Impacts Of Water Pollution On Humans

3419 words (14 pages) Essay

9th May 2017 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Pakistan is a developing country having urbanized population 33.5% with the increasing migration rate from rural to urban areas. The water pollution in Pakistan and especially in the major cities like Faisalabad is very high which has a variety of effects on economy, ecology and human health. Cost of pollution is very high because of environmental protection measures and improvement measures.The present study was undertaken to assess the different reasons that contribute to the water pollution. The aim of study was to portray the contribution of textile industry in water pollution and its impacts on the economy, human health and environment of Faisalabad (An industrial zone of Pakistan). Waste hierarchy model is used to combat the problem of water pollution. It includes different steps of integrated approach that can be helpful to manage waste pollution.

Key Words: Pollution; Textile; Water; Human Health; Ecosystem; Economy

INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the main elements that are responsible for life on earth. Two-third of the earth surface is covered by water. But we have exploited, mistreated and contaminated this precious natural resource. Today we are very well aware of the term water pollution. It is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has harmful effects on any living organism that uses it (Brittanica encyclopedia). Everyday, 2 million tons of human wastes are disposed of into watercourses. In developing countries, 70 percent of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into water. And half of the world’s wetlands have been lost since 1900 (UN Programme for World Water Assessment, 2009). The problem of water pollution is increasing day by day in Pakistan. Vulnerability of safe drinking water is growing due to this pollution. It has also created a danger to human health. Water born diseases are common in Pakistan (Ilyas, 1998). According to Government of Pakistan, water born diseases are 20-30 percent of all hospital cases (1999-200). All cities are the victim of this problem. But the situation is worst in the city of Faisalabad. It is the 3rd largest city of Pakistan. It is located in the province of Punjab. It has population more than 2 millions. It is the biggest industrial and textile zone of Pakistan. Water pollution has endangered the environment of the city.

REASONS OF WATER POLLUTION

There are different reasons of water pollution in Faisalabad i.e. sewerage system, solid waste, industry and pesticides.

Textile Industry

Most prominent reason of water pollution is the effluents from the textile industry. There are more than 40 textile mills and 6000 small power looms units in Faisalabd (Nosheen-Sofia et.al., 2003).Power loom are small units that are spread in the whole city. The textile industry represents a range of industries with operations and processes that are diverse as its products. It is almost impossible to describe a “typical” textile effluent because of such diversity. Fabrics, after it’s manufacturing, are sent to several wet processes Collectively known as “finishing” and it is in these finishing operations these major waste effluents are produced (Abo-Elela et al., 1988). Most of the units in the city have no proper discharge system and recycling plants. They come through open channels and mix with clean water.

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This waste is highly alkaline in its nature. It affects the water and soil as well. There are many materials that can be found in the water, like chloride, sulphate and phenol. These contents of textile are growing at alarming level. A research conducted was by Nosheen et.al, (above table) they collected many random samples of water that shows the amount of different materials in it.(2003)

We can observe from the above data that the amount of chloride is more in the process of bleaching and the amount of sulphate is high in the process of mixing. Furthermore, we can see that the amount of phenol remained less in all process as compares to chloride and sulphate. According to Pakistan environmental protection agency 67% of collected samples of water were not suitable for drinking (2003).

Textile effluent

Source (www.oilgoneeasy.com/oil_spill_blog)

(ii) Pesticides

Another reason for water pollution in this city is pesticides. Wheat and Cotton are the main grown crops of this region. Pesticides are widely used to control the pests in that area. These chemicals contain human made organic compounds. These chemicals can be migrated to surface water, local watersheds and ground water. Ground water is the major source of drinking water in many areas. Especially where canal and river water is not easily available. According to Hallberg, 40-50% drinking water is pumped through ground water (1998). When these chemicals mix into ground water they contaminate the water and pose threat to drinking water. A research conducted by Akhtar et.al, shows the different amount of components that were present in the ground water of Faisalabad

Sodium is in abundance in Faisalabad groundwater. It was estimated to be 660 ± 430 mg I-I. Only 14.52% samples were below the sodium guideline value of WHO i.e. 200 mg 1-1. Excessive intake of sodium in the form of sodium chloride may lead to vomiting and elimination of the salt. Acute effects may include convulsion, muscular twitching, rigidity, and pulmonary oedema (MSS, 1980). In the past DDT and its metabolites were also sprayed heavily. So their residues are found in the water. They have very harmful effects on water. So water is not safe for drinking in that zone (Tanabe, et.al, 2000).

(iii) Solid Waste

Solid waste is another cause of water pollution. According to the resource conservation and recovery act of America, solid waste includes household waste and commercial waste collected by a municipality within a given area. Solid waste is a big problem in Faisalabd. According to the city district government of Faisalabad, 1275 tons of solid waste per day is generated in the city. But they are only able to collect 51% of solid waste from the total amount. They have no proper collection and transportation system. They also dump the waste into low depressions (performance report, 2009). They have no proper buffer zones to dump the solid waste. These lack of resources and mismanagement leads toward the water pollution because all the unlifted waste discharges into the water bodies. So water is contaminated with different harmful materials. When human drink this water can get many diseases. So the solid waste in many cities of world is damaging the quality of water.

All above factories are responsible for water pollution and it has wide range of effects on environment, plants and humans.

Solid waste

Source (ptj.com.pk/newsite/general-articles/Issue_12

EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION

a. Human Health

Residues of DDT have very harmful effects on humans. For example it can badly affect pregnant women. It can remain in the human milk. For example, Hussian, et.al reported the residues of DDT and its degrading products in human milk in the city of Faisalabd. In this way they can produce negative impacts for the nourishment of child. These chemicals effect the whole generation. Other than DDT, many chemicals that are present in the effluents of textile mills produce wide range of diseases. According to Akhtar et al different samples were taken from the city variety of diseases were found.

The percentage of Diarrhea, hepatitis and typhoid is more as compared to other diseases. Hair loss is one of the diseases that affect humans in that area. There are many contaminations that can cause it. But lead and selenium are the most prominent in it. When water travels from the old pipes, then led contaminate the water. It causes hair loss in the population.

Plants

Water pollution also affects the plants and agricultural crops. It disturbs the quality and quantity of plants. Polluted water contains different heavy metals in it. When this water is given to the plants they produce different abnormalities. Cadmium is the most toxic metal for plants followed by other metals like, Cu, Zn and Pb. Due to the presence of these metals in the water the intake of nutrients to plants is decreased. So it affects the growth of plant. In result, the protein content of plants decreases from 19-71.4 % (Akhtar et.al , 2002). If the protein content is not sufficient then the quality of crop plant is not considered as good. Due to polluted water the amount of Algae is also increased in the water. It decreases the photosynthesis process of other plants and result into negative effects on the growth of other plants. They also disturb the biological oxygen demand level

Ecosystem

Pollution of water has also bad affect on ecosystem. The high chloride content kills some important microorganisms that are important in some food chains of aquatic life (Kumar, 1989). Some animal are very sensitive to water pollution. They absorb chemicals into the water through their skin. So they are badly affected from pollution. Some other insects that have ability to walk on water, they become unable to walk because of this pollution. Other young animals got physiological effects as suffocation and thinning of eggshells to the alteration of neurochemistry (Sean fears, 2009). If microorganisms are badly affected in this way then whole ecosystem may disturb because in an ecosystem each individual level has its own energy share. If some are killed the whole food chain may disturb and result into disaster for any ecosystem. Pollutant compounds are very toxic and are dangerous for fish even at very low level. Furthermore, when human eat this fish, they also get affected. Eventually, this process affects humans as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been poisoned. Pollution from industries, sea ships, fertilizers and urban wastes is coming into water and spoiling the ecosystem (figure 3).

Water is polluted due to industry, sewage and fertilizer run-off. This polluted water goes to the ecosystem and disturbs the whole ecosystem. It results into the death of algae and also plants. These two are also the sources of nutrients for fish. Polluted water also affects the fish. In a result it disturbs the whole ecosystem.

WHY POLLUTION? WHO IS WINNING AND WHO IS LOOSING?

Different scholars and researchers are in debate concerning the current conflicting position with regards to the environmental pollution, renewable and non-renewable resource utilization, environmental degradation, etc. Specifically, environmentalists and economists are becoming the prominent players in this debate (Ewijk and Wijnbergen, 1995).

The issue of environmental sustainability is generally a crucial aspect of human life, which should need a common understanding and thereafter tangible action by the existing generation. Accordingly, the existing environmental problem is a result of improper human involvement in natural resource utilization. The advocate of intergenerational development requests the resilience of nature to its improved state with the introduction of healthy human-nature relationship. Currently, growing principle of self organization and maximum power are the mile stones for the introduction of new era in human-nature liaison (Odum, 2000).

It is obvious that human need and want is much dependent on natural resources. All goods and service that are produced in an industry exploit varied types of natural resources. This indicates that human economic activity is directly linked with the environment. Besides, different economic growth theories are purely relied on the production, consumption and distribution of goods and services from natural resource in order to maintain better economic growth. Significantly, Lopez and A. Toman (2006) argued that, “modern growth theory shows that not only environmental sustainability is potentially compatible with positive economic growth but also, and perhaps more importantly, the failure to achieve environmental sustainability may become an obstacle to sustained economic growth”. In fact, the race for achieving economic growth among the nations resulted in over use of natural resource and challenged the well functioning of ecosystem in general. This statement point out a strong link between the environment and economic growth and it absolutely indicates that our environment is the sole base for all human activity in different ways.

Above figure shows although textile industry and pesticides industry has positive effect on economy.

But both pollute water. This polluted water has adverse effects on human health, biodiversity and ecosystem. We have to spend lot of money to maintain human health, biodiversity and ecosystem. So these all measures put a negative effect on the economy.

SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGRY TRANSFORMATION PROCESS

We should be given higher concern to the thoughts made by Odum (1995) and other environmentalists in order to come up with sustainable environment. We should investigate what the energy hierarchy concept says about sustainability. In the process of energy transformation, the potential energy is spent in production process to provide small output of available energy in different kind (Odum, 2000).

This degraded energy in the process is a burden on environment and may result as a pollution for the environment. So it is necessary to prevent from these difficulties at the heart of the process ( Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi, 1998). Therefore, pollution control decisions are made with little or no regard to the process that generates the waste. As Odum described that the control inputs have much effect on the output of the process (2007).

This perspective gave rise to prepackaged menus of solutions from which options can be chosen and added to the periphery of the process to address environmental problems. Unfortunately, this approach addresses the symptoms of the problem without dealing with the root cause of the environmental problem which lies at the core of the process. It includes several practices like equipment modification, design and operational changes of the process, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and use of environmentally benign chemical reactions. (Mahmoud. M. El-Halwagi, 1998). In conclusion by using these practices we can make the transformation process more efficient and it will reduce the amount of degraded energy.

ECONOMICS OF WATER POLLUTION AND INDUSTRY

Industry is the main source of water pollution in the city of Faisalabad. There are more than 40 textile mills and 6000 small power looms units in Faisalabd (Nosheen-Sofia et.al., 2003). This industry discharge different types of effluents that cause major financial loss to the system.

-Destruction of ecosystem

-Diseases of human and plants

-Starvation, poverty and social conflicts

Changes in the quality of water

Industry

Emissions

Financial losses

(Prices of raw material)

Income losses

Raw material consumption

Modified availability of raw material

Improvement measures

Environmental protection measures

Costs

Costs

Fig. 5 Economic accounting of water pollution

Source (Environmental economic accounting” Available at. www.destatis.de/environment/ German Environmental, property=file.pdf)

Above diagram shows the industry as a source of change in the quality of water and the consumption of raw material. This change in the quality of water may disturb the ecosystem. It can also spread diseases in human and plants. The shortage of raw material can create starvation. Cost of pollution is very high that is shown at two stages. At first stage due to adoption of environmental protection measures and then the adopt ion of improvement measures to remove the harmful effects of pollution and industry.

CONCEPTUAL MODEL TO MANAGE WATER POLLUTION

I think there are many ways to combat the water pollution in any area. First of all, integrated approach may be used. I think we should focus on different technology options with different community based approach. We should device that policy that can work for the uplift of whole community. if we divide the management strategy into different steps then we can combat the pollution in an efficient way. Figure 6, below shows the different management steps that can be utilized to manage pollution. This model is also called the waste hierarchy model. This model gives us a clear picture of management steps according to their importance.

Fig.6 Waste Hierarchy Model

The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle strategies according to their desirability. The 3Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance.

Waste Prevention

If we avoid making the waste in the first place then we won’t have to use resources recycling and disposing of it.

Avoid over packaged products, if you have a choice get the one with the least packaging that you have to put in your black bin

Concentrates are packaged in smaller bottles less damage to the environment.

Avoid Disposables, as the name suggests they are meant to be thrown away instead of cleaning with a paper towel use a cloth inst

Reuse

Often we can reuse items that we have such as carrier bags, also other may be able to reuse items that we do not want.

Auction Websites are an easy way of selling items you don’t want. you’d be amazed at What people will pay for.

Charity Shops take lots more than just clothes if you contact them with all the items you’ve have they will tell you what they can take.

(c) Recycle

Discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. This is different from Reuse in that energy is used to change the physical properties of the material. Initiatives include Composting, Beverage Container Deposits and buying products with a high content of post-consumer.

(d) Disposal

If we produce less waste then we have to dispose of less waste into the landfill.

Source (http://www.derby.gov.uk/Environment/RubbishWasteReCycling)

CONCLUSION

Water is a unique natural resource. But we have exploited and contaminated this natural resource. So many countries of the world are facing water pollution. It is a great challenge to the sustainability of our environment. Sustainability should be taken as distinctive and wide-ranging criterions which guide global development. It is noticeable that currently, the major supply of energy is fossil fuel which is non-renewable. Furthermore, the level of environmental pollution is too high due to high rate of carbon gas emission. This allows the system to reward the environment in unfair way for the damage and it is not based on what the environment is serving the economic system as a whole. Apparently, economists put forward an opposing approach to define sustainability by limiting inter-temporal welfare of human being. Every country has its own specific causes of water pollution. It may vary from industries, solid waste to overuse of pesticides. Being a biggest textile zone of Pakistan, Faisalabad is facing a severe problem of water pollution. Textile effluents are discharging into the water because of mismanagement and lack of infrastructure. Many other factors are contributing to this water pollution like solid waste and overuse of pesticides. This water pollution has severe outcomes. It produces different abnormalities in plants, animals and human beings. We can combat with water pollution by adopting different measures. We can decrease the intensity of problem by using integrated management approach that can work for the development of whole community. We can save the water by imposing new regulations and laws for the polluters. We also need to change our way of thinking about the world and the use of natural resources. In this way we can save a better future for our upcoming generations.

Pakistan is a developing country having urbanized population 33.5% with the increasing migration rate from rural to urban areas. The water pollution in Pakistan and especially in the major cities like Faisalabad is very high which has a variety of effects on economy, ecology and human health. Cost of pollution is very high because of environmental protection measures and improvement measures.The present study was undertaken to assess the different reasons that contribute to the water pollution. The aim of study was to portray the contribution of textile industry in water pollution and its impacts on the economy, human health and environment of Faisalabad (An industrial zone of Pakistan). Waste hierarchy model is used to combat the problem of water pollution. It includes different steps of integrated approach that can be helpful to manage waste pollution.

Key Words: Pollution; Textile; Water; Human Health; Ecosystem; Economy

INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the main elements that are responsible for life on earth. Two-third of the earth surface is covered by water. But we have exploited, mistreated and contaminated this precious natural resource. Today we are very well aware of the term water pollution. It is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has harmful effects on any living organism that uses it (Brittanica encyclopedia). Everyday, 2 million tons of human wastes are disposed of into watercourses. In developing countries, 70 percent of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into water. And half of the world’s wetlands have been lost since 1900 (UN Programme for World Water Assessment, 2009). The problem of water pollution is increasing day by day in Pakistan. Vulnerability of safe drinking water is growing due to this pollution. It has also created a danger to human health. Water born diseases are common in Pakistan (Ilyas, 1998). According to Government of Pakistan, water born diseases are 20-30 percent of all hospital cases (1999-200). All cities are the victim of this problem. But the situation is worst in the city of Faisalabad. It is the 3rd largest city of Pakistan. It is located in the province of Punjab. It has population more than 2 millions. It is the biggest industrial and textile zone of Pakistan. Water pollution has endangered the environment of the city.

REASONS OF WATER POLLUTION

There are different reasons of water pollution in Faisalabad i.e. sewerage system, solid waste, industry and pesticides.

Textile Industry

Most prominent reason of water pollution is the effluents from the textile industry. There are more than 40 textile mills and 6000 small power looms units in Faisalabd (Nosheen-Sofia et.al., 2003).Power loom are small units that are spread in the whole city. The textile industry represents a range of industries with operations and processes that are diverse as its products. It is almost impossible to describe a “typical” textile effluent because of such diversity. Fabrics, after it’s manufacturing, are sent to several wet processes Collectively known as “finishing” and it is in these finishing operations these major waste effluents are produced (Abo-Elela et al., 1988). Most of the units in the city have no proper discharge system and recycling plants. They come through open channels and mix with clean water.

This waste is highly alkaline in its nature. It affects the water and soil as well. There are many materials that can be found in the water, like chloride, sulphate and phenol. These contents of textile are growing at alarming level. A research conducted was by Nosheen et.al, (above table) they collected many random samples of water that shows the amount of different materials in it.(2003)

We can observe from the above data that the amount of chloride is more in the process of bleaching and the amount of sulphate is high in the process of mixing. Furthermore, we can see that the amount of phenol remained less in all process as compares to chloride and sulphate. According to Pakistan environmental protection agency 67% of collected samples of water were not suitable for drinking (2003).

Textile effluent

Source (www.oilgoneeasy.com/oil_spill_blog)

(ii) Pesticides

Another reason for water pollution in this city is pesticides. Wheat and Cotton are the main grown crops of this region. Pesticides are widely used to control the pests in that area. These chemicals contain human made organic compounds. These chemicals can be migrated to surface water, local watersheds and ground water. Ground water is the major source of drinking water in many areas. Especially where canal and river water is not easily available. According to Hallberg, 40-50% drinking water is pumped through ground water (1998). When these chemicals mix into ground water they contaminate the water and pose threat to drinking water. A research conducted by Akhtar et.al, shows the different amount of components that were present in the ground water of Faisalabad

Sodium is in abundance in Faisalabad groundwater. It was estimated to be 660 ± 430 mg I-I. Only 14.52% samples were below the sodium guideline value of WHO i.e. 200 mg 1-1. Excessive intake of sodium in the form of sodium chloride may lead to vomiting and elimination of the salt. Acute effects may include convulsion, muscular twitching, rigidity, and pulmonary oedema (MSS, 1980). In the past DDT and its metabolites were also sprayed heavily. So their residues are found in the water. They have very harmful effects on water. So water is not safe for drinking in that zone (Tanabe, et.al, 2000).

(iii) Solid Waste

Solid waste is another cause of water pollution. According to the resource conservation and recovery act of America, solid waste includes household waste and commercial waste collected by a municipality within a given area. Solid waste is a big problem in Faisalabd. According to the city district government of Faisalabad, 1275 tons of solid waste per day is generated in the city. But they are only able to collect 51% of solid waste from the total amount. They have no proper collection and transportation system. They also dump the waste into low depressions (performance report, 2009). They have no proper buffer zones to dump the solid waste. These lack of resources and mismanagement leads toward the water pollution because all the unlifted waste discharges into the water bodies. So water is contaminated with different harmful materials. When human drink this water can get many diseases. So the solid waste in many cities of world is damaging the quality of water.

All above factories are responsible for water pollution and it has wide range of effects on environment, plants and humans.

Solid waste

Source (ptj.com.pk/newsite/general-articles/Issue_12

EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION

a. Human Health

Residues of DDT have very harmful effects on humans. For example it can badly affect pregnant women. It can remain in the human milk. For example, Hussian, et.al reported the residues of DDT and its degrading products in human milk in the city of Faisalabd. In this way they can produce negative impacts for the nourishment of child. These chemicals effect the whole generation. Other than DDT, many chemicals that are present in the effluents of textile mills produce wide range of diseases. According to Akhtar et al different samples were taken from the city variety of diseases were found.

The percentage of Diarrhea, hepatitis and typhoid is more as compared to other diseases. Hair loss is one of the diseases that affect humans in that area. There are many contaminations that can cause it. But lead and selenium are the most prominent in it. When water travels from the old pipes, then led contaminate the water. It causes hair loss in the population.

Plants

Water pollution also affects the plants and agricultural crops. It disturbs the quality and quantity of plants. Polluted water contains different heavy metals in it. When this water is given to the plants they produce different abnormalities. Cadmium is the most toxic metal for plants followed by other metals like, Cu, Zn and Pb. Due to the presence of these metals in the water the intake of nutrients to plants is decreased. So it affects the growth of plant. In result, the protein content of plants decreases from 19-71.4 % (Akhtar et.al , 2002). If the protein content is not sufficient then the quality of crop plant is not considered as good. Due to polluted water the amount of Algae is also increased in the water. It decreases the photosynthesis process of other plants and result into negative effects on the growth of other plants. They also disturb the biological oxygen demand level

Ecosystem

Pollution of water has also bad affect on ecosystem. The high chloride content kills some important microorganisms that are important in some food chains of aquatic life (Kumar, 1989). Some animal are very sensitive to water pollution. They absorb chemicals into the water through their skin. So they are badly affected from pollution. Some other insects that have ability to walk on water, they become unable to walk because of this pollution. Other young animals got physiological effects as suffocation and thinning of eggshells to the alteration of neurochemistry (Sean fears, 2009). If microorganisms are badly affected in this way then whole ecosystem may disturb because in an ecosystem each individual level has its own energy share. If some are killed the whole food chain may disturb and result into disaster for any ecosystem. Pollutant compounds are very toxic and are dangerous for fish even at very low level. Furthermore, when human eat this fish, they also get affected. Eventually, this process affects humans as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been poisoned. Pollution from industries, sea ships, fertilizers and urban wastes is coming into water and spoiling the ecosystem (figure 3).

Water is polluted due to industry, sewage and fertilizer run-off. This polluted water goes to the ecosystem and disturbs the whole ecosystem. It results into the death of algae and also plants. These two are also the sources of nutrients for fish. Polluted water also affects the fish. In a result it disturbs the whole ecosystem.

WHY POLLUTION? WHO IS WINNING AND WHO IS LOOSING?

Different scholars and researchers are in debate concerning the current conflicting position with regards to the environmental pollution, renewable and non-renewable resource utilization, environmental degradation, etc. Specifically, environmentalists and economists are becoming the prominent players in this debate (Ewijk and Wijnbergen, 1995).

The issue of environmental sustainability is generally a crucial aspect of human life, which should need a common understanding and thereafter tangible action by the existing generation. Accordingly, the existing environmental problem is a result of improper human involvement in natural resource utilization. The advocate of intergenerational development requests the resilience of nature to its improved state with the introduction of healthy human-nature relationship. Currently, growing principle of self organization and maximum power are the mile stones for the introduction of new era in human-nature liaison (Odum, 2000).

It is obvious that human need and want is much dependent on natural resources. All goods and service that are produced in an industry exploit varied types of natural resources. This indicates that human economic activity is directly linked with the environment. Besides, different economic growth theories are purely relied on the production, consumption and distribution of goods and services from natural resource in order to maintain better economic growth. Significantly, Lopez and A. Toman (2006) argued that, “modern growth theory shows that not only environmental sustainability is potentially compatible with positive economic growth but also, and perhaps more importantly, the failure to achieve environmental sustainability may become an obstacle to sustained economic growth”. In fact, the race for achieving economic growth among the nations resulted in over use of natural resource and challenged the well functioning of ecosystem in general. This statement point out a strong link between the environment and economic growth and it absolutely indicates that our environment is the sole base for all human activity in different ways.

Above figure shows although textile industry and pesticides industry has positive effect on economy.

But both pollute water. This polluted water has adverse effects on human health, biodiversity and ecosystem. We have to spend lot of money to maintain human health, biodiversity and ecosystem. So these all measures put a negative effect on the economy.

SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGRY TRANSFORMATION PROCESS

We should be given higher concern to the thoughts made by Odum (1995) and other environmentalists in order to come up with sustainable environment. We should investigate what the energy hierarchy concept says about sustainability. In the process of energy transformation, the potential energy is spent in production process to provide small output of available energy in different kind (Odum, 2000).

This degraded energy in the process is a burden on environment and may result as a pollution for the environment. So it is necessary to prevent from these difficulties at the heart of the process ( Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi, 1998). Therefore, pollution control decisions are made with little or no regard to the process that generates the waste. As Odum described that the control inputs have much effect on the output of the process (2007).

This perspective gave rise to prepackaged menus of solutions from which options can be chosen and added to the periphery of the process to address environmental problems. Unfortunately, this approach addresses the symptoms of the problem without dealing with the root cause of the environmental problem which lies at the core of the process. It includes several practices like equipment modification, design and operational changes of the process, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and use of environmentally benign chemical reactions. (Mahmoud. M. El-Halwagi, 1998). In conclusion by using these practices we can make the transformation process more efficient and it will reduce the amount of degraded energy.

ECONOMICS OF WATER POLLUTION AND INDUSTRY

Industry is the main source of water pollution in the city of Faisalabad. There are more than 40 textile mills and 6000 small power looms units in Faisalabd (Nosheen-Sofia et.al., 2003). This industry discharge different types of effluents that cause major financial loss to the system.

-Destruction of ecosystem

-Diseases of human and plants

-Starvation, poverty and social conflicts

Changes in the quality of water

Industry

Emissions

Financial losses

(Prices of raw material)

Income losses

Raw material consumption

Modified availability of raw material

Improvement measures

Environmental protection measures

Costs

Costs

Fig. 5 Economic accounting of water pollution

Source (Environmental economic accounting” Available at. www.destatis.de/environment/ German Environmental, property=file.pdf)

Above diagram shows the industry as a source of change in the quality of water and the consumption of raw material. This change in the quality of water may disturb the ecosystem. It can also spread diseases in human and plants. The shortage of raw material can create starvation. Cost of pollution is very high that is shown at two stages. At first stage due to adoption of environmental protection measures and then the adopt ion of improvement measures to remove the harmful effects of pollution and industry.

CONCEPTUAL MODEL TO MANAGE WATER POLLUTION

I think there are many ways to combat the water pollution in any area. First of all, integrated approach may be used. I think we should focus on different technology options with different community based approach. We should device that policy that can work for the uplift of whole community. if we divide the management strategy into different steps then we can combat the pollution in an efficient way. Figure 6, below shows the different management steps that can be utilized to manage pollution. This model is also called the waste hierarchy model. This model gives us a clear picture of management steps according to their importance.

Fig.6 Waste Hierarchy Model

The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle strategies according to their desirability. The 3Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance.

Waste Prevention

If we avoid making the waste in the first place then we won’t have to use resources recycling and disposing of it.

Avoid over packaged products, if you have a choice get the one with the least packaging that you have to put in your black bin

Concentrates are packaged in smaller bottles less damage to the environment.

Avoid Disposables, as the name suggests they are meant to be thrown away instead of cleaning with a paper towel use a cloth inst

Reuse

Often we can reuse items that we have such as carrier bags, also other may be able to reuse items that we do not want.

Auction Websites are an easy way of selling items you don’t want. you’d be amazed at What people will pay for.

Charity Shops take lots more than just clothes if you contact them with all the items you’ve have they will tell you what they can take.

(c) Recycle

Discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. This is different from Reuse in that energy is used to change the physical properties of the material. Initiatives include Composting, Beverage Container Deposits and buying products with a high content of post-consumer.

(d) Disposal

If we produce less waste then we have to dispose of less waste into the landfill.

Source (http://www.derby.gov.uk/Environment/RubbishWasteReCycling)

CONCLUSION

Water is a unique natural resource. But we have exploited and contaminated this natural resource. So many countries of the world are facing water pollution. It is a great challenge to the sustainability of our environment. Sustainability should be taken as distinctive and wide-ranging criterions which guide global development. It is noticeable that currently, the major supply of energy is fossil fuel which is non-renewable. Furthermore, the level of environmental pollution is too high due to high rate of carbon gas emission. This allows the system to reward the environment in unfair way for the damage and it is not based on what the environment is serving the economic system as a whole. Apparently, economists put forward an opposing approach to define sustainability by limiting inter-temporal welfare of human being. Every country has its own specific causes of water pollution. It may vary from industries, solid waste to overuse of pesticides. Being a biggest textile zone of Pakistan, Faisalabad is facing a severe problem of water pollution. Textile effluents are discharging into the water because of mismanagement and lack of infrastructure. Many other factors are contributing to this water pollution like solid waste and overuse of pesticides. This water pollution has severe outcomes. It produces different abnormalities in plants, animals and human beings. We can combat with water pollution by adopting different measures. We can decrease the intensity of problem by using integrated management approach that can work for the development of whole community. We can save the water by imposing new regulations and laws for the polluters. We also need to change our way of thinking about the world and the use of natural resources. In this way we can save a better future for our upcoming generations.

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