Improving the competitiveness of 2000 century and shape of future developments in ICT so that the necessary of society and global economy are met. ICT is at the very core of the knowledge-based society. Activities will continue to strengthen world’s scientific and technology base and ensure its global leadership in ICT, help drive and stimulate product, service and process innovation and creativity through ICT use and value creation in world and ensure that ICT progress is rapidly transformed into benefits for worldwide citizens, businesses, industry and governments. These activities will also help reduce the digital divide and social exclusion. A recent OECD report highlighted that “investment in a networked recovery will preserve ICT as a key engine of growth” given its impact on productivity and innovation across manufacturing and service sectors. The impact of ICT on social behaviors, on democratic processes and on creativity will continue to grow with the wider diffusion of web-based social networking and user generated content and services, driven by the roll-out of broadband. In the general consumer markets, business growth is foreseen in the short to midterm in new Web and Internet-based services taking advantage of the new generations of smart phones, networked sensors and convergence around IP (Internet Protocol). In addition to access to digital media through new generation user interfaces and interaction paradigms, and generation of content and leisure services, new opportunities are foreseen e.g. in energy efficiency at home, personalized health systems and location-based services. As sectors like energy, transport and logistics increasingly rely on the Internet, there is a need to support their collaboration with the World ICT communities in a cross-sector approach based on a common framework of specifications, standards and trials, to speed up the development and uptake of services based on Internet-enabled ‘smart’ infrastructures. Cloud computing is transforming the software and the service industry and can have a profound impact on business ICT strategies in all sectors. Open innovation and open web-based innovation platforms is an important development that can ensure access to new ideas and rapid market uptake of innovations. In general on corporate uses SMS marketing, email marketing, online advertisement etc.
1.3 Discuss how protocols enable the effective utilization of different networking systems.
Protocols are guideline of network architectures, how communicate a computer on network. It gives access policy, network data speed, cabling structure etc. There are five types of regular protocol
Types of Network Protocols
Ethernet — This technology is an enhancement of bus topology. IEEE currently controls Ethernet standards. First it opens with the speed 10Mbps, later on it come with 100Mbps and now Gigabit Ethernet operated at 1000Mbps. According to bus topology in Ethernet multiple computers share the single link to communicate between them. They use CSMA/CD mechanism to become collision free during transmission
Star topology – It’s a system where a single device connected to all accessing devices like HUB & SPOKE. HUB itself connected with all the SPOKEs. HUB accepts data from a sender an delivers to its appropriate receiver (SPOKE).
Ring topology – It’s a system where all the computer are connected with each other like first computer is connected with second and so on until it reaches the last computer to connect with first one.
Bus topology – Computers are connected with a single long cable to communicate between them. The computers connect with this have communicate only one at a time.
Token Ring – It users the ring topology for communication. When a computer wants to communication it uses the token to send data. But it must be wait before the token arrives on its end then it stripes the token out of ring and send the data and after transmission it again insert the token on the ring to ensure that other stations which are going to communicate can use the token too.
Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect (FDDI) – It’s also uses a ring topology but it using two rings instead of one for communication. It operates 100Mbps so its faster than Ethernet. Two counter rotating rings prevent the data loss in link failure even the node failure. This technology is generally implemented in backbone
ATM (Asynchronous transfer mode)-ATM has been at first designed within the mid-1980s for only voice usage, data, in addition to video apps. ATM is top-speed networking regular created to support both voice in addition to data communications. ATM is usually used by the internet suppliers on the non-public long-distance networks. ATM works in layer 2 of OSI model which is data link layer over either fiber-optic or even twisted-pair cable. ATM technology is built to enhance use and in addition to QoS on top-traffic networks. Without routing and actually fixed-size cells, networks can easily deal with bandwidth below ATM. This works on the fixed-length cell of 53 bytes, as opposed to the variable-length packets which might be used by Ethernet. This permits for additional efficiency, as the devices do not have to fragment and in addition to reassemble big packets. The original ATM was already considerably faster than Ethernet; this surely could transfer voice, data, and in addition to video media signals on as much as 500Mbps. Now days it is actually quicker and it is being used by simply a big number of telecommunication and internet provider as a core layer or backbone. ATM, similar to almost every other technology, will probably at some point end up being exchanged by simply quicker successors.
2.1 Discuss the role of software and hardware components.
Ans- For a network Infrastructure software and hardware requirement are essential. In hardware point of view there are couple of list are included which is computers, router, switch, Ethernet cabling, wireless device, telephone. In below we will discuss of these hardware.
Computer- This is use on workstation. But I will prefer laptop for user because its energy efficiency & move able.
Router-Router actually works for control broadcast system. In our infrastructure we have three office all office stuff share our local office data, there is a interoffice connectivity so we need router for these.
Switch – Switch is a layer two device. Using these control Spanning tree protocol. For mange user network we user manageable switch.
Wireless device – In this century we are all people smart devices that why we need wifi coverage area in our office environment.
Voice – There is ip phone are available on market in a central office environment we need a central pabx system. So ip phone infrastructure is cost effective.
In a software point of view we need Active directory solution, own mail system, webserver, central file server, protect internal server we a firewall.
2.2 Discuss the server types and selection requirement.
Ans. Now day’s technology is changing day by day. So when we buy new server to our company that time we have to think how much it will future up gradation. We need Microsoft Active directory for deploy domain. Because without domain controller it’s quite tough maintain & authenticate the network user. For our organization we need mail server i will prefer Microsoft exchange 2012 will deploy in our organization, because its authenticate and reliable for our office we need a webserver. in all point of view we need five or six server including accounts server so if we plan with redundant then we need at least 10 to twelve server . In this circumstance there is a solution Available on market which is virtualization. If we deploy Vmware system in our network which will be more wise & cost effective decision.
2.3 Discuss the inter-dependence of work station hardware with network components.
Ans- For work station we need reliable hardware system. Because their some inter dependence situation where like local file share.
3.1 Design a networked system to meet a given specification.
Ans. : Here is the topology we can deploy in this network.
I proposed this topology for implement in network. This design has separate functional zone called DMZ zone for internet server like Web/Manil/FTP etc. Core zone with layer3 separation from user traffic to local server traffic. Here is separate server Farm zone for local servers like Database, Domain controller, DNS and so on. Also I give separate firewall to secure server Farm zone. In DMZ security will be given by a separate perimeter firewall which is also handle internet traffic for users. If any vulnerability occurs firewall can easily separate DMZ server traffic make core network zone safe. Here WAN connections are terminated on separate WAN router so this could give us another level of protection and block unauthorized traffic before it sends to internet firewall. So layer based security is achieved with dedicated traffic delivery for local and outside users. Above all in this topology we use intrusion detection system to track unusual behavior of user traffic and generate alarm to network administrator to take necessary actions to prevent malicious attacks.
3.2 Evaluate the design and analyses user feedback.
Ans- In my proposed desing I am going to use certain devices to connect user stations and servers. Below is the list of the devices we are going to use,
Routers (both for Internet & WAN)
Firewall (both for Internet & ServerFarm)
Intrusion Detection System (IDS appliance)
Layer 3 Switch(used for Core Network)
Layer 2 Switch(used for both Host Access & Servers to connect in both DMZ and ServerFarm zone)
Here we use Layer 3 switches which will be connected with all the access switches on redundant path. Depending on the distance of host location Access switch uplinks will be used either Gigabit Copper based Ethernet cable or Gigabit Fiber based cable. Access switches will be manageable where we can segregate department wise user on different vlans, according to the requirement finance department have a vlan, accounts department have a vlan, Customer service department vlan and each library section have separate user vlan. Through this vlan we can reduce broadcast domains and also subnet wise user management is easier. Inter vlan sub network will be communicating through Core switch. IDS is use to get unusal activity alarm when devices are affected. A copy of each dat transaction will send to IDS device to inspect and match with latest signature pattern to identify virus activity and generate notifications to the administrator over mail. ServerFarm zone has been seperated with different subnet workzone where a single server vlan or multiple vlans can be used with manageable serverfarm switch. Servers are directly connected with this switch and this switch will have uplinks with ServerFarm firewall to apply policy and give security. We use a Syslog server in local serverfarm zone to get all the network equipment logs centrally to inspect or monitor device behavior. We are deploying NMS servers to collect SNMP trapp from devices and IDS device alarm, which will give us insight on various events occur on each device and flexibility of management . On the upper side of Core switch we connect with Internet firewall where all the user internet request are monitored and provinised againt corporate policies. With this firewall a separate zone connect with a switch, this zone is for the servers which can receive not only local traffic but aslo from outsider. Here Mail,Web,Ftp servers will connect directly on switch ports and I am going to give Public IP directly on this server NIC. So if any vulnerability occurs in this zone it is easily separate from local users and isolate its functionality and can quickly resolve issues. On the other hand a WAN router is connected with this firewall directly for handle remote branch office traffic. So WAN router will segregate all branch office networks and facilitate communication between them also this WAN router will give first layer of authorization and firewall protection and internet firewall give 2nd layer of protection and then if the wan traffic wants to communicate it will travel another layer of protection on serverfarm firewall. Above the internet firewall a internet router will use to terminate internet service provider connections and perform NAT operations for user to provide internet. Also this router can handle multiple service provider link to load balance and/or failure protection.
4.1 Implement a networked system based on a prepared design.
Ans. In this network many types of traffic will be generated because serverfarm zone has different server with services for example Database service, Domain service, File service, local web service, DHCP service, SNMP manage services etc. DMZ zone has the separate service like Mail, Web, Ftp etc. So these traffic need to be categories to ensure quality delivery. According to the QoS plan First Database traffic will be prioritize from Serverfarm and from Access area. Then we prioritize file service traffic as it is also need to be delivered efficiently. DHCP and other local service will serve normally. To achieve this we have to use QoS on every network device that carry these service data. Also need to take care the WAN traffic bandwidth utilization to perform database access properly from remote branches . Here I have used Class C private IP address for connecting Host stations and VLSM is being applied. Variable Length Subnet Mask(VLSM) is a technique on which you can save you Ips for being spoiled by over acquision. In this example we are using 1,2and 3 numbers in 3rd octate to fulfill all user IP requirments. It’s scalable of satisfy future growth because if tomorrow some new users come and LAN is expanded then we can use this 3rd octate decimal numbers to facilitate more that 250 x 253 users without much spoil our ip. Also this type of VLSM is helpful when summerization is used on classes routing protocols to route with multiple routers. Also this hierarchical IP schema can help making address pool in internet router to apply NAT for facilitating internet on users.
4.2 Test the Network System to meet user requirements.
There are some ways to test the network performance, reliability and security. From host stations use ping to www.google.com and see the reply times, if it shows a steady time then network utilization and bandwidth are in good shape. When using network traffic just disconnect one uplink cable from access switch to check the reliability of network. Check the see the access list hits that traffic it filtering according to the rule. If subnet wise policy applied then shift a user PC from one subnet to another and check the access policy shifted or not. From host pc send exteneded ping to the servers and see checks the alarm from firewall. Using traffic generator software from host PC to check IDS is working or not. Use a authorize device to plug into a switch port and check its getting connection or not.
4.3 Document and analyses test result against expected results.
Ans . List is showing some performance baseline for the above network infrastructure.
Check CPU on swicthes / routers/firewalls
Perform trace routes to / from different VLANs to determine avg latency
check uplinks for dropped / discarded packets, crc, alignment errors (duplex mismatch)
Virus conditions – dos, syn, smurf attacks
Host sending any kind of bulk traffic or not
Is there any host try traffic deny too much
All the server with specified service up and running or not
How many connections on DMZ servers
How much bandwidth is used by the internet and wan router
How many transactions present in serverfarm firewall
This screenshot is being generated from a linux based monitoring service called CACTI. Its file the link utilization. So you can see and report how much bandwidth is using and also can get usage history per day/month/year basis.
4.4 Recommend potential enhancements for the networked results.
Ans – Quality of Service (QoS) is a industry standard to ensure high performance for critical applications. In this mechanism network administrator can use their existing equipment to give more throughput on service delivery without changing the network architecture or hardware. In this technology some traffic is given preference over the others for its uses and this require reliable and guaranteed delivery. So QoS is helps to achieve this goal. There are list of network characteristics managed by QoS.
Qos benefits for network:
Gives administrators control over network resources and allows them to manage the network from a business, rather than a technical, perspective.
Ensures that time-sensitive and mission-critical applications have the resources they require, while allowing other applications access to the network.
Improves user experience.
Reduces costs by using existing resources efficiently, thereby delaying or reducing the need for expansion or upgrades.
4.5 Design a maintenance schedule to support the networked system.
Ans. There is a couple of easy step to support and maintenance the network.
For easily troubleshoot in network some steps should be followed.
Some user complains about not getting Ips from DHCP servers.
Name resolve not working
User not getting internet.
Branch user not getting services.
one department user can’t access another department pc
Troubleshooting the above problems,
First check the PC NIC is connected with switch or not.
Check the switch port either this port is the member of vlan or not.
Check the DHCP server for its service.
For resolve name problem, check the DNS server and its service. If service running then restart the specific service.
For internet purpose, try to ping www.google.com from windows command prompt. If it gets an IP but not getting reply check the NAT configuration in internet router. Also issue tracert command with www.google.com and check from which hop it’s not getting the answer.
If remote branch user facing problem with connectivity check the routing on both WAN router and Core switch. Also check the both firewall to see there are policies for the WAN user which want to access.
If a sub network user not access another subnetwork user PC then check the inter vlan routing.
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