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Now a days, blood banks are operated by Geographical Information System with internet communication. Donors can check the blood banks in the nearest possible distance with available slots for donation and book them online. The stocks available in each blood bank and the requests for blood donation are handled manually. The appointment confirmations are handled manually by the blood bank employees. Generally blood is collected by organizing blood donation campaigns and at blood donation centers where the details are collected from the donors. Their details are stored on the blood bank database. Whenever the same blood groups are needed again, the donors are contacted by sending e-mails. Whenever there is an urgency of blood, e-mail system cannot work out efficiently as any individual cannot have access to the internet all the time.
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GIS based Blood banks with SMS Technology helps to communicate efficiently with the donors in this regard as every individual has their mobiles at all times. In this system, donors can register their details online, check for the nearest blood bank for donation, check the availability of slots and book them online. Their requests are handled by the system and confirmations are sent immediately to the donors through sms and e-mail simultaneously. Their details are stored on the central database automatically. Whenever the stock levels in the blood bank falls by a certain limit, the donors will be automatically sent a message by sms and an e-mail to invite them for donation. The chances of collecting the blood samples are widely increased by embedding GIS technology with SMS technology.
Aims and Objectives:
The project GIS based Blood Banks with SMS Technology is aimed to develop, test and implement a simple, accurate, more efficient and user friendly blood donation application. In this project, a software system model is built which provides an interface between the blood donor and the Blood bank staff to facilitate Blood donation system.
The main objectives of the project are:
To examine working and behavioural patterns of existing Blood Banks,
To research on the technologies involved in developing GIS based Blood Banks ,
To design and develop GIS based Blood Banks with SMS Technology using the above technologies,
To implement a User friendly interface to manage GIS based Blood Bank with SMS Technology, and
To configure a back end Database such as SQL Server to handle queries and information.
System Requirements and Analysis
The Online Voting application is being developed to ease the Electoral process besides providing more flexibility in organizing the Elections. The proposed system provides the following services to the Election administrators, Parties and Voters involved in an Election.
Greater speed and accuracy in tallying votes.
Increased savings in material costs in the printing and distribution of paper ballots.
Improved accessibility for the disabled citizens.
Increased voter turnout.
Better access to information regarding voting options.
Prevention of involuntary errors when filling the ballot.
The Geographical information system with SMS technology tries to satisfy the improvements along with basic requirements. The seven basic properties needed for the system are:
Secure Login: Each registered user can login with their login, access their details, edit them and save them also.
Same day Bookings: Appointments for the donation of blood on the same day can be booked upon availability.
Un-reusability: When a registered user tries to book for donation, it is confirmed only when his/her last donation date is greater than three months.
Automated system: Whenever the blood samples stock falls by a certain limit in a particular blood bank, an SMS and an E-mail is automatically sent to the donors registered with that blood bank.
Transparency: Stocks of blood groups are updated by the hospital administrators and they can be seen by unregistered users also.
Immediate confirmations: Upon receiving a request for donation, the system automatically checks for slot availability and sends confirmation through e-mail and sms.
Eligibility: Unregistered user cannot login and book for donation.
2 System Analysis
Based on the Design and Implementation of the application, the following type of roles have been identified:
Central Administrator: The central administrator monitors the entire system and is responsible for making changes to the blood banks data. Administrator can monitor the stock levels, registered users data along with day-to-day updations of hospital administrators. Administrator can add, change and save details of blood banks and hospital administrators.
Hospital Administrator: Hospital administrators can login with their logins, access the blood bank data, different stock levels and update the details of the donors with their donation details.
Registered User: Registered users in this system can login with their data, check for the available slots for donation with dates and locations and can book them online. They receive an automatic confirmation mail if they are allocated an appointment for donation.
Un-Registered User: Un-Registered user can access the details of the blood banks, check for the available appointments with dates and times but cannot book the appointments without registering.
The system is developed with the following functionalities and it is contains the following registrations
Hospital Administrator Registration
Hospital Administrator Registration
All the blood banks data is created by the Central Administrator. The following are the basic entities for the central administrator to create a hospital administrator.
Hospital Administrator name
Blood Bank Details where he works
Date of Joining
By entering the above details, the hospital administrator is created by the Central Administrator and is identified by the employee id, hospital administrator and blood bank name. At an instance no two hospital administrators can have same employee id, blood bank name and employee administrator name.
Only the registered hospital administrator can edit the details of the blood stocks and donors donation details.
Donor registration allows donor to check for the appointments, book them and edit their personal details. Each donor should be between the age of 18-50 to satisfy blood donation requirements. The following information should be submitted by the donor to register themselves.
Full first name
By providing the details above, the donor has to click the SUBMIT button. On submitting the form, the system checks for the age and sends an acknowledgement if donor is eligible. The acknowledgement is sent through e-mail and an SMS.
Upon receiving the acknowledgement, donor can login, book appointments, edit and save their details. Donor no field cannot be edited as it is automatically assigned by the system.
Hardware Requirement: Software Requirement:
Intel Pentium IV Microsoft Windows 2000, XP or later
256 MB RAM Microsoft Office Word 2003/2007
CD ROM Drive Microsoft .Net framework
40GB Hard Disk Sql Server
Each user has to login with his own login to access his details.
For the donor to book an appointment, login is to be verified.
For the Hospital Administrator to update the details, they should login to have access.
Forgot password option should send an e-mail with the users password.
This website should be available 24 x 7.
As the website has to be integrated with a group sms and a group email technologies, compatibility should be checked for with the service providers.
For easy deployment, the entire website should be highly customizable.
The biggest challenge in this project, the program is to write critical studies of the work of others in the area and security for data integrity. The construction of the application to a code base, using different models, the creation of a database for storing content and tests that meet real customer needs. The test is one of the basic techniques used in all types of projects for effective implementation without error.
Management of data – use of large quantities of data by removing duplicate data.
The organization of different networks to take precautions to maintain privacy.
Data security – Controlling the misuse of data.
Limitation of access to the database depending hierarchy.
Interacting with the Blood Bank organization people and data administrators about the present system of operation in present day blood banks, this project is aimed at developing a successful automated blood bank system. To improve the efficiency of the system, SMS technology is used along with the present day GIS system with e-mail communication.
Different access level permissions are given to different users.
A 24 * 7 system is to be built for effective communication.
Improving the efficiency of the system by encouraging the donors for donation by sending invitations by sms.
Fully automated system.
Data redundancy should be eliminated.
Interviewing the programmers and testers is helpful in developing a good working application.
This is achieved by interviewing these people and discussing the methods involved in the project. The prime areas of the project are:
The way how the design models are implemented.
Testing techniques used along with their availability.
Reducing code complexity.
Having a thorough working knowledge on Database Management systems, Software and Hardware, we can
Design an interface using Dot Net technologies.
Build a database system using web servers like SQL.
Study of testing strategies.
Study and implement various testing models.
Test project reusability.
The GIS based blood banks using SMS technology can facilitate the Donors to search for the nearest blood banks with available slots for donation by date, by entering their details. Nearest blood banks with nearest available dates for donation are provided. Appointments can be booked by the registered users for donation after checking the venue’s and time online. Automated confirmation of the appointments is sent immediately. The data is kept up-to date to maintain data integrity.
This project is going to start from 26th February 2009 for approximately 16-17 weeks or less based on the time management and will be finished by July 2009. The below table shows the task division of the proposed project:
Gathering information about the basic needs of the project development with software and hardware installation where necessary.
Project management planning and implementation of SDLC concepts.
Studying about GIS and SMS technologies.
Development of System analysis and design model specification
Research on other peoples work and concluding Literature Review.
Identifying problems and solutions to the proposed model.
Implementation of strategic planning and management analysis.
Studying about the programming language and databases for code generation
Solving minor errors and problems after implementation of the prototype.
Studying about the present testing methods and technologies available in the market.
Testing the designed application for correctness
Critical Appraisal and Future Enhancements.
Development of Artifacts and writing guidelines for business processes.
Final Report Document Preparation.
The following deliverables are produced after a thorough research on the project:
Secure data transmission between databases and its users by authentication mechanisms.
Successfully developed application satisfying the user requirements.
Data storage on databases.
Design Specification of software.
Artifact with specifications.
To gain knowledge on security risks involved along with the hardware and software components, the resources used are :
Internet connected Computer.
Electronic sources of information like E-Journals, IEEE websites, E-Books and Digital Libraries(ACM).
Books, IT magazines.
For the development of the software, there are many books on databases and programming languages along with principles of software engineering in the library. In the design and development of the application, referring the books on the software technologies would be helpful to build an efficient system. To make the application more reliable and scalable, it is rigorously tested.
Interviewing Blood Bank personnel and Administrators in blood banks, one can get sound knowledge of existing system, latest developments and suggestions for building up efficient software.
Project Activities :
Donors can search for the nearest blood banks with available slots for donation by date, by entering their details. They will be provided with the nearest blood banks with nearest available dates for donation. They can also know the blood group levels in each blood bank.
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To book an appointment, Donors need to be registered users. Donors can register themselves with their name, blood group, age, sex, recent donation date, phone number, e-mail-id and post code. After logging in successfully as a registered user, donors can book their appointments. E-mail and sms confirmations for the appointments are sent immediately.
As the requests for donation are automated, the system check for available slots. So the same day appointments can be made.
Donors can login and see their details along with the recent donation date. Donor can edit and save his details also.
Whenever the blood samples of particular blood group level falls by a certain level in a particular blood bank, request messages for donation are automatically sent to the donors by both E-Mails and group SMS.
After the collection of blood, the data is updated to the server by the hospital Administrator.
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Methodology
RAD (rapid application development) proposes that products can be developed faster and of higher quality by:
Using workshops or focus groups to gather requirements.
Prototyping and user testing of designs.
Re-using software components.
Following a schedule that defers design improvements to the next product version.
Keeping review meetings and other team communication informal.
Questionnaire for the Bloodbank Personal:
How is the blood collected from the donors?
How are the records of the blood stock maintained?
How are the requests for blood donation handled?
How do you respond to the request?
What are the timings you respond or work on this work?
Are same day appointments possible?
How do you know the levels of blood stock in a blood bank?
How do you invite people for donation?
Can a non registered user donate blood?
Will the donor’s details be stored on the database?
Can the donor edit and save his details on the database?
Do you have any suggestions to make the system efficient?
Explanation of the existing system – WWW.BLOOD.CO.UK
The blood donor can search nearest blood bank on the internet with city, code or town name.
Given the place name/postcode/town the website gives the option for the donor to select date, time and day for donation.
Venues and the next dates available along with the distances in ascending order are displayed.
Venue is a hyperlink, when clicked it opens the requested days to get booked.
To book the requested days along with venue, it checks for registered donor or not.
If the donor is not registered it asks for registration otherwise it exits.
Registered users can give their details and book their appointment.
The fields are:
Full first name
name of venue
address of venue
date and time
Options for alternate available time, etc.
Bloodbank Staff Operation:
The appointments which are booked through the website are to be processed manually upon receipt by the contact centre.
Generally appointments are processed from Monday to Friday 9am-5pm.
No same day appointments are made.
Confirmation of appointments is done only through emails.
Stocks are manually checked and email requests are sent for donation.
Explanation of proposed system:
People can register, check for the slots available, book the slots for donation online.
As the whole system is automated, the donor gets reply immediately.
Donor can register online; re-login to access his details like recent donation date.
Donor can edit & save their details.
The stock levels in the blood banks are entered by the hospital administration onto the server.
Whenever particular blood group falls by a certain limit, automatically intimations are sent to the donors of that particular blood group by both sms /emails.
SMS system proves to be efficient if it can generate invitations to the donors of that particular blood group when a blood group stock falls by a certain limit. As it is an automated system, it is accurate.
24 *7 * 365 booking confirmations and intimations.
Same day appointments are very useful.
Confirmation is done through both emails and sms so that the chances are widely increased.
Recent Donation Date
Location or Postcode
Date of Donation
No of Blood Samples in each blood group
Hospital Administrator Name
ADD BLOOD BANKS
DELETE BLOOD BANKS
STOCKS IN EACH BLOOD BANKS
Activities of each actor:
Add blood banks or new venues
Check stocks in database of each blood banks
Edit / View the details of Donors and Hospital Administrators.
Updates the database with stocks collected daily.
Checks for venue’s with postcode/location name.
Check for the slots, book them.
Gets invitation if blood required by sms/email.
Login to his account, check his details, with save and edit options.
SMS based Passenger Complaint and Suggestion system
(Gowtham Sasanka, Rajesh Kalluri, 2010).
Presently, customer complaints are being received from passengers in writing, through different channels like lodging at railway station, registering with Train Conductors & Guards, writing directly to the authorities or sending complaints via e-mail. Existing system consume more time to solve complaints by taksing remedial measures. Customers are unsatisfied because of the delay in taking action. In the present system, the complaints reach the concerned/appropriate authorities with a great delay. Sometimes complaints/suggestions logged in are not reaching at all. A genuine problem/ trouble faced by the passenger is not being highlighted due to non availability of complaint register or time evolved in writing it.
In Railways, applications need the ability to have real time notification when event occurs. Often people who need to represent their grievances are in running train or in a remote location. Remote notification is a concept by which many monitoring and control applications could be benefited. Presently, majority of people are using mobile phone. With this in mind, the most obvious and effective way to have complaints/ suggestions is to use cellular networks Short Message Service (SMS).The Short Message Service (SMS) allows text-based messages to be sent to and from mobile telephones on a Cellular network. This SMS based service can be further integrated with data base. The data base will keep track on the messages sent by passengers. SMS based complaint system will utilize the strengths of mobile penetration and using the concept of always on connection for the delivery of services. SMS based complaint system relates to the characteristic of the SMS medium which are easy to use, very cheap in cost, an anywhere any-time communication channel, high penetration, an excessive in infrastructure. By these characteristics, railways expect to improve communication with their esteemed customer, to allow easier, greater access, convenient and flexible in time, to
improve effectiveness of the communication by reaching the correct customer personally, to encourage customer participation, and to improve the accountability of railway staff.
SMS system helps to facilitate customers’ direct participation in Railway management. This system will also enable bridging the gap between customer expectation and Railway’s effort, Channelizing latter in right direction. Thus the system will allow the root cause, analysis of the problems, corrective action can be taken there on. The proposed system will automatically escalate the complaints/suggestion to higher-ups, thus decision making will get the actual requirement of the system. The system will enable pin-pointed managerial input through data mining from very effective data base. The system will further
provide appropriate focus on key areas of passenger interest and concern. The system will certainly result in greater customer satisfaction.
â- To get complaints/suggestion from customer through SMS for aligning railway resources and priorities as per customer aspirations/ expectation.
â- To reduce the gap between the customer expectations and railway’s performance.
â- To help railways in prioritizing focus area.
â- To enable customers’ greater participation in railway management.
When a complainant/ suggestion is registered at the given number, a unique id number is generated and an SMS is sent back to the complainant as an acknowledgment and reference for future use and to know the current status of the complaint. Complainant can later query the position of the complaint through either log in on SCR website or through SMS based feed back system by using this unique ID number. Complainants will be further informed automatically as soon as complaint is attended and completed, through an SMS.
Scope of the Work:
1. To ensure the availability of the SMS based complaint system offered by South Central Railway across all the subscribers of all the mobile service providers in the country.
2. Providing an administrative interface to have a real-time view and to forward to the
appropriate authorities for action.
3. Providing interfaces to administrative authorities as required.
4. Providing a set of reporting tools to enable all relevant parties to retrieve statistical
information regarding all relevant system activities such as no. of complaints received division-wise, department-wise, delivery reports, longest pending complaint, chronology of events on action taken there on etc. The tools shall be capable of generating standard reports and shall be able to provide customized reports. The reporting system shall offer a web interface with a login. The system shall be web enabled, which is capable to allow entering the action by the nominated person on reported complaint.
5. The system shall be capable to record all the activity of the tasks worked on by the
nominated person. A time sheet shall allow tracking of activity.
6. A database backup is taken everyday at night to keep log of the total activity.
7. The system shall be user friendly and intuitively designed prompts guide the novice user through each step of the process and eliminate the training need.
8. Web based application should be developed to track the complaints and give feed back to respective stake holder.
9. SPCSS application has role based logins (Admin, Head quarter, Divisions, Departments, Categories etc) to show their respective complaints, and allow them further segregate and assign them.
10. Web application allows various users to approve the closing of complaints.
Architecture of SPCSS:
(Gowtham Sasanka, Rajesh Kalluri, 2010).
Customer Service Center for Lembaga Air Perak
(Ariff Idris, Abd. Samad Hasan Basari and Nur Hanisah Zubir, 2009).
To support information mobility they are number of different approaches provided by information technology. One of them is through the use of mobile phone technology. Currently there are number of technologies and standards emerging in the mobile phone area, such as AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Services), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).
For certain application they are several researchers that have developed GSM with SMS. The most popular protocol in cellular in many parts of world is GSM, and is a chief competitor to the CDMA protocol in the United States. Most of them believe that phones with CDMA technology will not work outside United States. The GSM mobile phone standard is more popular in many places, simply because the standard has been established and was considered by many to be superior to CDMA, at least initially. The GSM family of technologies has provided the world with mobile communications since 1991 . As demand grows over twenty years of development, GSM has been continually enhanced to provide platforms that deliver an increasingly broad range of mobile services. Initially it was started with plain voice calls, later on has a powerful platform which capable of supporting mobile broadband and multimedia services. Over 219 countries and territories are using GSM serving more than three billion people. The mobile services are giving access to travelers wherever they go. The use of SIM cards is one of the distinctive features of the GSM system. SIM card can store all personal data and contact details. Once a phone is traded for a new one, transferring the data and activating the phone becomes simple by changing the card. Short Message Services is abbreviation of SMS. SMS is a communication protocol allowing the interchange of short message between mobile telephone devices. Originally GSM is defined as part SMS is used for modern handsets. Its main function is sending message to and from GSM mobile handsets. The development and growth of text messaging is obviously by the SMS technology. The connection between the phenomenon of text messaging and the underlying technology is so great. In consequence, every parts of the world are using the term “SMS” as a synonym for a text message or the act of sending a text message, even when a different protocol is being used.
The arrangement of the computer hardware and software which include in the system that performs the desired business function is termed as System architecture. This system runs in both wireless and wide area network. Unregistered customers with mobile phone only have the opportunity to send complaint to the system. Only registered customers are able to receive announcement and also send complaint via SMS and website. The administrator monitors server which has a connection to the GSM where a SIM car is placed. The system and database management are installed into the server. The physical architecture of CeS-LAP is shown in Figure.
Figure Physical architecture of CeS-LAP. (Ariff Idris, Abd. Samad Hasan Basari and Nur Hanisah Zubir, 2009).
A system which is integrated with GSM modem will monitor by a administrator. In order to deliver the message to mobile phone SIM card is placed into the GSM modem. The system could also broadcast the message to guardian’s mobile phone. The system and the database management are installed in the computer which is the main access point.
A WebGIS-based System Model of Vehicle Monitoring Central Platform: (Yong Wang, Dafang Zhuang, Runhe Shi and Su Li, 2005)
Vehicle monitoring central platform (VMCP) is a web-based tool which is used to visualize and integrate the vehicle data and online geospatial data. This tool reduces the maintenance costs and improves management efficiency. The prototype application of Vehicle monitoring central platform (VMCP) is developed by the integration of the advanced technologies like: SMS technology, WebGIS technology and GPS technology. This prototype can be used to build application systems for public organizations and a number of private users who uses the integration of geographic information management and real-time information capture with wireless data disposing. VMCP is an object oriented distributed information management
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