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SYTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Hospital and healthcare services in general are round-the-neck communities with scores of staff, patients and systems that need constant monitoring and integration with each other.
They are demanding places where situations change suddenly and rapid responses are essential.
For this reason a fully integrated communications strategy and system is vital to maintain high levels of service and care for patients for mutual gains. In this chapter, discussion would be based on the existing system. First, the existing system would be compared with proposed system. Secondly, the weakness and drawbacks of the existing system shall also be discussed
3.1 INVESTIGATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
- The current procedure of accessing healthcare is running on paper operating in “batch modes “distributed medical data is less than l00% accurate and will in turn limit the accuracy in the medical symptom, diagnosis and treatment in emergency cases within the health sector.
- Poor information storage or the complete lack of it in some cases.
- Poor collaborative forecasting methods leading to slow order turnaround treatment for patients in dire need of these services
- Poor management decision in critical rescue period.
- When doctors needs any records the admin/nurse fetches patients file details in know what kind of problem they are complaining about
- The current system does not give room for proper accounting, planning, management of resources you cannot even integrate it with the current accounting system
- No existing or current reports module to help management for proper planning, decision taken, for future plans of the hospital
The data flow diagram for the current system
3.2 CRITIQUES OF EXISTING SYSTEM
The drawbacks of the existing system are:
- Inability to have accurate inventory status report
- It is cumbersome and time-consuming to track patients
- The general lack of ability to generate instance patients medical history reports on all will affect doctors performance and treatment rate
- Lack of proper handling of medical records
- Too much paper materials involved and this results into unnecessary costs
- Insecurity of Records
- Workers safety is not guarantee
3.2.1FEW ADVANTAGES OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
The existing current system has the following advantages:
- It is easier for everyone to use specially people that are not computer literate
- It is cheaper for hospitals because there will be no need to procure computer hardware and software for Asset Management
3.3 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The proposed system will take advantage of information technology tools and capabilities to enhance and automate medical information management for all staff and patients alike. The proposed system will improve system functionalities and bring new capabilities to hospital information management controls
3.4 BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
This section outlines the general and functional features mandatory for the applications proposed.
Functional Module Requirements; Each hospital observed operates the following high level processes and the system must cater for the following:
This is a modules designed to keep every record relating to patients. This module contains two features which include:
(i) Find a patient record; the patient record is a form which contains every information about:
- the patient
- the patient next of kin information
- service payment option, and
- employment information
(ii) New patient registration; It creates an avenue to enable the record, the treatment given, the clinic been referred to, the mode of payment, etc to be properly stored and retrieved.
This is a list that contain the names of the personnel (user name) assigned to operate a specific module. The human resources are of two folds namely;
- Personnel manager; It is a list that contains the details about the management Staff of various departments.
- Recruit new personnel; this is a form that ensures that newly recruited personnel information is been stored.
The schedule describes the appointment directory. It shows all appointment schedules between calendar months.
Admission Centres; These environment comprise of
- Waiting list
- Ward, Ward occupancy and bed
- Nurses list
- Report and history
Waiting List; It shows the list of patients to be admitted to various wards.
Nurses List; It is a list that shows the details of the nurses staff and their department.
Report and History; It is a list that shows all discharged patients in a particular ward.
Pharmacy is a module that contains two major features namely: pharmaceutical centre and stocks management. The pharmaceutical centre has two folds namely: pending orders and pharmaceutical index. While the stock management has eight folds namely: warehouse stocks, stock diary, category management, products management, stocks movement, patients’ order history, stock movement history and diary history.
Pending Order; These gives room for the user to view/access the pending orders.
Pharmaceutical Index; This enables the user view all pharmacy stock items. To find a stock, entre the barcode and click on find.
Ware House Stock; This is an integral part of the stock management designed to view all current warehouse stock. To find a stock: Entre the barcode and click on find.
Stock Diary: This is a function of stock management designed to enter the new stock diary. To enter the new stock diary:
This is a module that gives information about the various clinics and the patients been referred there. This is of two folds;
- Pending referred patients, and
- Find a patient
3.4.5TOOLS AND ENQUIRIES
Tools and enquiry is a module that ensures an access to view service fees, telephone directory, and current admitted patients.
Service Fees Environment: view service fees environment enables you to view all configure service fees which include service name, amount, department, allow HMO.
Telephone Directories: Telephone directories are an environment which enables you to view all phone directories both previous and next record.
Current Admitted Patients; The environment enables you to have an access to currently admitted patients details both previous and next record.
3.4.6ACCOUNT AND FINANCE
This is a module design to enable one keep and retrieve all information relating to account and finance. This module has six basic features which include:
Pending receivables, expenditures, daily cash book, bank account, service fees, reports
Pending Receivables; This is an environment that enables you to have an access to pending service fee payments. An environment will be displayed in which the menu bar at the left hand side of the page headed account/ financial mode contains six departments namely: pending receivables, expenditure, daily cashbook, bank accounts, services fees and reports.
This enables a user to view and receive pending service payment.
Expenditure; It enables users to record new expenditure.
Daily Cash Book; It enables user to post cashbook for all department.
Bank Account; It enable user to manage bank account. It shows all banks and balance details. It also creates a room for the addition of a new bank account.
Service Fees; It enables user to view all service fees/charges
Report; It enable user to view financial reports such as the receivable reports, expenses reports and cashbook reports between calendar months.
This is an environment designed to enable an individual have access to: system usage logs, user’s rights & access control, backup HMS database.
System Usage Logs; This is an integral part of system which shows the various event date, event performed, user IP address, event time and department accessed.
Users Rights And Access Control; This is an environment designed to show all system users account.
Category Management; This enables the user to manage stock category.
Product Management; This enables the stock details to be managed.
Stock Movement; This aid in the movement of stock from ware house to store, this operation is performed simply by filling in the blank spaces provided and clicking on perform movement.
Stock Movement History; This helps to view all stock movement history. it shows stock / item name, batch ID, units moved, the date and notes.
Dairy History; This helps to view all stock dairy history.
My Account Information; This is a menu bar located at the left hand side and it is accessible in every module. It comprises of: waiting list & appointment, my usage / access logs, personal data, change password, and log out from HMS.
My Waiting List/ Appointment; this is a waiting list designed to view all appointments and schedules.
My Usage/ Access Logs; this enables one to view all system usage history. Click on usage / access logs at the left hand side of the menu bar to view all system usage history. At the top right hand corner is next and previous, click on the next and previous to view the next and previous system usage history. This enables the system administrator to have an overview of the various event date, the event performer, event performed, the user IP address, the event time and the department accessed.
This enables an individual to view and update his personal information such as: Name, DoB/Age, Gender, Hospital/Clinic Registration Number, Occupation, Addresses, Telephone Number, Stage of Origin, Religion, Next of Kin information and Date.
Patient Bio Data; A form which contains the information of the patient, next of kin information, and employment information will be displayed.
Medical Record; As the name implies, it deals with the patient’s medical history.
3.5START-OFF THE PROJECT
The project implantation will be done using:
- Dreamweaver Software
- PHP Programming language
- Java script
- MySQL Database server
- XAMP server
- Microsoft Window 7 OS
3.6 ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
- It will help management to better monitor patients registration in the system
- Periodic accident and injury analysis can now be carried out
- Patients health history can now be monitored
- Very fast and accurate therefore reduce administrative overheads
- Maximize customer value and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage
- Eliminate obsolete business processes
- Speed up hospital production and responsiveness to incidents
- It will facilitates treatment of patients as patients history can now easily be retrieved from the system
- Because it is web based patients last update medical information csn be retrieved even if the patient goes to another hospital.
- It will give the doctors options of referring patients to other doctors completely automated
- It will allow hospital Management can plan better and make accurate and informed decisions
3.7 DISADVANTAGE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
- It will lead to unemployment
- Its only good for those that are computer literates, Nurses and doctors may not be familiar with the technology
- It may cost more money and infrastructure investment on the part of management
- Nurses and doctors are unfamiliarity with technology
- Hackers may ultimately be able to penetrate system despite
- security precautions
- System can be attacked by computer viruses
- Power failure
3.8 SYSTEM DESIGN
Overview of the System; Information/system requirement gathered during the time of carrying out the functional speciï¬cation requirement and network requirements identified during the initiation and planning phases was put into good use during the design of the application. This project is planned at developing a web-enabled Healthcare information management system (HIMS).
3.8.0FACT FIDING AND REQUIREMENT DISCOVERY
This chapter actually presents the method0logy that was used in this study. The methodology chosen followed the already tested and commonly used approach in software engineering and software development life cycle.
Actually three key areas were used to get requirement for the Patients medical information system project. The first method was that a review of internet materials related to patient were carried out, I also tried to review specific platform of related design project to ascertain the specific language/platform to use for development of the application. The second most logical direct gathering of information from the hospital visited and used in the study (University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH)). It must be quickly pointed out that the tools used in this case were interviewing of staff, observations of passive ways of these things and simulations of different scenarios.
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The third method of the requirement gathering was by studying the existing applications presently used and we were then able to understand what is lacking in the present system, what needed to be done and we were then after able to fix a time frame (SCOPE) for the project
3.8.1SYSTEM REQUIREMENT MODELLING
An object oriented programming was used for the design of the application. In view of this, and in view of the fact that I intend to design an application that will be user friendly and easily accessible. I feel a web enabled application will be more appropriate since we are not talking of a windows application that will just be installed on a client machine in the office. We therefore focused on planning, which included defining our target audience, purpose, objective, application usage, population and finally application development. The look and feel of the application were considered, navigation browser type validations tools were all analyzed and most importantly client/server architecture was also considered.
3.9APPLICATION ARCHITETURE AND MODEILING
Developing a web application requires locus and determined effort on the part of the practitioner in meeting people needs The decision for accomplishing this was based on components based model with a linear approach to application development Specification and decisions objective were into account for example issues like meeting the applications purpose and aim and functionalities. The steps used here acted as an overall development methodology and life cycle which were also dependent upon available tools, time line, and user willingness to be involved in the final testing of the system. Implicit in the methodology adapted was the concept of bringing the Patients medical information system refining the application/system based on user feedback
3.10 DESIGNS INPUT
The registration form be was designed as such that it will include all information required about the patients. The following is incorporated into the form:
- Important fields – These are fields that must be filled because they are necessary information need.
- Return dialog box- This is used to guide against the input of wrong data or format in some fields especially the compulsory fields.
- A sample of patient record been patient record interface is shown below
3.11FLOW CHAT DIAGRAM OF HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3.12DATABASE DESIGN OF THE HEATLHCARE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3.12.0 ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL
Entity Relationship Diagram: A representation of data Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling method, used to produce a type of conceptual schema of a system, often a relational relationship, and its requirements in a top down fashion Diagrams created by this process are called entity-relationship diagrams, ER diagrams or ERDs. Also it can also be defined as a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information.
Boxes re commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes.
According to CHEN (Wikipedia), information system design uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be tored in a database. The data modeling technique can be used to describe any ontology (i.e. an overview and classifications of used terms and their relationships) for a a certain area of interest. In the case of the design of an information system that is based on a database, the conceptual data model is, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mapped to a logical data model, such as the relational model; this in turn is mapped to a physical model during physical design. An entity may be a physical object such as a customer transaction or order. Although the term entity is the one most commonly used, following Chen, we should really distinguish between an entity and entity-type. An entity-type is a category. An entity, strictly speaking, is an instance of a given entity-type. There are usually many instances.
3.12.2 WHAT LEAD TO ER DIAGRAM
Once the data has been created in the database the ER diagram will show the relationship between each table created they all have to link to each other. It could be one to many relationship, many to many or one to one relationship, there is always a unique field in the system and in this case it is the patients registration number identifying the patients anywhere in the system. We can retrieve the patient’s records once this registration number generated during registration is known.
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