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In this topic Management Information System is about the information systems knowledge is essential for creating competitive firms, managing global corporations, adding business value, and providing useful products and services on the way to customers.
What is an information system? The information system is defined technically as a set of interrelated apparatus that collect, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. In other also determination supporting decision making, coordination, and manage, information systems may also help manager and workers analyze problems, visualize complex subjects and create new products. So information system contain about significant people, place, and things within the organization or in the environment surrounding it.
Selecting the global system is from other countries, such as United States, Europe and Asia. Then local is just at state to state or city to city. While want to work outstation or management company, it must know local environments, with different, culture of countries, and local knowledge, time deliver service on a global, and time intense platform. In this question ask that become a mangers hot develop a company in many countries. By the way, management, organization, and technology are one point to show global application how to work and manage it.
Why is selecting computer hardware and software for the organization an important management decision? What management, organization and technology issue should be considered when selecting computer hardware?
Answer of Question 1
Nowadays, computer is a device that accepts information and manipulates on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data to be processed. The computers also include the means for storing data. Computers variable have two parts are software and hardware.
Computer hardware is physical foundation for the firm`s information technology infrastructure. Information technology infrastructures include software, data and networks. Computer hardware requires their storage or operation. Then, computer software is detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system. However, hardware is without software to perform the tasks to associate with computers.
Subsequently, in this question ask that why is selecting computer hardware and software for the organization an important management decision? Computer hardware is accordingly representing an important organizational benefit that must be properly managed. Managers need to balance the cost of acquire hardware capital with the need to provide a responsive and reliable platform for delivering information system applications. The most important issues in managing hardware assets are understanding the new technology requirements for electronic commerce and the digital firm, it also determining the total cost of ownership of technology assets, and identifying technology trends impacting the organization`s information technology infrastructure.
While the software is represents a major organizational software asset that should be carefully managed. System software coordinates the different parts of the computer system and mediates between application software and computer hardware. As a result, the application software is used by application programmers and some end users to develop specific business application. Then, operating system is system software that to manages and controls the activities of the computer. This system acts as chief manager of the information system, allocation, assigning, and scheduling system resources and monitoring the use of the computer. Computer system resources allow to be used more efficiently such as multiprogramming, multiprocessing, virtual storage and time sharing are operating system capabilities. In PC operating systems have to developed complicated capability like support for multiple users on networks. PC operating system is leading area include Window XP, Window 98 and Window Me, Window CE, Window 2000, OS/2, Unix, Linux, Mas OS and DOS. Software also have general trend, can toward user-friendly, high level languages that both increase professional programmer productivity and make it easily for end users to work information systems. Principal programming languages used in business include C, C++ and Visual Basic and each is designed to explain specific types of problems. Software assortment should be based on criterion such as efficiency, compatibility with organization`s technology platform, vendor support, and whether the software tool is appropriate for the problems and tasks of the organization.
Another view computer hardware and software technology can enhance or organizational performance. Two of them are major organizational assets that must be carefully managed. By the electronic commerce and electronic business have put new strategic importance on technologies that can store vast quantities if operation data and make them immediately available online. So manager and information systems specialists need to pay individual attention to hardware capacity planning and scalability to ensure that the firm has enough computing power for its current and upcoming needs. Then they also need to balance the costs and benefits of owning and maintaining their own hardware and software versus renting these assets from external service providers. In the online storage service provider (SSPs) rent out storage space to subscribers over the Web, to selling the computer storage as a pay-per-use utility. Type of application service providers (ASPs) is rent out to the software applications and computer services from private network or remote computer centers to subscribers over the Internet. The companies will pay technology service provides only for the amount of computing power and services by a utility computing model. Cost is one of the point for calculating the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the organization`s technology assets can help to provide managers with the information they want to manage these assets and decide whether to rent or own these assets. Finally, the total cost of technology resources includes not only the original cost of computer hardware and software but they also same costs to upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training.
Computer hardware technology is to profound impact on business performance. Thus, it represents an important organizational asset that must be properly managed. Then, the alternative computer hardware topologies are available to processing and storing data while they are using this technology for their business. Computer system have many modern and can be categorized into six major components such as a central processing unit (CPU), primary storage, input devices, output devices, secondary storage, and communications devices (in figure 1).
Figure 1:hardware components of computer system
CPU is the part of computer where the manipulation of symbol, letter occurs and numbers. CPU has two types of components such as an arithmetic-logic unit and a control unit. CPU is a closely tied primary memory, or primary storage, which are stores data and program instructions temporarily before or after processing. However, more than a few difference kinds of semiconductor memory chips is RAM ( random access memory) is use for short term storage of data and program instruction, then ROM (read only memory) eternally stores important program instructions. Computer processing power depends in part of speed in microprocessors, which is computer`s logic and control on a single chip. The input devices have included keyboards, computer mice, magnetic link and optical character recognition devices audio input devices and radio frequency identification devices. Maintenance of computer hardware is one of a series of cost components that mangers must consider when selecting and managing hardware technology assets. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is designates the total cost of owning technology resources including cost of hardware, maintenance, and training. Anywhere, to improve firm of management and information systems specialists, so they must pay more attention to hardware capacity planning and scalability. For this system of capacity planning, is the process of predicting when the computer hardware system become saturated. For issue of capacity planning, most of the users that using the system can accommodate at one time. Second issue is the impact of existing and the future software application. Then, is a performance measure like minimum to response time for the processing business transaction. Currently, capacity planning is ensures for the firm has enough computing power and upcoming needs. Salability is refers for the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to provide a large number of users without breaking down.
Computer hardware technology can either improve or delay organizational performance. Computer hardware selection should consider how well the technology meshes with the organization`s culture and structure with its information processing requirements.
Information technology today is not incomplete to computers but must be viewed as an array of digital devices networked together. Thus, type of computer and arrangement of processing that should be used by business in the nature organization. Computers type as well as mainframes, PCs, midrange computers, workstation, or supercomputer. While, computers also can be networked together to distribute processing among different machines. Network computer can help organization to maintain the central control over computing, linking PCs, workstations, peer-to-peer, or other computers through the internet or sharing data by private network, and disk space. Different ways of configuring hardware components in management side.
If you were a manager in a company that operates in many countries, what criteria would you use to determine whether a new system should be developed as a global application or local application? Why?
Answer of Question 2
In this question is asking that if I am a manager will chooses global application or local application to operating a new system in many countries of the company. What is global application mean? Global application is for a world order is sweeping away many national corporations, national industries, and national economies control by domestic politician. Most of the countries like United States, Europe and Asia, many of their local firms will be replacing by fast-moving networked corporations that rise above national boundaries. Global application is the overall market forces, or business drivers, that are pushing to industry toward the global competition.
So, want to be a good manager must known how to management, organizational and technology using a new system to operate the company in many countries. To develop a global application in new system, a manager would need to learn the cultures, face political and legal uncertainties, global environmental and social expectations, develop a global position and reorganize business strategies. The global market may run up against governmental or cultural restrictions.
One of the criteria to be considered to develop the global application is global cultural which include the forms of religious, nationalistic, ethnic, regionalism, and geopolitical position. The differences of culture influence the concept of a shared global culture and reject the penetration of domestic markets by foreign goods and services. The expansion of international communication has created a world culture with stable expectations or norms. However for some of the middle and low level, software systems will equip with their local languages. Every country have their own terms of business trade, therefore political stability and a growing global knowledge base that is widely and essential for the world culture during develop of global application. These common factors are also creating the conditions for global markets, global production, coordination, distribution, and global economies of scale.
In addition, different cultures produce different political and legal issued. Many countries are using different laws to lead the movement of information, information privacy of their citizens, origins of software and hardware in systems, and radio and satellite telecommunications. For instance in Germany, a vendor cannot accept payment via credit card until two weeks after an order has been sent. While in Malaysia, a vendor is accept payment via credit card before order goods deliver.
Moreover, the criteria of social expectation are another point will need to be concentrate. Different of working hours are vary across countries. So the specific like the reliability that phone network not reliable.
For the developing global business have four basic international strategies such as domestic exporter, multinational, franchiser, and transnational. The domestic exporter strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin. For second strategy is multinational, it is concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production and marketing operations to units in other countries. Third strategy of franchiser is an interesting mix of old and new. Last strategy is the transnational, this for managed the activities from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand wherever they become visible. In the information technology, the global telecommunications must improve because they are giving for international firms more flexibility to shape their global strategies. Thus, the protectionism is serve local markets better encourage companies to disperse production facilities.
To develop a global company in many counties, how a firm organize and how to control the information support structure by manger? By the way, the entire branch in other counties needs to follow these principles. There are including organize, develop, and establish. For organize value adding activities along lines of comparative advantage. For example, marketing or sales functions should be located where they can best to present, for least cost and maximum impact. Other organizes like production, finance, human resources and information system. Second is develop, it to operate system units at each level of corporate activities regional, national, and international.
Local company and global company, theirs develop not same to manage. For local company, there should host country system units of some magnitude. Then the global company is using regional systems units to handle telecommunications and system development across national boundaries that take place within major geographic regions. Last is establish, at world center of operations is a single office responsible for development of international system.
Managers are responsible for devising an appropriate organizational and technological framework for international business. Global business strategies have four basic for global firms organizational structure. Transnational firms should develop networked system configurations and permit considerable decentralization of development. Second strategies are franchisers, nearly to duplicate systems across many countries and use centralized financial controls. Multinationals is third strategy, it typically rely on decentralized independence among foreign units with some movement toward development of networks. Lastly is domestic strategy is exporters typically are centralized in domestic headquarters with some decentralized operations permitted. To develop a global firm or company and information systems support structure, be a firm or company needs to known these principles. To identifying core business process is to perform a business process analysis. There have three type are organize develop and establish. Hence, organize is the value adding activities along lines of comparative advantage. After that, develop and operate systems units at each level of corporate activity regional, national, and international and establish is at world headquarters a single office responsible for development of international system, it is a global chief information officer (CIO) position. Managers must know how to handle the most vexing problem facing managers developing the global information systems architectures. Applications developed just about the global by different divisions, different people, and for different kinds of computing hardware. If the problem are magnified in an international environment, then just to imagine the challenge of integrating system based on Window, Unix, Linux and many other hardware in many different operating units in many different countries.
Global information systems pose challenges because of culture, political, and language diversity magnifies in organizational culture and business processes and encourages proliferation of disparate local information systems that are difficult to integrate. Usually, international systems have evolved without a conscious plan. The remedy is in the direction of a small subset of core business process and focus on building systems to support these processes. Usually, for managers must have to get somebody on board widely dispersed foreign units to participate in the development and operation of these systems, being careful to maintain overall control.
Global systems also must using hardware, software, and networking pose special technical challenges in an international setting. Mean that want finding some way to standardize a global computing platform when using have variation form operating unit to operating unit and from country to country. The universal acceptance of the internet around the global has greatly reduced networking problems. While, the internet does not guarantee that information will flow seamlessly throughout the global organization. Because all business units not use the same applications, and the quality of internet service can be highly variable. Other way, the hardware and telecommunications issues are systems integration and connectivity. Integration is to go either with a proprietary architecture or with open systems technology. Then the global networks are particularly difficult to build and operate. However, firms or company can build their own global networks or also can create global networks based on internet.
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