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The resourcing process for hiring a new fitness centre manager
HR planning…………………………………..Page 3-4
Job analysis……………………………………Page 4-5
Induction and retention…………………Page 7
UK Employment Market…………………Page 8
Human Resource Management is “the process of managing and informing management on the recruitment, selection, retention, and development of staff with the aim of achieving the organisation’s objectives” (Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis, 2016, Page 163).
Anytime Fitness is a branch of a nation fitness centre chain based in London. The manager of Anytime Fitness will soon retire, so a new manager needs to be hired.
The purpose of this essay is to outline and explain the steps that need to be followed to hire, successfully induct and retain the new fitness centre manager. The essay will look at HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, induction and retention, followed by a conclusion summarizing the recommendations for the hiring manager. Recommendations will be given throughout for the hiring manager on how to approach the recruitment process. The UK Employment market will also be assessed in order to gain an understanding in how the market could affect the resourcing approach.
HR planning (HRP) is used by organisations to ensure that “the right person is in the right job at the right time” (Jackson and Schuler, 1990, Page 223). In recent years, the nature of HRP has changed due the changing needs of organisations. Stability, certainty and short term solutions have turned into “environmental instability, demographic shifts, changes in technology, and heightened international competition” (Jackson and Schuler, 1990, Page 223). In order to effectively address HR concerns, organisations have to look at long and short-term solutions (Jackson and Schuler, 1990). HRP looks ahead using methodical techniques to assess the degree to which an organisation will meet its requirements for labour in the future (Taylor, 2014).
A HR plan is formed from looking at the business plan. Anytime Fitness need to consider whether a new fitness manager is necessary or whether they can still meet demand with their current workforce. If a firm over hires employees this will result in a profit loss. If Anytime Fitness, choose not to hire anyone then the firm could overkill the current workforce. The challenge for recruitment is to fill vacancies under inconsistent business demands, and hire high-quality talent (Su and Yang, 2013).
HRP involves forecasting future demand for an organisation. There are three forecasting methods that Anytime Fitness could use. The systematic technique analyses past and current experiences (Taylor, 2014). Recruitment activities are affected by seasonal trends (Su and Yang, 2013). The fitness industry is predictably seasonal, with summer and the new year encouraging an influx of “wanna-be-fit-converts” (Kulp, 2003). This suggests that the HR manager should consider the need for a fitness centre manager all year round or whether a seasonal manager would work. Another way to forecast future demand is through managerial judgement. This approach is based on subjective views of managers about the possible future needs for HR (Taylor, 2014). Working back from costs is another way of forecasting. This involves removing the process of looking at past experiences of the fitness centre. Alternatively, it involves looking at the future budget and “how many people at what salary level would be affordable” (Taylor, 2014).
The next step is to look at forecasting internal and external supply. This can be done by looking at succession planning. According to Gray (2014, page 35) succession planning helps to identify and then develop “key leaders” within a company. The purpose is to “increase engagement and retention by providing a career ladder” and to create a culture of talent development that supports the strengths and develops the different competencies that drive results (Gray, 2014, page 35). This would be helpful for Anytime Fitness because the HR manager could look at the talent of the current employees and see what potential exists for particular employees to move up the career ladder and take on the role of the manager, with appropriate training and development in place. Succession management will provide a pool of qualified candidates (Berke, 2005). If Anytime Fitness does not consider internal supply, the company would be wasting time, money and careers (Gray, 2014). However, when recruitment needs cannot be met internally, it is necessary to look at supply and demand in the external labour market (Taylor, 2014).
According to Taylor (2014), the problem with HRP is that forecasting has a reliance on what happened in the past and using it to make future predictions. Contrariwise, HRP is important because it views plans as adaptable which is important in a “turbulent environment” (Taylor, 2014, Page 103).
The next step is to look at Job analysis and job design. Job analysis should be regarded as one of the most important responsibilities of the HR Manager at Anytime Fitness. The employee life cycle hinges on job analysis. The purpose of job analysis is to create an exhaustive understanding of the mandatory competencies for success in order to pick suitable candidates (Prien et al, 2009).
Therefore, Anytime Fitness need to conduct a thorough job analysis so that they know the ideal candidate to recruit. Job analysis will provide the HR manager with the template for screening applications. An accurate and sufficient detailed job posting of the Fitness manager role will also act as a template that provides a degree of protection against charges of discriminatory recruitment (Prien et al, 2009). This is particularly important; the HR manager will want to keep within the law throughout this process.
Pilbeam looks at a 6 measurable factors of the person specification which have to be relevant to the job. These factors include; skills, knowledge and competencies, personality characteristics, level of experience, certified qualifications, physical characteristics and development potential. These factors can be divided into ‘desirable’ and ‘essential’ (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2006).
To conduct job analysis, the HR manager could use direct observation of the Fitness Manager role, interviews with the current post holder and the staff that are working with them, reviewing how the role fits into Anytime Fitness’ objectives and the completion of questionnaires (Taylor, 2014). However, there are weaknesses to some of these methods. For example, the observation method causes concerns because individuals are unlikely to act the same as they would if they weren’t being observed; also known as the Hawthorne effect (Taylor, 2014). However, job analysis is seen as an important process which is a means to an end. Through job analysis; the job description and person specification are created (Taylor, 2014).
Once Anytime Fitness has defined the type of manager they are looking for, the next step is to plan how to attract the best candidates.
Recruitment is crucial to the successful functioning of an organisation. It is a critical mechanism to make sure that the organisation has the right skills, expertise and qualifications to deliver the key organisational objectives (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2006, as cited in Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). Effective recruitment is essential for the success of Anytime Fitness. If there aren’t good people, working collectively, Anytime Fitness is unlikely to fulfill the needs of their customers (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). If there isn’t effective recruitment, this could result in a rise in performance management issues and the need for the employee to attend substantial training and development (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008).
Recruitment can be done both internally and externally. Internal recruitment is seen by many as “crucial”. Using the internal network reduces the risk of selecting someone that doesn’t fit into the company’s “organisational culture and context” (Jøranli, 2018). As a result, Anytime Fitness would save time searching for a candidate who could potentially fit into the culture. Internal recruitment is very cost-effective, the vacancy can be advertised through notice boards and intranet networks. Learning times for internal candidates are minimal because they already understand how the organisation operates. Anytime Fitness would maximise their return on staff training if they chose an internal candidate, whilst also “enhancing motivation and commitment” (Taylor, 2014, pages 137-138). However, if the Fitness Centre chose internal recruitment only, there is an inclination that it will “perpetuate existing ways of thinking” (Taylor, 2014, page 138).
External recruitment connects the organisation to a “larger mass of potential candidates, from which the firm can screen and select” (Jøranli, 2018, page 190). Anytime Fitness should look into using an Employment Agency, online recruitment methods, printed publications or career events. An Employment agency have large databases of skilled candidates. An agency like Reed for example, have experience of finding workers for the fitness and health industry and are trained to find the best talent. Using an agency can be costly however it allows the company to concentrate on running the business. The Fitness centre could consider job boards such as “Indeed” or “Totaljobs” to host their adverts. There are thousands of job seekers who are engaged with these online platforms. With such a vast array of candidates, the platform will match highly skilled candidates to the Fitness manager role through factors such as location, job type and salary. Using online recruitment methods would benefit the fitness centre because a job board could allow ‘headhunting’ of candidates whereby searching the job board’s CV database for an appropriate match (BrightHR, 2019). Although there are lots of benefits for using online recruiting, a disadvantage is that employers tend to complain about the abundance of unqualified applicants which come from online advertising (Chapman and Webster, 2003, as cited in Chapman and Lievens, 2010).
Anytime Fitness should also look into updating their website for recruiting purposes. The website content, appearance and navigability are all important for recruiting the best. Research has suggested that updating a companies’ website results in “significantly higher attraction by prospective applicants” (Chapman and Lievens, 2010).
The next step of the recruitment process is to identify selection techniques for hiring. The selection process involves the application of appropriate techniques and methods to identify the right person for a position. Anytime Fitness should assess individual candidates against a set of agreed criteria which are deemed relevant to the post (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008).
Initially, Anytime Fitness should sift CV’s and applications for the job and select candidates for the next stage of the process. Psychological testing would be a useful tool for the fitness centre. This is a way of measuring an individuals’ characteristics (for example; personality, abilities, intelligence, interests and aptitudes). This is a standardised measurement which promotes fairness and equal opportunities for all candidates. However, it is essential to note that these tests take considerable time and expertise to develop (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). Anytime Fitness should then look into conducting group assessments. A fundamental attribute of the fitness centre manager job is that they must have to ability to communicate effectively. A group assessment provides opportunity for candidates to show their communication and social skills, as well as their capability of working with other people as well as lead others in a work-related situation (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). This approach would allow Anytime Fitness to evaluate numerous abilities, including creativity, teamwork and problem solving. However, it isn’t fair to assume that newly formed groups with cultural diversity to be able to solve problems effectively (Strauss and U, 2007, page 149).
Interviews can be used on their own or in addition to group assessments. Interviews are used; to act as a tool of assessment, “mutual preview” and “negotiation” (Taylor, 2014). However, the information the interviewer receives from the candidate, ultimately is based on the “self-relevant information” the candidate chooses to disclose. The candidate is therefore in control of the image they convey of themselves (Barrick, Shaffer and DeGrassi, 2009).
Induction and retention
Once the vacancy has been filled, the next step in the recruitment process is induction. Induction is important because it enables the new employee to understand and perform their role correctly. An induction should pay close attention to rules and regulations, familiarisation of the fitness centre’s culture and their methods of operation within the organisation and personal training and developmental needs. This could potentially be achieved through “training courses, mentorship or programmed activity” (King, Roed and Wilson, 2018, page 471). Throughout the recruitment process the psychological contract is formed. This is to do with an individuals’ beliefs in regards to the exchange relationship between them and their manager or employee (Rousseau, Hansen and Tomprou, 2018).
Anytime Fitness should look at mentor schemes. Following a formal mentoring scheme, the employee will finish their induction with an accurate understanding of the company and its “learning goals, relationships and responsibilities” (Hall, 2008, page 450). The role of the mentor is to support and guide the employee’s learning. The mentor should “probe, challenge, and support” (Hall, 2008, page 452) but should never make orders or tell the employee what to do, they are simply assisting. However, a mentor mismatch may occur. This means that the mentor may not be suited to the employee. This might be because the mentor isn’t pushing them to their capabilities. Anytime Fitness must ensure therefore that the mentor and employee are a good match (Hall, 2008). Given the specific responsibilities of a manager, Anytime Fitness may wish to consider using another centre manager to mentor the new starter.
An effective induction is of vital importance. A carefully planned induction plan implemented by HR is a sensible investment for Anytime Fitness. The employees’ growth, development and output could lead to the Fitness Centre’s potential future success (Taylor, 2014). The new employee should not be made to feel like a “nuisance” by providing only “sketchy introductions” (Taylor, 2014, page 244). This will lead to low morale or a possible resignation.
This leads onto the importance of retention strategies. Retention refers to the ability of an organisation to retain its employees. There are many retention strategies that Anytime Fitness could use. These include; not overselling the vacancy in the recruitment process, holding employee consultations, being flexible, providing opportunity to voice employee dissatisfaction, emphasis on employee well-being and treating all employees fairly (CIPD, 2018).
Effective retention strategies are important because high labour turnover can result in huge costs for the company. When an employee leaves there are administration costs of the resignation, recruitment and selection costs, cost of covering the job whilst recruitment takes place, and the costs of an induction and training for the new employee (CIPD, 2018).
UK Employment Market
When labour market conditions are tight, it is important that Anytime Fitness recruits and retains more effective and committed workers than their competitors are able to (Taylor, 2014, page 368).
Currently, data has shown that there is high employment rates and demand for skills and labour. The impact of this on Anytime Fitness is that, as an employer, they will face difficulty when hiring for “hard-to-fill vacancies”. The UK Employment market has seen a massive drop in the number of EU and non EU citizens. This will impact Anytime Fitness because the labour supply is becoming reduced. This means that existing staff at Anytime Fitness will be overloaded with work and problems will arise in relation to meeting customer service objectives. The UK is still facing uncertainty about how Brexit will affect the Employment Market. This uncertainty is effecting wage growth, despite high demand for new starters. Overall, due to the current state of the labour market there is a requirement for HR to put effort into “workforce planning and high performance working”. It is necessary that Anytime Fitness address concerns about job security and keep employees informed on Brexit developments as they unfold (CIPD, 2018).
To conclude, this plan provides a well researched recruitment process for Anytime Fitness’s new manager. The plan starts off by looking at Human Resource Planning and the benefits and drawbacks of using it. This is followed by analysing succession planning as a way of forecasting internal and external supply. Anytime Fitness are recommended to use job analysis to decide on the content of the job to find the best person for the vacancy. The plan then focuses on analysing the different recruitment methods; both internally and externally. Appropriate selection techniques were discussed with group assessments being closely analysed, showing potential pros and cons. The plan should incorporate effective induction and retention strategies to minimise wasted time and costs. The UK Employment market has been examined and there is evidence of a number of challenges in a competitive marketplace. This means that attracting and retaining the right candidates is very important.
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