The History And Background Of Peanut Butter
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Usually I use peanut butter with bread in my breakfast. I'm very like this item. So I determine research peanut butter. Peanut butter is from peanuts and native to the tropics of the Americas. In Philippines and Indonesia most like eat peanut butter. Other countries have UK, North America, Netherlands, and Asia. Now in US and China are mainly exporters of peanut butter.
This butter is usually being a condiment served with bread and sandwich for make some breakfast and dessert. Peanuts butter are rich nutrients and in unsaturated fats and help improve Glucose and insulin homeostasis. So that can reduce diabetes. Usually it is can substitute for red or processed meats. So can reducing fat. It is very popular in western countries. (Wikipedia, 2012)
In early 950 B.C, peanuts are native to in South America. The ancient Incas first used peanuts makes a like pasty substitute. In old time makes peanut butter, people use roasted peanuts then use a knife chopped dry roasted peanuts put in a bowl, use stone crushed peanuts until the like powder, added to some olive oil mixed. Until the makes to pasty and added to some seasoning.
After few years, explorers use this product and trade in Spain. Then changed peanut butter is colonies in South American.
The first commercial peanut was grown in North Carolina.
In many years ago, the old aged people could not use teeth chewing meat or hard food. So use peanut butter being a medicine and it is has a nutritious protein substitute for healthy things. An unknown St. Louis physician supposedly have a food products company, he is process and package peanut paste and sale peanut about 6¢ per pound.
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg in his Battle Creek Sanitarium used peanut butter is served the patients and old age people.
Joseph Lambert and Dr. Kellogg first invented peanut butter machine.
Almeeta Lambert wrote the first peanut butter cookbook.
Dr. George Washington Carver developed more than 300 other uses for peanuts, and is considered by many to be the father of the peanut industry.
In the St. Louis World's Fair, Sumner first report peanut butter has a long shelf life. He sold $705.11 of the treat at his concession stand!
Krema Products Company in Columbus, Ohio, began selling peanut butter and is the oldest peanut butter company still in operation today.
In 1914, in many companies began product peanut butter.
Joseph L. Rosefield sold peanut butter in California, churning it to make it smoother. He received the first patent for peanut butter that could stay fresh up to a year.
One of the first companies to adopt Rosefield's process was Swift & Company, later renamed Peter Pan.
Rosefield began producing peanut butter under the Skippy label, and created the first crunchy-style peanut butter two years later.
Procter & Gamble entered the peanut butter business, introduced Jif in 1958. Now owned by the J.M. Smucker Company, Jif operates the world's largest peanut butter plant, producing 250,000 jars every day!
The Arthur D. Little Inc's Centre for Technology and Product Development invented peanut butter to reduced fat as a reaction for growing consumer demand for low-fat foods. This new production substituted poly-dextrose, water, and fat.
In early 20th century, the popularity of peanut butter has inspired the production of other iterations, including reduced sodium peanut butters, smooth and chunky peanut butters, and alternative different nut butters, such as cashew butter. Peanut butter is popular in the world. Now peanut butter became a good ingredient for breakfast in homes.
Food and wage cost
After worlds war 2, there was huge change in the farming, transport and many factory industries, including peanut butter production. Peanut productions were sharp decline, so affect the peanut butter production. So reduced production that increased human's requirements and increased food price. Therefore the price will be with the peanut production have some change. With the peanut production rise the peanut butter production will be rise, so the price will be descend. Opposite if the peanut productions descend the peanut butter production will be descending, so the price will be rise.
Globalization is the increase the connectivity between people or human through international integration, this happens due to innovation in technology for communication imports, exports with increased rate of globe exchange. Likes India and China, labour is very cheaper and reduced production cost. So in these countries more and more factories produced peanut butter. In this lower wage cost, production price will be descending.
It is very important connection of peanut production and peanut butter production. This picture shows the counties which produce the peanut butter:
According to following statistic of Main producing countries in 2008/2009, China, India and US was the top three countries in the world about peanut butter production
China is the largest producer of peanut butter in the world. Planting peanut seed need to warm areas, usually growing in summer. They usually need about 100-150 warm days and free frosts to reach matured. Soil need to rich and soft. And give enough water about 10days until the up a little seedling. Before next summer, you can harvest any peanuts. In this conditions to product a lot of peanut butter. North of China is an ideal place the farming peanuts. So China was increased raw material for peanut butter.
Secondly, India is a largest producer of peanut butter in the world. Because untapped domestic market as the product is relatively new for India. In India, labour is very cheaper and reduced production cost. So in India more and more factories produced peanut butter.
USA is the top 3 producer in the world. In USA a lot of peanut exports production and In USA a lot of people use peanut butter alternative daily food for ingredients. (Paul Barksdale, 2009)
Manual labour: A peanut butter factories need a lot of staffs and workers. Machines control staff need control all machines, packaging staffs need managements packaging and handling, hygiene control staffs need managements all hygiene and safety.
Peanut butter festival on the last Saturday in October, the earliest peanut butter festival in the Southeast, provide a giant boost to the local economy with the annual Peanut Butter Festival harvest and heritage celebration.
Peanut butter is good for health, but sometimes it is a danger to those with peanut allergies. In 20th century, in many schools banned peanuts from their cafeteria menus to avoid problems, must be specially labelled and separate with other foods.
Now, usually the packaging for peanut butter always used by plastic paper, the plastic will pollute environment.
Halal foods including peanut butter, because it is alternatives meat, canned beans and etc. It will be increased peanut butter products.
Change agent (Mary Bellis, 2012)
Joseph Lambert and Dr. Kellogg- In 1896, Joseph Lambert and Dr. Kellogg first invented a churning process have smooth texture. Then invented hand-operated peanut butter machine and selling machine.
Pond Company- In 1932, Rosenfield opened a makes peanut butter company, and named 'Pond Company'. Then making his brand named 'Peter Pan' peanut butter. In the product included a crunchy style peanut butter.
Procter & Gamble- In 1955, Jif began to business to peanut butter. He was opened Procter & Gamble Company began to makes peanut butter. Now this is the most makes peanut butter company in the world. And product 250,000 jars every day.
Innovation (Silver Spring, 2011)
Methods- Before use stone crushed peanuts. Now peanut butter is usually made by two stage grinding operations. The first reduces the nuts to a medium grind and the second to a fine, smooth texture. For fine grinding, clearance between plates is about 0.032 inch. The second milling uses a very high- speed grinder cum mixer that has a combination cutting- shearing and attrition action and operates at 9600 rpm. This milling produces a very fine particle with a maximum size of less than 0.01 inch.
Equipment- Before make peanut butter, we usually use one hand-operated peanut butter machine, now upturn living standards many people use one pulper crushed peanut. From coarse texture to changed soft texture.
Packaging- Before use bowl packing the peanut butter. Now in factories use correct packaging is the main factor in reducing oxidation, manufacturers use vacuum packing. After it is put into final containers the peanut butter is allowed to remain undisturbed until crystallization throughout the mass is completed.
Natural resource- Makes peanut butter mainly use to peanut. Plant the peanut need air, sunlight, water and soil.
Human resource- A peanut butter factories need a lot of staffs and workers. Machines control staff need control all machines, packaging staffs need managements packaging and handling, hygiene control staffs need managements all hygiene and safety.
Mechanical resource- Now many peanut butter factories use some machines chews the peanut, such as a large pulper.
Economic resource- Humans requirements for peanut butter need to set more factories and land set the machines. And these factories can pollute the environments so factories need to more labours and machines. So these factories will add to more capitals.
The improvement of peanut butter production-
In old time makes peanut butter, people use roasted peanuts then use a knife chopped dry roasted peanuts put in a bowl, use stone crushed peanuts until the like powder, added to some olive oil mixed. Until the makes to pasty and added to some seasoning.
Later, people invented chew the machines and use this machine changed past workflow, so have more efficiency and increase production. Before use stone crushed peanuts, now changed soft texture.
Now peanut butter is usually made by two stage grinding operations. The first reduces the nuts to a medium frind and the second to a fine, smooth texture. For fine grinding, clearance between plates is about 0.032 inch. The second milling uses a very high- speed grinder cum mixer that has a combination cutting- shearing and attrition action and operates at 9600 rpm. This milling produces a very fine particle with a maximum size of less than 0.01 inch.
Culinary Production System (Unknown, 2012)
Make of peanut butter have to seven main steps: Pre cleaning and Shelling of Groundnuts, peanut grading, peanut roasting and blanching, grinding, de-aeration, cooling, filling and packing. In modern factories makes peanut butter likes old time. But now have more modern machines like pulper.
Future trends (Katie Waldeck, 2012)
Now, usually the packaging for peanut butter always used by plastic paper, the plastic will pollute environment. In the future, will be changed this packaging and prevent to plastic pollution.
Air freshener- Work the peanut butter in a circular motion on your leather/vinyl furniture and wipe away with a buffing cloth. This method will make your leather/vinyl smell like peanut butter. Mix it with a little perfumed oil to mask the smell. In the future, we can use peanut butter makes air freshener.
Fat free- As more and more people want to lose of fat, so in the future there will create a new type of peanut butter that is free of fat. Therefore the market will be open widely to the people who really want to controlling obesity the peanut butter.
Now usually the increased food price. In the future, I believe more and more people make simple peanut butter at home. So look this trends I think of more and more people do not buy peanut butter that the loss a lot of productions.
In cooking, more and more interesting invent involves flavoured peanut butter. Such as P.B. Loco, tried out even more daring combinations, with Sumatra Cinnamon Raisin, Asian Curry Spice, and Raspberry White Chocolate. This is will be popular in the world.
Application to an establishment (Unknown, 2012)
In bakery to peanut butter served with pies, croissant and peanut butter cookies.
In cafe to peanut butter served with sandwich, cakes, bread and hamburgers.
In restaurant peanut butter usually being a condiment put in dishes.
Compare with buying peanut butter from supermarket and factories, handling makes peanut butter do cost more work labour and original material on it. During the procession, do not have pulper machines, cannot controlled the texture and production quality control. So in family or restaurant, commercial peanut butter will be the best choice.
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