A Explanation Of Different Financial Terms Finance Essay
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The main objective of the Finance Manager is to manage funds in such a way so as to ensure their optimum utilization and their procurement in a manner that the risk, cost and control considerations are properly balanced in a given situation. To achieve the objective the Finance Manager performs the following functions in the following areas:-
The need to estimate/forecast the requirement of funds for both the short term (working capital requirements) and the long term purpose (capital investments).
Forecasting the requirements of funds involves the use of budgetary control and long-range planning
Helps to decide what type of capital structure the company needs to have return: whether these funds would be raised: from loans/borrowings or from internal source (share capital)
To raise sufficient long term funds to finance fixed assets and other long term investments and to provide for the needs of working capital
In projects using the various capital budgeting tools like payback method, accounting rate of return, internal rate of return, net present value.
Assets management policies are to be laid down regarding the various items of current assets like accounts receivable by coordinating with the sales personnel, inventory with production
Taking into consideration, earnings trend, share market price trend, fund requirement for future growth, cash flow situation and others.
Plays a very important role in carrying out negotiations with the various financial institutions, banks and public depositors for raising funds on favourable terms.
The finance manager needs to ensure the supply of adequate, timely and cheap fund to the various parts of the organization.
That there is no excessive cash idling around.
Evaluating financial performance
To need to constantly review the financial performance of the various units of organization generally in terms of ROI (return on investment. Such review assists management in seeing all the funds have been utilized in the various divisions and what can be done to improve it.
Dealing with relevant parties in the Financial Markets
Where the company is a listed entity, the need to interact with the Stock Exchange
To deal with money markets and capital markets for financing or investment of idling funds
To foster relationships with bankers, investors, underwriters of equity and bond issuances and other government regulatory bodies.
For those who are uninformed, they tend to think the sole function of this position is that of the head of Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable, but it goes far beyond that capacity. In fact, the finance manager is in charge of any financing and accounting function throughout the company.
The role of this position involves that of not only financing functions such as Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, and Billing, but it also involves that of budget projections and working with the Chief Financial Officer to make sure that the company's funds are stable and assisting with any budget cuts that become necessary.
The finance manager is the head of both the Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable areas of the company. As such, he will be the one to set policy and direct procedures for both areas of business. That includes hiring staff based upon need, following budget guidelines for expenses including staffing, assuring that procedures are followed by all staff members, setting reasonable quota system to assure work is completed in a timely fashion, and interacting with department supervisors on a regular basis in order to stay abreast of happenings within the department.
The finance manager will also compile reports that show all of the conditions within his department including expenditures, open invoices, production standards, quality control standards, and timeliness of both payment of invoices and processing of payments. The finance manager is also responsible for the billing operation of the Accounts Receivable Department and making sure that guidelines for timely billing are followed as well.
The finance manager also is the one who will work with other executives in order to develop the budget for each year. He will work with the Chief Finance Officer and Chief Executive Officer in order to develop an equitable solution for each year's expenditures in both staff, office supplies, and any other needs that the company has including training, business trips, out of town meetings, and staff entertainment expenses. The finance manager has a very important position within a company, and his decisions will determine the financial stability of the company, at least within the areas that fall under his control. It is also his job to make certain that other departments and areas of the company follow their budgets and make the most use of the company's money by avoiding frivolous expenses.
Nature of Financial Management
Financial management is that part of total management which is concerned primarily with the financial affairs of an organization and the translation of actions, both past and proposed, into meaningful and relevant information for use in the management process. It includes the functions of budgeting, accounting, reporting, and the analysis and interpretation of the financial significance of past events and future plans. It sometimes also includes other related functions such as internal auditing, management analysis, and others. It is not primarily concerned with the technical procedures and methodology of those individual functions. Rather, it is characterized by the coordination and correlation of those functions into an effective and broad system of financial control that will assure that they, collectively more than individually, become an integral part of the management of the organization.
Financial management involves the art of interrelating data to obtain a perspective of the total financial situation that will assist managers in program planning and decision-making. A very simple operating program may require only a minimum of financial management, and this, in some cases, can be provided by the manager himself.
Financial Management is also an important field of Management Sciences. It is a combination of Managerial Finance and Corporate Finance. Managerial Finance concerns with the managerial use of financial techniques, whereas on the other hand, corporate finance deals with corporate financial decisions.
In both the cases, it is extremely important for Managers in an organization. Financial Management is used to determine the best way to use the money available to an organization in order to improve the future opportunities to earn money. Thus the financial managers use techniques such as Valuation, Portfolio management, Hedging and capital structure etc for better decisions about the future of an organization.
On the other hand, it is also used to interpret financial results in a given year or time period using financial analysis techniques. This helps in judging the actual performance of an organization in that time period. Financial management helps in proper allocation of costs, anticipate future expense, and budgeting for the future.
The accumulated net income that has been retained for reinvestment in the business rather than being paid out in dividends to stockholders. Net income that is retained in the business can be used to acquire additional income-earning assets that result in increased income in future years. Retained earnings are a part of the owners' equity section of a firm's balance sheet.
Retained earnings also called retention ratio or retained surplus, it is the percentage of net earnings not paid out as dividends but retained by the company to be reinvested in its core business or to pay debt. Retained earnings are one component of the corporation's net worth and increase the supply of cash that's available for acquisitions, repurchase of outstanding shares, or other expenditures the board of directors authorizes. It is recorded under shareholders' equity on the balance sheet. It is calculated by adding net income to or subtracting any net losses from beginning retained earnings and subtracting any dividends paid to shareholders, as shown here:
Smaller and faster-growing companies tend to have a high ratio of retained earnings to fuel research and development plus new product expansion. Mature firms, on the other hand, tend to pay out a higher percentage of their profits as dividends. In most cases, companies retain their earnings to invest them in areas where the company can create growth opportunities, such as buying new machinery or spending the money on research and development. If a net loss is greater than beginning retained earnings, retained earnings can become negative, creating a deficit.
A debenture is a debt instrument, which is not backed by collaterals. Debentures are backed by the creditworthiness and reputation of the debenture issuer. Besides, a debenture is a long-term debt instrument issued by governments and big institutions for the purpose of raising funds. The debenture has some similarities with bonds but the terms and conditions of securitization of debentures are different from that of a bond. A debenture is regarded as an unsecured investment because there are no pledges (guarantee) or liens available on particular assets. Nonetheless, a debenture is backed by all the assets which have not been pledged otherwise.
Normally, debentures are referred to as freely negotiable debt instruments. The debenture holder functions as a lender to the issuer of the debenture. In return, a specific rate of interest is paid to the debenture holder by the debenture issuer similar to the case of a loan. In practice, the differentiation between a debenture and a bond is not observed everytime. In some cases, bonds are also termed as debentures and vice-versa.
If a bankruptcy occurs, debenture holders are treated as general creditors. The debenture issuer has a substantial advantage from issuing a debenture because the particular assets are kept without any encumbrances so that the option is open for issuing them in future for financing purposes. Usually, debentures are categorized into the following types and their definitions are also given below:
Convertible Debenture: Convertible bonds or bonds that can be converted into equity shares of the issuing company after a predetermined period of time. "Convertibility" is a feature that corporations may add to the bonds they issue to make them more attractive to buyers. In other words, it is a special feature that a corporate bond may carry. As a result of the advantage a buyer gets from the ability to convert; convertible bonds typically have lower interest rates than non-convertible corporate bonds.
Non-convertible debenture: Simply regular debenture cannot be converted into equity shares of the liable company. They are debentures without the convertibility feature attached to them. As a result, they usually carry higher interest rates than their convertible counterparts.
Corporate Debenture: Debentures issued by companies and they are insecure in nature.
Bank Debenture: This type of debentures is issued by banks.
Government Debenture: This includes Treasury Bond (T-Bond) and Treasury Bill (T-Bill) issued by the government. They are usually regarded as risk-free investments.
Subordinated Debenture: This is a particular type of debenture, which ranks below regular debentures, senior debt, and in some instances below specific general creditors.
Corporation Debenture: Corporation debentures are issued by various corporations.
Exchangeable Debenture: They are like convertible debentures, but this debenture can only be converted to the common stock of a subsidiary company or affiliated company of the debenture issuer.
Seed capital means the initial capital used to start a business. Seed capital often comes from the company founders' personal assets or from friends and family. The amount of money is usually relatively small because the business is still in the idea or conceptual stage. Such a venture is generally at a pre-revenue stage and seed capital is needed for research & development, to cover initial operating expenses until a product or service can start generating revenue, and to attract the attention of venture capitalists.
Seed capital is needed to get most businesses off the ground. It is considered a high-risk investment, but one that can reap major rewards if the company becomes a growth enterprise. This type of funding is often obtained in exchange for an equity stake in the enterprise, although with less formal contractual overhead than standard equity financing.
Banks and venture capital investors view seed capital as an "at risk" investment by the promoters of a new venture, which represents a meaningful and tangible commitment on their part to making the business a success. Frequently, capital providers will want to wait until a business is a little more mature before making the larger investments that typify the early stage financing of venture capital funding.
Seed capital in other words can be said as money used as the initial investment for a new product or service launch. Seed capital enables businesses to launch a new product or service without depending fully on a business loan. The funds for this form of financing are typically provided by private investors who are looking for a high return on their investment of at least 30 percent. The investors look to invest in an industry with a market of at least $1 billion, and they also want an industry with few competitors for the business. Businesses that typically obtain seed capital are young companies around one year of age that have not produced a product or service for commercial sale yet. The companies are so new, so it can be difficult to obtain a regular commercial loan that is sufficient for covering all of the related start up expenses.
Cash Credit and Overdraft
Cash credit is a short-term cash loan to a company. A bank provides this type of funding, but only after the required security is given to secure the loan. Once a security for repayment has been given, the business that receives the loan can continuously draw from the bank up to a certain specified amount. This type of financing is similar to a line of credit.
Furthermore, cash credit is a facility to withdraw the amount from the business account even though the account may not have enough credit balance. The limit of the amount that can be withdrawn is sanctioned by the bank based on the business cycle of the client and the working capital gap and the drawing power of the client. This drawing power is determined, based on the stock and book debts statements submitted by the borrower at monthly intervals against the security by hypothecating of stock of commodities and/ or book debts. The excess withdrawal of cash is made generally on demand from the customer and the customer has to pay interest on the excess amount he/she has withdrawn. The cash credit facility is quite useful to those businesses where cash payment like wages, transportation, cash purchases are to be made and the receivables are not realized in time.
An overdraft facility is a formal arrangement with a bank which allows an account holder to draw on funds in excess of the amount on deposit. Overdraft facility financing is most commonly used by businesses as a way of making their working capital more flexible, although it can also be available to individuals. Banks which offer this service typically have a number of expectations from customers who use it, and it is important to be aware of these expectations before entering an overdraft facility agreement.
The idea behind overdraft facility agreements is that sometimes one needs a bit more money than is available on deposit to deal with various expenses. For example, a business which is always slow in March and April might like to use its overdraft facility to make payroll and keep current with all accounts and creditors. Or, a business might need to make a big one-time expense which exceeds the funds on deposit. With an overdraft facility, people can repay the funds at their convenience. The bank may charge an overdraft fee for accessing the overdraft facility, and the interest rate can be higher than that for other types of loans. The bank also has the right to demand repayment in full. Balancing an overdraft facility wisely can free up capital and make people more stable financially, but unwise use can lead people into a spiral of debt which may be difficult to escape.
The amount of an overdraft facility is also curbed; people are not allowed to continually take money out and not repay it. The amount of the overdraft is usually pegged to account history and financial information, with the goal of ensuring that people do not end up borrowing more than they can realistically repay through an overdraft facility. The agreed limit can be negotiated with the bank, and some banks are willing to reevaluate if customers feel that their circumstances have changed.
Similar to personal overdraft facilities, a business overdraft is a prearranged spending limit with your bank. Many businesses find an overdraft useful for those times when cash flow is a problem for a short period of time. Overdrafts are not a good option for funding larger needs, such as capital or expansion expenses. For these needs it is less expensive to obtain a separate business loan. Business overdrafts may also be subject to more fees than a personal overdraft. Examples include fees to open the overdraft, to renew the overdraft, or sometimes even a fee for not using the overdraft. When used judiciously, overdraft facilities can be a great help in managing the occasional financial shortfall.
Commercial paper is a form of financing that consists of short-term, unsecured promissory notes issued by firms with a high credit standing. Generally, only large firms of unquestionable financial soundness are able to issue commercial paper. Most commercial paper issues have maturities ranging from 3 to 270 days. Although there is no set denomination, such financing is generally issued in multiples of $100,000 or more. A large portion of the commercial paper today is issued by finance companies; manufacturing firms account for a smaller portion of this type of financing. Businesses often purchase commercial paper, which they hold as marketable securities, to provide an interest-earning reserve of liquidity. Commercial paper is sold at a discount from its par, or face, value. The size of the discount and the length of the time to maturity determine the interest paid by the issuer of commercial paper. The actual interest earned by the purchaser is determined by certain calculations.
Commercial paper is not usually backed by any form of collateral, so only firms with high-quality debt ratings will easily find buyers without having to offer a substantial discount (higher cost) for the debt issue. For the most part, commercial paper is a very safe investment because the financial situation of a company can easily be predicted over a few months. Furthermore, typically only companies with high credit ratings and credit worthiness issue commercial paper. Over the past 40 years, there have only been a handful of cases where corporations have defaulted on their commercial paper repayment.
There are two methods of issuing paper. The issuer can market the securities directly to a buy and hold investor such as most money market funds. Alternatively, it can sell the paper to a dealer, who then sells the paper in the market. The dealer market for commercial paper involves large securities firms and subsidiaries of bank holding companies. Most of these firms also are dealers in US Treasury securities. Direct issuers of commercial paper usually are financial companies that have frequent and sizable borrowing needs and find it more economical to sell paper without the use of an intermediary. In the United States, direct issuers save a dealer fee of approximately 5 basis points, or 0.05% annualized, which translates to $50,000 on every $100 million outstanding. This saving compensates for the cost of maintaining a permanent sales staff to market the paper. Dealer fees tend to be lower outside the United States.
Bridge financing is a method of financing, used to maintain liquidity while waiting for an anticipated and reasonably expected inflow of cash. Bridge financing is commonly used when the cash flow from a sale of an asset is expected after the cash outlay for the purchase of an asset. For example, when selling a house, the owner may not receive the cash for 90 days, but has already purchased a new home and must pay for it in 30 days. Bridge financing covers the 60 day gap in cash flows.
Another type of bridge financing is used by companies before their initial public offering, to obtain necessary cash for the maintenance of operations. These funds are usually supplied by the investment bank underwriting the new issue. As payment, the company acquiring the bridge financing will give a number of stocks at a discount of the issue price to the underwriters that equally offset the loan. This financing is, in essence, a forwarded payment for the future sales of the new issue.
Bridge financing may also be provided by banks underwriting an offering of bonds. If the banks are unsuccessful in selling a company's bonds to qualified institutional buyers, they are typically required to buy the bonds from the issuing company themselves, on terms much less favourable than if they had been successful in finding institutional buyers and acting as pure intermediaries.
There are 2 types of bridging finance which are closed bridging and open bridging.
Closed bridging finance is where there is a date for the exit of the bridging finance and is sure that the bridging finance can be repaid on that date. This is less risky for the lender and thus the interest rate charged is lower.
Open bridging is higher risk for the lender. This is where the borrower does not have an exact date for the bridging finance exit and may be looking for a buyer of the property or land.
A capital market is a market where both government and companies raise long term funds to trade securities on the bond and the stock market. It consists of both the primary market where new issues are distributed among investors, and the secondary markets where already existent securities are traded. In the capital market, mortgages, bonds, equities and other such investment funds are traded. The capital market also facilitates the procedure whereby investors with excess funds can channel them to investors in deficit. The capital market provides both overnight and long term funds and uses financial instruments with long maturity periods. The financial instruments are traded in this market such as foreign exchange instruments, equity instruments, insurance instruments, credit market instruments, derivative instruments, and hybrid instruments.
The primary role of the capital market is to raise long-term funds for governments, banks, and corporations while providing a platform for the trading of securities. This fundraising is regulated by the performance of the stock and bond markets within the capital market. The member organizations of the capital market may issue stocks and bonds in order to raise funds. Investors can then invest in the capital market by purchasing those stocks and bonds. The capital market, however, is not without risk. It is important for investors to understand market trends before fully investing in the capital market. To that end, there are various market indices available to investors that reflect the present performance of the market.
Every capital market in the world is monitored by financial regulators and their respective governance organization. The purpose of such regulation is to protect investors from fraud and deception. Financial regulatory bodies are also charged with minimizing financial losses, issuing licenses to financial service providers, and enforcing applicable laws.
Capital market investment is no longer confined to the boundaries of a single nation. Today's corporations and individuals are able, under some regulation, to invest in the capital market of any country in the world. Investment in foreign capital markets has caused substantial enhancement to the business of international trade.
The capital market is also dependent on two sub-markets - the primary market and the secondary market. The primary market deals with newly issued securities and is responsible for generating new long-term capital. The secondary market handles the trading of previously-issued securities, and must remain highly liquid in nature because most of the securities are sold by investors. A capital market with high liquidity and high transparency is predicated upon a secondary market with the same qualities.
The money market is a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing and lending with original maturities of one year or shorter time frames. Trading in the money markets involves Treasury bills, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, certificates of deposit, federal funds, and short-lived mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. It provides liquidity funding for the global financial system. The money market consists of financial institutions and dealers in money or credit who wish to either borrow or lend. Participants borrow and lend for short periods of time, typically up to thirteen months. Money market trades in short-term financial instruments commonly called "paper". This contrasts with the capital market for longer-term funding, which is supplied by bonds and equity. The core of the money market consists of banks borrowing and lending to each other, using commercial paper, repurchase agreements and similar instruments.
The money market is a subsection of the fixed income market. We generally think of the term fixed income as being synonymous to bonds. In reality, a bond is just one type of fixed income security. The difference between the money market and the bond market is that the money market specializes in very short-term debt securities (debt that matures in less than one year). Money market investments are also called cash investments because of their short maturities. Money market securities are essentially IOUs issued by governments, financial institutions and large corporations. These instruments are very liquid and considered extraordinarily safe. Because they are extremely conservative, money market securities offer significantly lower returns than most other securities.
One of the main differences between the money market and the stock market is that most money market securities trade in very high denominations. This limits access for the individual investor. Furthermore, the money market is a dealer market, which means that firms buy and sell securities in their own accounts, at their own risk. Compare this to the stock market where a broker receives commission to acts as an agent, while the investor takes the risk of holding the stock. Another characteristic of a dealer market is the lack of a central trading floor or exchange. Deals are transacted over the phone or through electronic systems.
Venture Capital Funds
Venture capital (also known as VC or Venture) is a type of private equity capital typically provided for early-stage, high-potential, growth companies in the interest of generating a return through an eventual realization event such as an IPO or trade sale of the company. Venture capital investments are generally made as cash in exchange for shares in the invested company. It is typical for venture capital investors to identify and back companies in high technology industries such as biotechnology and ICT (information and communication technology).
A venture capital fund refers to a pooled investment vehicle that primarily invests the financial capital of third-party investors in enterprises that are too risky for the standard capital markets or bank loans. Venture capital funds mean an investment fund that manages money from investors seeking private equity stakes in startup and small- and medium-size enterprises with strong growth potential. These investments are generally characterized as high-risk/high-return opportunities. Theoretically, venture capital funds give individual investors the ability to get in early at a company's startup stage or in special situations in which there is opportunity for explosive growth. In the past, venture capital investments were only accessible to professional venture capitalists. While a fund structure diversifies risk, these funds are inherently risky.
Most venture capital funds have a fixed life of 10 years, with the possibility of a few years of extensions to allow for private companies still seeking liquidity. The investing cycle for most funds is generally three to five years, after which the focus is managing and making follow-on investments in an existing portfolio. This model was pioneered by successful funds in Silicon Valley through the 1980s to invest in technological trends broadly but only during their period of ascendance, and to cut exposure to management and marketing risks of any individual firm or its product.
In such a fund, the investors have a fixed commitment to the fund that is initially unfunded and subsequently "called down" by the venture capital fund over time as the fund makes its investments. There are substantial penalties for a Limited Partner (or investor) that fails to participate in a capital call.
It can take anywhere from a month or so to several years for venture capitalists to raise money from limited partners for their fund. At the time when all of the money has been raised, the fund is said to be closed and the 10 year lifetime begins. Some funds have partial closes when one half (or some other amount) of the fund has been raised. "Vintage year" generally refers to the year in which the fund was closed and may serve as a means to stratify VC funds for comparison. This free database of venture capital funds shows the difference between a venture capital fund management company and the venture capital funds managed by them.
Present value means the current worth of a future sum of money or stream of cash flows given a specified rate of return. Future cash flows are discounted at the discount rate, and the higher the discount rate, the lower the present value of the future cash flows. Determining the appropriate discount rate is the key to properly valuing future cash flows, whether they are earnings or obligations. The calculation of discounted or present value is extremely important in many financial calculations. For example, net present value, bond yields, spot rates, and pension obligations all rely on the principle of discounted or present value.
If offered a choice between $100 today or $100 in one year ceteris paribus, a rational person will choose $100 today. This assumes a positive interest rate for the time period. This is described by economists as Time Preference. Time Preference can be measured by auctioning off a risk free security - like a US Treasury bill. If a $100 note, payable in one year, sells for $80, then the present value of $100 one year in the future is $80. This is because you can invest your money today in a bank account or any other (safe) investment that will return you interest.
An investor who has some money has two options: to spend it right now or to save it. But the financial compensation for saving it (and not spending it) is that the money value will accrue through the interest that he will receive from a borrower (the bank account on which he has the money deposited).
Therefore, to evaluate the real value of an amount of money today after a given period of time, economic agents compound the amount of money at a given (interest) rate. Most actuarial calculations use the risk-free interest rate which corresponds to the minimum guaranteed rate provided by your bank's saving account for example. If you want to compare your change in purchasing power, then you should use the real interest rate (nominal interest rate minus inflation rate).
The operation of evaluating a present value into the future value is called a capitalization (how much $100 today is worth in 5 years?). The reverse operation-evaluating the present value of a future amount of money-is called a discounting (how much $100 that I will receive in 5 years-at a lottery for example-are worth today?).
It follows that if one has to choose between receiving $100 today and $100 in one year, the rational decision is to cash the $100 today. If the money is to be received in one year and assuming the savings account interest rate is 5%, the person has to be offered at least $105 in one year so that two options are equivalent (either receiving $100 today or receiving $105 in one year). This is because if you cash $100 today and deposit in your savings account, you will have $105 in one year.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
IRR means the discount rate often used in capital budgeting that makes the net present value of all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero. Generally speaking, the higher a project's internal rate of return, the more desirable it is to undertake the project. As such, IRR can be used to rank several prospective projects a firm is considering. Assuming all other factors are equal among the various projects, the project with the highest IRR would probably be considered the best and undertaken first.
IRR can be treated as the rate of growth a project is expected to generate. While the actual rate of return that a given project ends up generating will often differ from its estimated IRR rate, a project with a substantially higher IRR value than other available options would still provide a much better chance of strong growth. IRRs can also be compared against prevailing rates of return in the securities market. If a firm can't find any projects with IRRs greater than the returns that can be generated in the financial markets, it may simply choose to invest its retained earnings into the market.
Internal Rate of Return provides a simple 'hurdle rate', whereby any project should be avoided if the cost of capital exceeds this rate. Usually a financial calculator has to be used to calculate this IRR, though it can also be mathematically calculated using the following formula:
In the above formula, CF is the Cash Flow generated in the specific period (the last period being 'n'). IRR, denoted by 'r' is to be calculated by employing trial and error method.
Because the internal rate of return is a rate quantity, it is an indicator of the efficiency, quality, or yield of an investment. This is in contrast with the net present value, which is an indicator of the value or magnitude of an investment.
An investment is considered acceptable if its internal rate of return is greater than an established minimum acceptable rate of return or cost of capital. In a scenario where an investment is considered by a firm that has equity holders, this minimum rate is the cost of capital of the investment (which may be determined by the risk-adjusted cost of capital of alternative investments). This ensures that the investment is supported by equity holders since, in general, an investment whose IRR exceeds its cost of capital adds value for the company.
A financial ratio (or accounting ratio) is a relative magnitude of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprise's financial statements. Often used in accounting, there are many standard ratios used to try to evaluate the overall financial condition of a corporation or other organization. Financial ratios may be used by managers within a firm, by current and potential shareholders (owners) of a firm, and by a firm's creditors. Security analysts use financial ratios to compare the strengths and weaknesses in various companies. If shares in a company are traded in a financial market, the market price of the shares is used in certain financial ratios.
Ratios may be expressed as a decimal value, such as 0.10, or given as an equivalent percent value, such as 10%. Some ratios are usually quoted as percentages, especially ratios that are usually or always less than 1, such as earnings yield, while others are usually quoted as decimal numbers, especially ratios that are usually more than 1, such as P/E ratio; these latter are also called multiples. Given any ratio, one can take its reciprocal; if the ratio was above 1, the reciprocal will be below 1, and conversely. The reciprocal expresses the same information, but may be more understandable: for instance, the earnings yield can be compared with bond yields, while the P/E ratio cannot be: for example, a P/E ratio of 20 corresponds to an earnings yield of 5%.
Financial ratios quantify many aspects of a business and are an integral part of financial statement analysis. Financial ratios are categorized according to the financial aspect of the business which the ratio measures. Liquidity ratios measure the availability of cash to pay debt. Activity ratios measure how quickly a firm converts non-cash assets to cash assets. Debt ratios measure the firm's ability to repay long-term debt. Profitability ratios measure the firm's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return. Market ratios measure investor response to owning a company's stock and also the cost of issuing stock.
Financial ratios allow for comparisons
between different time periods for one company
between a single company and its industry average
Ratios generally hold no meaning unless they are benchmarked against something else, like past performance or another company. Thus, the ratios of firms in different industries, which face different risks, capital requirements, and competition are usually hard to compare.
Cash budget means an estimation of the cash inflows and outflows for a business or individual for a specific period of time. Cash budgets are often used to assess whether the entity has sufficient cash to fulfill regular operations and/or whether too much cash is being left in unproductive capacities. A cash budget is thus a statement in which estimated future cash receipts and payments are tabulated in such a way as to show the forecasted cash balance of a business at defined intervals.
The cash budget is one of the most important planning tools that an organization can use. It shows the cash effect of all plans made within the budgetary process and hence its preparation can lead to a modification of budgets if it shows that there are insufficient cash resources to finance the planned operations. It can also give management an indication of the potential problems that could arise and allows them the opportunity to take action to avoid such problems. A cash budget can show four positions. Management will need to take appropriate action depending on the financial position.
A cash budget is prepared to show the expected receipts of cash and payments of cash during a budget period.
Receipt of cash may come from one or more of the following
Payment of debtors (credit sales).
The sale of fixed assets.
The issue of new shares or loan stock.
Receipt of interest and dividends from investments outside the business.
Payments of cash may be for one or more of the following.
Purchase of stock.
Payroll costs or other expenses.
Purchase of capital items.
Payment of interest, dividends and taxation.
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