Iraq and Turkey refused this decision and sides have applied to International Court of Justice.[6] The Court’s gave decision that League of Nation decision is binding for two sides.[7] At the end, Turkey and United Kingdom has agreed about the Mosul and Turkey has accepted the decisions of League of Nations, on condition that Turkey will take the %25 of petrol income of Mosul over 25 years.[8]Hereby, sides were able to solve the conflict with peaceful methods, Mosul became a part of Iraq and UK and Turkey signed Ankara Treaty. As an another conflicts between UK and Turkey, Cyprus Issue has started with Enosis idea of Greek Cypriots. United Kingdom took part in this issue because when World War One started, United Kingdom annexed Cyprus in 1914 and UK has used the island a military based until the end of Second World War. After the decolonization, Republic of Cyprus was established under the Turkey, UK and Greece’s guarantor in 1959. During the tension between Greeks and Turks in island, UK was against the military intervention of Turkey because of the British citizens who were living in island and also the cooperation with the Greeks was necessary for United Kingdom to continuity military bases of UK.[9]After the Cyprus intervention of Turkey, Turkish Cypriots declared the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The United Kingdom does not recognize the TRNC which is only recognized by Turkey. The UK is a signatory state of the Treaty of Guarantee which concerning the independence and status of Cyprus. In terms of United Kingdom, there is more possibility about the solving Cyprus issue. United Kingdom hopes some alternative approaches can be developed which is more likely than previous efforts to built a peaceful settlement .In this regard, revenues from Cyprus’ possible gas reserves is seen an significant instrument to expedite for solving the issue peacefully.[10] In addition, 14 negotiation chapters of Turkey can not open because of the Cyprus issue so United Kingdom believes that the solution of this issue with gas reserving, causes a serious development about the Turkey’s membership to European Union.[11] Despite all of this historical grievances, nowadays relations shape with the cooperation which have good trade relations and alliances between UK and Turkey.

COOPERATIONS:

Turkey had and still have some regional alliances such as CENTO and NATO.After the Second World War, the bipolar world system emerged and USA prepare some regional organizations such as NATO, CENTO and SEATO. CENTO’S Original name was Middle East Treaty Organization. It was formed by United Kingdom, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Turkey in 1955. Its aim was to contain the Soviet Union and prevent Soviet expansion into the Middle East. The Iran Islam Revolution caused the end of the organization , however when Turkey invaded Cyprus it had already been finished in reality. As another regional organization NATO was formed to contain Soviet Union in the same way with CEATO too. This international military alliance system aims an common defence when a states attacks to a member state of NATO. Before Turkey became the member of NATO in 1952, United Kingdom had been a founding member of NATO. As military alliance, Turkey and United Kingdom meet some military practices such as Exercise Joint Warrior .[12]Turkey and UK have various bilateral trade agreements such as the “2010 Strategic Partnership Document”, which was signed during Prime Minister Cameron’s visit to Turkey in July 2010, creates a road map to strengthen the strategic partnership. As a member of European Union, United Kingdom had significant trade relations which comes from the empire on which the sun never sets.After the decolonization period and the nationalization of the Suez Canal , United Kingdom started to lose its commercial advantage and headed to European Union.[13] When we look at the role of UK about European Union membership of Turkey, UK is one the big supporter of Turkey about membership of European Union. Rather than Germany and France, UK is not interested socio-cultural reasons and Turkey as a big developing economy is seen suitable and useful for EU by UK. Prime Minister of United Kingdom Tony Blair was one of the main supporter of Turkish membership to EU and likewise Blair’s successor Gordon Brown argues the membership. This policy of United Kingdom is an evidence of the harmony with US and also United Kingdom prefers to wide European Union rather than to deep it.[14] With the occlusion of Turkey’s membership about EU, idea of UK-style membership was created.[15] According to this membership, Turkey can be member like United Kingdom which does not include some parts of EU such as Euro and Schengen policy. As a thesis, this idea is seen that it can become possible membership of Turkey. Another area of cooperation is trade which have an significant effect between United Kingdom and Turkey.Turkey as an important trade partner of UK, Turkey-UK bilateral trade volume was 13,9 billion dollar in 2011. [16]Turkey has a trade surplus in trade with United Kingdom which is a developed country. There are 2.362 companies which have capital operating of United Kingdom in Turkey and UK’s direct investments have reached 917 million dollar in Turkey in 2011 .[17] Last year, the export of Turkey to UK increased by 8 percent and become 8 billion 584 million 178 thousand dollar.[18] Thus, UK become the third partner in export list of Turkey after Germany and Iraq. Over the last year, Turkish firms exported to UK a lot of product. According to Exporters Assembly, clothing and apparel products have the biggest part of export to UK. In this sector, 12.48 percent of these products are gone to UK.[19] As leading export products of Turkey, textiles and raw materials’ export amount to UK are 321 million 167 thousand.[20] Beko, YünSA, Vitra, Vestel, BMC, Desa Deri and Çimstone are Turkish firms which export to UK. [21]The top 5 imports categories from UK were: metalliferous ores and metal scrap, power generating machinery and equipment, road vehicles, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, iron and steel.[22] Vodafone, HSBC, TESCO, Marks & Spencer and Harvey Nichols are important British firms which invest in Turkey.[23] Sometimes, trade barriers emerged in the trade relations between Turkey and United Kingdom. As a member state of European Union, United Kingdom has some health, safety, environmental protection regulations which causes some difficulties to importation of Turkey to UK.[24] Despite these regulations, United Kingdom is one of flexible member of European Union about this issue. Another problem in trade relations between Turkey and United Kingdom is visa issue. Sometimes, Turkish businessmen have difficulties to getting visa.[25]There are also some events that harm the relations between United Kingdom and Turkey. The deficiency of Turkish law system and human right violations cause a negative international reputation for Turkey.[26] This kind of insufficiencies complicate to defend and support Turkey on the road of European Union membership in terms of United Kingdom.[27] In addition, the restriction of free expression and unfettered media in Turkey harms to relations and strategic partnership between United Kingdom and Turkey.[28]When we look at the social area ,there are 250 thousand Turkish citizens who is living in the UK and more than 2.5 million British tourists visited Turkey in 2011.[29] Moreover, 34.460 British citizens have 26.730 properties in Turkey.[30]

Conclusion:

Turkey and United Kingdom have good relations which comes from historical background. United Kingdom was an important figure as a balance policy in the foreign policy of Ottoman Empire. Even if there were some historical grievances, wars and conflicts in the history of Turkey-United Kingdom relationship, current relationship has a stringent links with the trade relations and alliances. With the good trade relations, support about the European membership and Strategic Partnership , the relationship between United Kingdom and Turkey is in golden age.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1


[1] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa

[2] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa

[3] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa

[4]Doç Dr Ulvi Keser, Armenia Issue Lecture Notes, Atılım University, 2012

[5]William Hale, Türk Dış Politikası, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, Mart 2003, p 51

[6] William Hale, Türk Dış Politikası, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, Mart 2003, p 51-52

[7] William Hale, Türk Dış Politikası, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, Mart 2003, p 52

[8] William Hale, Türk Dış Politikası, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, Mart 2003, p 52

[9] William Hale, Türk Dış Politikası, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, Mart 2003, p 161

[10] House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, UK–Turkey Relations and Turkey’s Regional Role, March 2012, p 11

[11]11 Åžubat Ä°ngiltere Basın Özeti ,RetrievedMay16, http://www.bbc.co.uk/turkce/basinozeti/2014/02/140211_basin_ozeti.shtml

[12] Joint Warrior Tatbikatı, Atlas Okyanusu’nda baÅŸladı, Retrieved May 16, http://www.denizhaber.com.tr/dzkk-sgk/54668/joint-warrior-tatbikati-atlas-okyanusunda-basladi.html

[13] Asst. Prof. Dr Bahar Hurmi,European Union Lecture Notes, Atılım University, 2013

[14] European Union Center of North Carolina EU Briefings, Turkey‘s Quest for EU Membership ,March 2008, p 6

[15] Sezgin Mercan, Türkiye-AB Ä°liÅŸkilerine Ä°ngiltere Modeli, February 2013

[16] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa

[17] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa

[18] Ä°ngiltere Türkiye’nin Üçüncü Ä°hracat Ortağı,Retrieved, http://www.londragazete.com/?p=6344

[19] Ä°ngiltere Türkiye’nin Üçüncü Ä°hracat Ortağı,Retrieved, http://www.londragazete.com/?p=6344

[20] Ä°ngiltere Türkiye’nin Üçüncü Ä°hracat Ortağı,Retrieved, http://www.londragazete.com/?p=6344

[21] T.C Londra BüyükelçiliÄŸi Ticaret MüÅŸavirliÄŸi, Türkiye Ä°ngiltere Ticari Ä°liÅŸkileri, p 3

[22] T.C Ekonomi Bakanlığı, İngiltere, 2013, p 4

[23] T.C Londra BüyükelçiliÄŸi Ticaret MüÅŸavirliÄŸi, Türkiye Ä°ngiltere Ticari Ä°liÅŸkileri, p 3

[24] T.C Londra BüyükelçiliÄŸi Ticaret MüÅŸavirliÄŸi, Türkiye Ä°ngiltere Ticari Ä°liÅŸkileri, p 9

[25] T.C Londra BüyükelçiliÄŸi Ticaret MüÅŸavirliÄŸi, Türkiye Ä°ngiltere Ticari Ä°liÅŸkileri, p 9

[26] House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, UK–Turkey Relations and Turkey’s Regional Role, March 2012, p 3

[27] House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, UK–Turkey Relations and Turkey’s Regional Role, March 2012, p 3

[28] House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, UK–Turkey Relations and Turkey’s Regional Role, March 2012, p 3

[29] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa

[30] Türkiye-Ä°ngiltere Siyasi Ä°liÅŸkileri ,Retrieved May 16, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ingiltere-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa


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