Direct Transfer Of Money And Securities Finance Essay
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Financial market is mechanism that allows people transfer of capital between savers and those who need capital takes place. It also is a place where allows people to buy and sell financial such as stocks and bonds. In addition to supporting previously issued financial assets in exchange for loans and financial markets through the promotion of financial assets from the sale of newly issued loans. Examples of financial markets including the New York Stock Exchange (resale of previously issued shares), the U.S. government bond market (resale of previously issued bonds), the U.S. Treasury Auctions (sales of new issues of Treasury bills). Financial institution is an institution, its main source of profit through the trading of financial assets. Examples of these financial institutions, including discount brokers (such as Charles Schwab and associates), banks, insurance companies, as well as more complex functions, such as Merrill Lynch's financial institutions.
Moreover , financial market can be found in almost every country in the world. There are some very small, only a small number of participants, while others - such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the foreign exchange market -,trillion dollars in daily trading. Therefore , there are three ways available transfer of capital in the financial market that's direct transfer of money and securities , investment banking house , and financial intermediaries.
DIRECT TRANSFER OF MONEY AND SECURITIES
This types of transfer of capital occur when a business sells its stock or bond directly to savers without going through any type of financial institution. From a tax-deferred retirement plan or account type of asset to another. Direct transfer is not considered distribution, so there is no income or subject to any penalty tax in advance the layout. This transfer type is usually no electronic checks are cut from one custodian to another. The business delivers its securities to savers , who in turn give the firm the money it needs.
INVESTMENT BANKING HOUSE
An investment bank not same with the commercial bank or retail banks, investment bank does not take deposit. This is an organization that underwrites and distributes new investment securities and help businesses obtain financing. An investment bank is one type of financial institution that assists individuals, governments and corporation in raising capital by underwriting and or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities. Investment banks also help companies mergers and acquisitions, and provide services such as market making, derivatives, fixed income instruments, foreign exchange, commodities, and asset securitization support services. Other than that , the company can sells its stocks or bonds to the investment bank , which in turn sells these same securities to savers.
Financial intermediaries are specialized financial firms that facilitate the transfer of funds from savers to demander of capital. Some of the financial intermediaries are bank such as commercials banks , insurance companies , investment companies. Financial intermediaries are simply transfer money and securities between and saver . They literally create new financial products. The function of financial intermediaries includes reduce the transaction cost. For the liquidity services , it can saving deposits . financial intermediaries also provide online banking to pay the bills. Besides of that , the intermediary obtains funds from savers in exchange for its own securities. The intermediary then uses this money to purchase and then hold businesses securities. The existence of intermediaries greatly increases the efficiency of money and capital markets.
Moreover . there have a few of categories of financial intermediaries. The categories of financial intermediaries are depository institutions, contractual savings institutions and investment companies.
The depository institution has been divided into depository institution and non-depository institution. Deposit-taking institution in the United States financial institutions such as savings banks, commercial banks, savings and loan associations, or credit unions, in the law to allow the currency to accept deposits from consumers. Federal depository institution is subject to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
Commercial bank or business banks are financial institutions and intermediaries type. This is a bank to provide transactions, savings and money market accounts and time deposits accepted. Commercial bank also is the traditional department stores of finance serve a wide variety of savers and borrowers. It's also expanding the services provided by the range, including food and beverage services and insurance stocks. These commercial banks are institution that run to make a profit and owned by a group of individuals. Actually, commercial banks have some different from investment banks. This is because commercial banks offer loans, while investment banks help companies raise funds from other parties.
SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS(S&Ls)
A savings and loan association that's association that similar to bank is a financial institution which specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage loans. They served personal savings and the supply of residential and commercial mortgage borrowers, they also take the fund from many small savers and lend this money to home buyer and also other type of borrowers. In addition, savings and loan association have more expertise in analyzing credit, setting up loans, and making collections than individual savers, so they reduce the costs and increase the availability of real estate loans.
Credit union is a cooperative financial institutions owned and controlled by its members, to promote conservation, provide credit at reasonable prices, and provide other financial services to its member. their member savings are loaned only to other member , generally for auto purchases , home improvement loans , and home mortgages. Credit unions are often the cheapest source of funds available to individual borrowers.
Next, contractual savings institutions included life insurance companies and pension funds. Life insurance companies provides insurance for you and your family's in order to create peace of mind. Life insurance is a policy that people buy from a life insurance company, it can be a basis of protection and financial stability after one's death. Its function is to help beneficiaries financially after the owner of the policy dies. They taking saving in the form of annual premiums, invest these funds in stocks , bonds , real estate, and mortgages and finally make payments to the beneficiaries of the insured parties.
Other than that , pension fund is a scheme, fund or plan to provide retirement income. This kind of fund is established by employers and organizations to their worker and administered primarily by the trust departments of commercial banks or by life insurance companies. There is two kind of for pension funds, that's defined benefit plans and defined contribution plans. For defined benefit plans , the employer specifies or guarantees the level of benefits the employee will receive when they retires. For defined contribution plans , the employer make specified or defined the payments into plans. When the employee retires , they are determined by the amount of asset in the plan.
The third kind of financial intermediaries is investment companies. There have 2 kinds of investment companies that are financial companies and mutual funds. Financial companies is an organization that provides loans for both businesses and consumers. Finance companies also purchase unpaid customer accounts at a discount from merchants and collect the payments due from customers. They also grant small loans directly to their consumers at a relatively high rate of interest. However , there is some differences between financial companies and bank. they unlike with a bank, finance company do not accept deposits from the public. But , finance company may draw funding from banks and various other money market resources. For mutual funds, mutual funds is an open-ended fund operated by a corporations that accept money from savers and then use these funds to buy stocks , long -term bonds, or short -term debt instruments issued by businesses or government units. Different funds are designed to meet the objectives of different type of savers. For most mutual funds, shareholders are free to sell their shares at any time, although the mutual fund share prices fluctuate daily, after the securities held by the fund depend on the performance
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In short , we know clearly about the financial market information. Financial market is mechanism that allows people transfer of capital between savers and those who need capital takes place.Inside the market we know what are they doing and contribute to our. Other of that , I also can know the function of financial intermediaries and also have what categories inside the financial intermediaries. There are many types in financial intermediaries, I get to know each of them clearly and also a few ways of transfer the funds and after this we know which type of investment are most suitable and better of us.
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