Goal Question Metric Paradigm Information Technology Essay

2553 words (10 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Information Technology Reference this

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GQM is the descriptor of “goal, question and metric”. It is glide path to software metrics.GQM can be used to life-cycle wares, process and resources.GQM is easily coordinated with the organization surroundings and it can also serve as base framework for more measurement intitatives.It allows achieving authentic reliable data and knowledge regarding the organization’s software practices that drives systematic process for improvement.

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The GQM paradigm which contains of goal, question and metric has been germinated by victor basili and D.wiess in 1980’s and many other concepts are increased by D.rombach.The gqm paradigm helps in solving the measurement problem in a practical way. It is mainly based on two assumptions.

Program measurement approach should be goal-based and it must not use metrics-based approach.

Goals should be defined and measured in such a way that it should stick to only certain organization.

GQM specifies a measurement model based on three levels:

1) Conceptual level (goal)

2) Operational level (question)

3) Quantitative level (metric)

Conceptual level (goal):

A goal can be defined to an object for many reasons such as different models of quality and it can be viewed in various ways and relative to particular surroundings.

Objects that are measured are:

Products: Any artifacts, documents and deliverables that are evolved during the system growth. Eg: internal and external Specifications (size, reuse), comprehensibility, Design (size, reuse), quality, code modularity, coupling reliability.

Processes: It is defined as collection of software related entities such as constructing specification and detailed design.

Resources: resources are nothing but entities such as team, software, hardware, personnal to perform process activates.

Operational level:

In this level there are set of questions that are used to specify the models in object and then it helps the object in achieving the specific goal and it assesses the object.

Quantitative level:

In quantitative level a group of metrics is coordinated with every question based on various models in such a way to answer it in a depth way.

Objective:

Objective approach is that it only measures depending on the object and it does not consider the view point.

Eg: different types of documents, size of program, team hours spent on regarding a particular task.

Subjective:

Subjective approach is that it measures depending on the object and it also measures regarding the view point.

Eg: finding out the user satisfaction level

Software process improvement goals:

To improve software development to further extent organizations should define clear set of goals for improvement. These goals should help business objectives to achieve good result to attain improvement can be prescribed in different ways. To do this, first the corporate management should define quality objectives clearly and from this improvement goals can be attained,

Measurement is also an entity which helps in improving the goals. Measurement can be applied to certain part of the process for which problems can be identified and improvement goals can be defined regarding the problem identified.

Software process mainly focuses on four areas illustrated below:

Decrement of project costs

Decrement of project risk

Reducing the project cycle time

Gaining the product quality

Decrement of project costs:

Decreasing the costs in software development is achieved by decreasing the labor in software development process and then the cost reduction will be executing the development process in software more effectively. First step to this approach is finding out the effort which is done currently and expenditure. Software measurement is the tool which helps in improving this kind of data rigoursly. Decrease of costs can also be effectively done by reusing software objects, hardware designs and documentation.

Decrement of project risk:

To decrease the project risks, that are performed while executing the problem, project management should be capable of handling risk factors for certain projects. By raising the maturity in the process the risks in the relevant process will gradually decrease.

Reducing the project cycle time:

Reducing the project life cycle time can be done by using various methods such as increasing production, parallel developing ,reusing the software which is already existing. Software process improvement method find outs whether new tools and techniques that are in existing market are really useful for decreasing the life cycle.

Gaining the product Quality:

If any organization wants to improve the quality of the product, then it should define improvement goals for product quality attributes. Improvement goals in quality area always start with some sort of software defect measurement.

Basili described six-step process in gqm as follows:

Develop: To achieve high productivity and quality a set of division, corporate, business goals and related measurement at goals should be developed.

Generate questions: questions should be generated on the models that help in defining the goals completely and in quick manner.

Specification of measures: measures should be taken to answer the questions and product conformance for specific goals.

Develop mechanisms: developing certain mechanisms to collect the data

Collecting and validation of data: collecting and validating the data and analyzing it in the real time to provide feed back for projects to take correct action.

Analyzing the data: Analyzing the data in such a way that to find the errors and to make improvements in the future.

GQM APPLICATION IS SUITABLE IN:

Gqm application is suitable in the organization to measure specific goals for it and projects of organization.Gqm approach was mainly developed to meet the needs of goal-oriented approach that would be helpful in measuring the process and products in the software engineering stream.

It performs various activities such as:

Identification of goals:

Based upon the context description, the goals for improving the activity is defined and ranked regarding the goal’s importance to organizational strategy.

Production of measurement planning:

Goals which are identified are used a start for creating gqm plan. Where each goal is associated with certain set of metrics to achieve goals.

Collecting and validating data:

This activity main objective is collecting and valuating the process and data product, with respect to gqm and its measurement plans.

Analysis of data:

Collection of data is analyzed, to check level attainment of different goals that were selected initially.

Packaging of experiences:

The experiences that are gained while conducting the measuring activity are packaged. This packaged experiences can be reused in future projects.

ADVANTAGES OF GQM:

It helps in understanding and monitoring the organization’s software practices.

Directing and monitoring process in software.

It accesses the software engineering technologies which are new.

Certifying and judging the improvement activates.

It helps in achieving improvement goals.

It generates only those measures which are useful for goal attainment.

DISADVANTAGES OF GQM:

Gqm become difficult to apply where the impacts of methodology are not clear.

Another disadvantage by using this approach is selection of metrics and quality attributes is mostly subjective and may be one-sided to select the easier one to measure.

Technological support for gqm is still adequate.

Detailed guidelines for establishment of gqm program in industrial environment are still limited.

Gqm has been criticized for lack of structure and guidance.

CONCLUSION:

Software process improvement should be based regarding quantitative evolution of products and process characteristics. The application of gqm into various projects with same organization that allows to reuse the parts of gqm planning such as goals, sheets, abstraction, question and metrics. The reusing of these parts may save effort and time of organization. The growth of gqm and its measurement plans must be based on wide knowledge on process details. Goal setting should be based on simple representations and intuitive of the known difficulties of the process that are being studied.Gqm must have clear knowledge of organization that being studied at various levels of management.

CASE STUDY.

GQM APPROACH FOR MEASURING EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITES FOR ACCREDIATION.

ABSTRACT:

To improve engineering accreditation measurements and evaluating of many activates in educational surroundings and its documentation is done effectively to meet the needs of accreditation. It is not that easy to get the measures about the performance activities such as achieving of educational aims and student observation because each of them have there respective views. To do this we need a systematic approach to measure it while thinking of how to measure it and the purpose of measurement. So, we are using gqm method to measure educational activates done for accreditation.

INTRODUCTION:

Measurement is used to find out the current status and performance of educational activates and its aim can be used for valuating and to improve all views of the activates. Once the activities are known which are performing currently, measurement can be performed to improve those activates.

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The accreditation board of distance education (ABDE) demands and imposes strict terms for accreditation of the program. The stiff nature performed by the system causes frustration to administrators and faculty. The ABDE requires systematic management to operate data effectively and also developing the measures to measure the indication of degree to which each of engineering criteria is met

In order to deal with the issue we need systematic approach for valuating and improving the measures effectively.GQM method is used as measurement framework to measure educational behavior for accreditation.

AN OVERVIEW OF GQM APPROACH:

The GQM approach mainly developed for purpose to meet the needs of the goal-oriented approach that would be helpful for measuring the process and products in software engineering stream.GQM approach supports the top-down approach to define the goals behind measuring software products and process. The goal template for GQM is developed for indicating required contents for GQM goal and to backup goal-setting activity. The template mainly identifies five aspects

namely the object

quality focus

purpose

viewpoint

environment

APPLYING GQM:

For applying GQM approach to measure the educational activates for accreditation it should have some steps.

Step 1: Develop user data goals and linked measurement goals. This method starts by capturing goals performed by user group and using of goal template. The example of increasing the student consolation effectively in accreditation program by goal template is discussed as follows. Analyzing of the student consolation process for need of improvement with respect to effective consolation and satisfaction from view point.

Step 2: Meaning full steps are to be made to define goals completely and in a quantifiable approach.

The eg questions are derived as follows:

Q1) what does the student think about accreditation?

Q2) how many number of students are consulted in regular basis?

Q3) Amount of time spent on single student consolation?

Q4) Are the teachers well trained in consolation techniques?

Q5) Does the consultation is useful to cover all points of educational activates?

Step 3: once the work done with questions then specify the metrics that needed to be collected to answer the questions

M1: subjective assessment

M2: Average number of students consulted per semester.

M3: Average consolation time for each student.

M4: questions completely answered by students.

M5: Average number of teachers participating in seminars (or) workshops.

Step 4: mechanisms are needed for data collection as method used for collection of data, checklist, interviews, questionnaires, reviewing of the document, focus group etc.

Step 5: Collecting and analyzing of data to provide feedback for accreditation activates to take corrective actions and to make recommendations for improving effectively in the future.

Application of GQM approach for measuring the educational activates for accreditation and the results are in table 1 and table 2 below.

Goal

questions

Questions

To improve the participation of students in accreditation program

what kind of level is understood by student for engineering accreditation currently

What is the level of student attending for seminars (or) workshops?

Is communication done effectively between students and teachers about the accreditation of engineering?

Do the students think that the accreditation is useful while searching the jobs?

(1)questions answered by students

(2) number of students participated in seminars

(3) subjective assessment done by teachers

(4)% of students identified during the interview

TABLE -2

Goal

Questions

Questions

To improve the efficiency in student consolation

Q1) What does the student think about accreditation?

Q2) how many

Number of students is consulted in regular basis?

Q3) Amount of time spent on single student consolation?

Q4) Are the teachers well trained in consolation techniques?

Q5) Does the consultation is useful to cover all points of educational activates?

subjective assessment

Average number of students consulted per semester.

Average consolation time for each student.

Questions completely answered by students.

Average number of teachers participating in seminars (or) workshops.

CONCULSION:

The ABDE accreditation criteria impose strict terms for accreditation program. The stiff nature of system performed causes frustration to faculty and administrators. This also brings the excessive data collection (bean counting) which is not useful for accredation.ABDE needs a systematic and effective approach for operational data including valuation in engineering program.

In order to deal with the issue we need systematic approach for valuating and improving the measures effectively.GQM method is used as measurement framework to measure educational behavior for accredation.This approach was efficient for focusing on measurement activates and avoiding the extra work load of faculty and administrators doing the measurement of excessive data.

GQM is the descriptor of “goal, question and metric”. It is glide path to software metrics.GQM can be used to life-cycle wares, process and resources.GQM is easily coordinated with the organization surroundings and it can also serve as base framework for more measurement intitatives.It allows achieving authentic reliable data and knowledge regarding the organization’s software practices that drives systematic process for improvement.

The GQM paradigm which contains of goal, question and metric has been germinated by victor basili and D.wiess in 1980’s and many other concepts are increased by D.rombach.The gqm paradigm helps in solving the measurement problem in a practical way. It is mainly based on two assumptions.

Program measurement approach should be goal-based and it must not use metrics-based approach.

Goals should be defined and measured in such a way that it should stick to only certain organization.

GQM specifies a measurement model based on three levels:

1) Conceptual level (goal)

2) Operational level (question)

3) Quantitative level (metric)

Conceptual level (goal):

A goal can be defined to an object for many reasons such as different models of quality and it can be viewed in various ways and relative to particular surroundings.

Objects that are measured are:

Products: Any artifacts, documents and deliverables that are evolved during the system growth. Eg: internal and external Specifications (size, reuse), comprehensibility, Design (size, reuse), quality, code modularity, coupling reliability.

Processes: It is defined as collection of software related entities such as constructing specification and detailed design.

Resources: resources are nothing but entities such as team, software, hardware, personnal to perform process activates.

Operational level:

In this level there are set of questions that are used to specify the models in object and then it helps the object in achieving the specific goal and it assesses the object.

Quantitative level:

In quantitative level a group of metrics is coordinated with every question based on various models in such a way to answer it in a depth way.

Objective:

Objective approach is that it only measures depending on the object and it does not consider the view point.

Eg: different types of documents, size of program, team hours spent on regarding a particular task.

Subjective:

Subjective approach is that it measures depending on the object and it also measures regarding the view point.

Eg: finding out the user satisfaction level

Software process improvement goals:

To improve software development to further extent organizations should define clear set of goals for improvement. These goals should help business objectives to achieve good result to attain improvement can be prescribed in different ways. To do this, first the corporate management should define quality objectives clearly and from this improvement goals can be attained,

Measurement is also an entity which helps in improving the goals. Measurement can be applied to certain part of the process for which problems can be identified and improvement goals can be defined regarding the problem identified.

Software process mainly focuses on four areas illustrated below:

Decrement of project costs

Decrement of project risk

Reducing the project cycle time

Gaining the product quality

Decrement of project costs:

Decreasing the costs in software development is achieved by decreasing the labor in software development process and then the cost reduction will be executing the development process in software more effectively. First step to this approach is finding out the effort which is done currently and expenditure. Software measurement is the tool which helps in improving this kind of data rigoursly. Decrease of costs can also be effectively done by reusing software objects, hardware designs and documentation.

Decrement of project risk:

To decrease the project risks, that are performed while executing the problem, project management should be capable of handling risk factors for certain projects. By raising the maturity in the process the risks in the relevant process will gradually decrease.

Reducing the project cycle time:

Reducing the project life cycle time can be done by using various methods such as increasing production, parallel developing ,reusing the software which is already existing. Software process improvement method find outs whether new tools and techniques that are in existing market are really useful for decreasing the life cycle.

Gaining the product Quality:

If any organization wants to improve the quality of the product, then it should define improvement goals for product quality attributes. Improvement goals in quality area always start with some sort of software defect measurement.

Basili described six-step process in gqm as follows:

Develop: To achieve high productivity and quality a set of division, corporate, business goals and related measurement at goals should be developed.

Generate questions: questions should be generated on the models that help in defining the goals completely and in quick manner.

Specification of measures: measures should be taken to answer the questions and product conformance for specific goals.

Develop mechanisms: developing certain mechanisms to collect the data

Collecting and validation of data: collecting and validating the data and analyzing it in the real time to provide feed back for projects to take correct action.

Analyzing the data: Analyzing the data in such a way that to find the errors and to make improvements in the future.

GQM APPLICATION IS SUITABLE IN:

Gqm application is suitable in the organization to measure specific goals for it and projects of organization.Gqm approach was mainly developed to meet the needs of goal-oriented approach that would be helpful in measuring the process and products in the software engineering stream.

It performs various activities such as:

Identification of goals:

Based upon the context description, the goals for improving the activity is defined and ranked regarding the goal’s importance to organizational strategy.

Production of measurement planning:

Goals which are identified are used a start for creating gqm plan. Where each goal is associated with certain set of metrics to achieve goals.

Collecting and validating data:

This activity main objective is collecting and valuating the process and data product, with respect to gqm and its measurement plans.

Analysis of data:

Collection of data is analyzed, to check level attainment of different goals that were selected initially.

Packaging of experiences:

The experiences that are gained while conducting the measuring activity are packaged. This packaged experiences can be reused in future projects.

ADVANTAGES OF GQM:

It helps in understanding and monitoring the organization’s software practices.

Directing and monitoring process in software.

It accesses the software engineering technologies which are new.

Certifying and judging the improvement activates.

It helps in achieving improvement goals.

It generates only those measures which are useful for goal attainment.

DISADVANTAGES OF GQM:

Gqm become difficult to apply where the impacts of methodology are not clear.

Another disadvantage by using this approach is selection of metrics and quality attributes is mostly subjective and may be one-sided to select the easier one to measure.

Technological support for gqm is still adequate.

Detailed guidelines for establishment of gqm program in industrial environment are still limited.

Gqm has been criticized for lack of structure and guidance.

CONCLUSION:

Software process improvement should be based regarding quantitative evolution of products and process characteristics. The application of gqm into various projects with same organization that allows to reuse the parts of gqm planning such as goals, sheets, abstraction, question and metrics. The reusing of these parts may save effort and time of organization. The growth of gqm and its measurement plans must be based on wide knowledge on process details. Goal setting should be based on simple representations and intuitive of the known difficulties of the process that are being studied.Gqm must have clear knowledge of organization that being studied at various levels of management.

CASE STUDY.

GQM APPROACH FOR MEASURING EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITES FOR ACCREDIATION.

ABSTRACT:

To improve engineering accreditation measurements and evaluating of many activates in educational surroundings and its documentation is done effectively to meet the needs of accreditation. It is not that easy to get the measures about the performance activities such as achieving of educational aims and student observation because each of them have there respective views. To do this we need a systematic approach to measure it while thinking of how to measure it and the purpose of measurement. So, we are using gqm method to measure educational activates done for accreditation.

INTRODUCTION:

Measurement is used to find out the current status and performance of educational activates and its aim can be used for valuating and to improve all views of the activates. Once the activities are known which are performing currently, measurement can be performed to improve those activates.

The accreditation board of distance education (ABDE) demands and imposes strict terms for accreditation of the program. The stiff nature performed by the system causes frustration to administrators and faculty. The ABDE requires systematic management to operate data effectively and also developing the measures to measure the indication of degree to which each of engineering criteria is met

In order to deal with the issue we need systematic approach for valuating and improving the measures effectively.GQM method is used as measurement framework to measure educational behavior for accreditation.

AN OVERVIEW OF GQM APPROACH:

The GQM approach mainly developed for purpose to meet the needs of the goal-oriented approach that would be helpful for measuring the process and products in software engineering stream.GQM approach supports the top-down approach to define the goals behind measuring software products and process. The goal template for GQM is developed for indicating required contents for GQM goal and to backup goal-setting activity. The template mainly identifies five aspects

namely the object

quality focus

purpose

viewpoint

environment

APPLYING GQM:

For applying GQM approach to measure the educational activates for accreditation it should have some steps.

Step 1: Develop user data goals and linked measurement goals. This method starts by capturing goals performed by user group and using of goal template. The example of increasing the student consolation effectively in accreditation program by goal template is discussed as follows. Analyzing of the student consolation process for need of improvement with respect to effective consolation and satisfaction from view point.

Step 2: Meaning full steps are to be made to define goals completely and in a quantifiable approach.

The eg questions are derived as follows:

Q1) what does the student think about accreditation?

Q2) how many number of students are consulted in regular basis?

Q3) Amount of time spent on single student consolation?

Q4) Are the teachers well trained in consolation techniques?

Q5) Does the consultation is useful to cover all points of educational activates?

Step 3: once the work done with questions then specify the metrics that needed to be collected to answer the questions

M1: subjective assessment

M2: Average number of students consulted per semester.

M3: Average consolation time for each student.

M4: questions completely answered by students.

M5: Average number of teachers participating in seminars (or) workshops.

Step 4: mechanisms are needed for data collection as method used for collection of data, checklist, interviews, questionnaires, reviewing of the document, focus group etc.

Step 5: Collecting and analyzing of data to provide feedback for accreditation activates to take corrective actions and to make recommendations for improving effectively in the future.

Application of GQM approach for measuring the educational activates for accreditation and the results are in table 1 and table 2 below.

Goal

questions

Questions

To improve the participation of students in accreditation program

what kind of level is understood by student for engineering accreditation currently

What is the level of student attending for seminars (or) workshops?

Is communication done effectively between students and teachers about the accreditation of engineering?

Do the students think that the accreditation is useful while searching the jobs?

(1)questions answered by students

(2) number of students participated in seminars

(3) subjective assessment done by teachers

(4)% of students identified during the interview

TABLE -2

Goal

Questions

Questions

To improve the efficiency in student consolation

Q1) What does the student think about accreditation?

Q2) how many

Number of students is consulted in regular basis?

Q3) Amount of time spent on single student consolation?

Q4) Are the teachers well trained in consolation techniques?

Q5) Does the consultation is useful to cover all points of educational activates?

subjective assessment

Average number of students consulted per semester.

Average consolation time for each student.

Questions completely answered by students.

Average number of teachers participating in seminars (or) workshops.

CONCULSION:

The ABDE accreditation criteria impose strict terms for accreditation program. The stiff nature of system performed causes frustration to faculty and administrators. This also brings the excessive data collection (bean counting) which is not useful for accredation.ABDE needs a systematic and effective approach for operational data including valuation in engineering program.

In order to deal with the issue we need systematic approach for valuating and improving the measures effectively.GQM method is used as measurement framework to measure educational behavior for accredation.This approach was efficient for focusing on measurement activates and avoiding the extra work load of faculty and administrators doing the measurement of excessive data.

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