What are the basic energy sources for electric energy? Electricity is a converted energy. So it’s being the basic energy source for simple motor to the complex computer system. In this aspect it runs our life with efficiency and conveniently. There for it is important to aware where does it come from and how does it create. The electric energy can be generated in various ways but basically there are five different sources for electric energy. We can categorize it like as following.
In hydroelectric energy generation that electricity is generate by using water.This is a method to generate electricity from a renewable source, and generates very little pollution. Here a dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake. Because the water running through tunnels in the dam to the turbines and thus drive generators. The dam is much thicker at the bottom than the top, the pressure of the water increases with depth. Gravitational potential energy stored in the water above the dam. Due to the large amount of water, it will forward to the work under high pressure, which means we can much energy from it. The water then flows away along the river as usual. The first hydroelectric plant in history began producing electricity in 1882. It is located in the state of Wisconsin, the Fox River and is used for the generation of electricity. Hydropower in many countries throughout the world and in Sri Lanka, including Brazil, Canada, Russia, Tanzania, Iceland, North Korea and New Zealand. It seems to be a popular option in almost every area, whether political or economic differences.
It has a number of advantages in relation to other electrical sources:
- Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free
- No waste or pollution produced.
- Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power.
- Electricity can be generated constantly.
- Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations.
But at the same time it has few disadvantages as the dams are very expensive to build. On the other hand building a large dam will flood very large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there. Also hydroelectricity cannot fulfill today’s large require consumption in world.
Electricity from Coal
Coal power is another major resource of electric energy which has been using many parts of the world. Coal is the solid end-product of millions of years of decomposition of organic materials. In truth, coal is stored solar energy. Plants capture the energy from sunlight through photosynthesis, which directly converts solar energy to plant matter. Animals that then eat the plants to convert that energy again, storing it in their own bodies. Over millions of years, accumulated plant and animal matter is covered by sediment and stored within the earth’s crust, gradually being transformed into hard black solids by the sheer weight of the earth’s surface. Coal, like other fossil fuel supplies, takes millions of years to create, but releases its stored energy within only a few moments when burned to generate electricity. Because coal is a finite resource, and cannot be replenished once it is extracted and burned, it cannot be considered a renewable resource.
Electricity from Wind
We’ve used the wind as an energy source for a long time. The Babylonians and Chinese were using wind power to pump water for irrigating crops 4,000 years ago, and sailing boats were around long before that. Wind is a renewable resource because it is inexhaustible. The Sun heats our atmosphere unevenly, so some patches become warmer than others. These warm patches of air raise, other air blows in to replace them – and we feel a wind blowing. We can use the energy in the wind by building a tall tower, with a large propeller on the top. The wind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to produce electricity. When it comes to cost the current costs of wind-generated electricity at prime sites approach the costs of a new coal-fired power plant. Wind power is the lowest-cost renewable energy technology available on the market today. According to the researches, the costs of wind power are projected to continue to fall and may rank the cheapest electricity source of all options by 2020.
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Wind power also has both advantages and disadvantages. It produces no air pollution. They use no water, and there is no need to tear up the land to extract the wind resource that produces wind power. Nonetheless, there may be environmental problems associated with some wind plants. It generates three categories of environmental impacts: visual impacts; noise pollution; wildlife impacts. These impacts can vary immensely from site to site.
Solar electricity is created by using Photovoltaic (PV) technology by converting solar energy into solar electricity from sunlight. Photovoltaic systems use sunlight to power ordinary electrical equipment, for example, household appliances, computers and lighting. The photovoltaic (PV) process converts free solar energy – the most abundant energy source on the planet – directly into solar power. Note that this is not the familiar “passive” or solar electricity thermal technology used for space heating and hot water production. A PV cell consists of two or more thin layers of semiconducting material, most commonly silicon. When the silicon is posed to light, electrical charges are generated and this can be conducted away by metal contacts as direct current (DC). The electrical output from a single cell is small, so multiple cells are connected together and encapsulated (usually behind glass) to form a module (sometimes referred to as a “panel”). The PV module is the principle building block of a PV system and any number of modules can be connected together to give the desired electrical output. PV equipment has no moving parts and as a result requires minimal maintenance. It generates solar electricity without producing emissions of greenhouse or any other gases, and its operation is virtually silent. Sri Lanka lies between 6 and 10 degrees north of the Equator and as such will have limited seasonal variation. However, variations in cloud cover have a significant impact on output from PV. Apart from these basic methods, electricity can be generated via tidal power, wave power, geothermal power and biogas etc. But those energy sources are either in experimental stage or have been used in small scaled projects wise.
Electricity from Nuclear power
Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. This is how the sun produces energy. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electricity. Nuclear power plants are very clean and efficient to operate. However, nuclear power plants have some major environmental risks. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive gases. These gases are to be contained in the operation of the plant. If these gases are released into the air, major health risks can occur. Nuclear plants use uranium as a fuel to produce power. The mining and handling of uranium isvery risky and radiation leaks can occur. The third concern of nuclear power is the permanent storage of spent radioactive fuel. This fuel is toxic for centuries, handling and disposal is an ongoing environmental issue. Nuclear plants are very expensive. And also it would be dangerous for small countries like us. Because the heat from the uncontrolled reaction can melt everything it comes into contact with. Catastrophic accidents could injure or kill thousands of people. For create nuclear plant need huge land are without living creatures (people, animals etc). We need like deserts. So we hard to going to nuclear power.
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