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The letter from Birhmingham jail explained a clear view and message of different aspect and concise racism to African-American people.Martin Luther King in his reply letter has focused issues related to Injustice ,Racism,Freedom issues promptly by writing to Clergymen.He said, injustice anywhere is always a threat to justice everywhere.Martin says that he believe in the facts like Negotiation , Selfpurification and direct action.In the first talk he has started to talk with the Merchants that they should remove the sign Board of humiliating race. Martin was in favour of launching Direct Action Program but he could not do due to numerous logical problems but later he had started it.As he had got named himself as Extremist that he explained in his letter as he was disappointed that his clergymen colleagus have called him Extreme while he was not it.He said my movement is totally nonviolence so he is disappointed with the label of extreme.
[Reference- Carson, Clayborne. Editing Martin Luther King Jr.: Political and Scholarly Issues. 1993.]
Martin had said to Abraham Lincon that a country can not be half free and half slave.All men are creature of god and created in same fashion and way.King has presented his view in nonagressive style. King had written a letter without attacking his audience. A very good instance of it is found in paragraph eight when King writes about the breaking of promises made to the Negro community by the local white merchants. "As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us"(102). This passage immediately shows that King is recognizing faults but, more importantly, still not laying blame. And with the phrase "that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood"(102). From this paragraph we can see that King again using soft language this time as a way to help unite both sides in the struggle against racism.
[Refernce- Stanford University. 11th Nov 2001. Paper]
King had put his views using facts,narration,comparison,cause and effect analysis.We can see the example of narration in the start of letter in paragraph one itself -While confined here in Birminghan jail , immediately and deliberately is forming the image of poor down trodden people suffereing at hand of unjust society.This is same what King wants to say and convey his message from this letter about emotional plight of Negros. In this letter king had demonstrated his purpose behind protest and its urgency using number of examples and allusions.King's intention was too erase the cloud of racial prejudice.
Reading this letter shows a patriotism in each one of us.Martin said that Racism has no place in a progressive and united nation.We can see the courage of Martin who has challenged and taken leadership in the fight against racism.He said whenever there will be injustice and racial discrimination , he will be there to lead. Laws are framed to keep piece and discipline in society.
King addressed number of issues in the letter.First he had explained of choosing peace protest.He made clear that his fight is in the welfare of whole country.This letter was the part of his peaceful protest.Secondly he uses this letter to address whole country with the message about March.
Lastly purpose of this letter was used as nonviolent attack.Self purification was promoted as part of it.Once King released from jail then this movement has taken a shape in large scale.Socrates was agree with the view of King as he had said that tension is necessary in the mind so that individuals could think beyond bondage of myths and half truths.King said that today academic freedom is possible only because of Socarates who has practised civil disobedience. King has taken Socartes as a refernce and fact to put his view in a prominent way.
Throughout his letter King had compared himself with the biblical character like by saying cause of truth. For instance - Just as the eighth century prophets left their little villages and carried their thus saith the Lord.
So Martin King letter is showing a synthesis of his thinking about nonviolence, politics, philosophy and theology.
Mary Wollstonecraft argued for better quality betwen women and men .
She had written in the 18th centuarey showing earliest work of feminist philosphy.She had responded to theorists who was thinking that education is not needed to women.She advocated that women are equal in society and they should get comnsurate education in society.Women are important to education as they educated to their children.Women can be very good comapnion of their husbandrather only wife.Women dereve same fundamental right as men. She was promted to write the rights of woman after reading the Charles Murice De Talleryan Perigord.
[Reference:- The Complete Works of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd and Marilyn Butler. 7 vols. London: William Pickering, 1989. ISBN 0-8147-9225-1]
Her ambiguos statements regarding the equality of sexes made her doubt over her as she is modern feminist philospher or not.In her point of rational education she said that women should get education rationally to keep them in society.She said that if women will not get education then knowledge transfer will not be done.
In her view she has also highlighted the point of sensibility excessively.It is also point of crticallity.She worried about women considering as only romantic wavering and are only to satisfy the lust of men.She calls on men , rather than women , to initiate social and political changes.Because women are uneducated , they can not alter their own situation, men must come to their aid.
She had addressed middle class in her address which she says as most natural state.She blames to wealthy people and class of scoiety for not contributing in the area of women education.At the same time she said poor are lucky as they would never trapped in snare of wealth.In her national plan for education she had maintained distinction based on class.She also praised the humanity,modesity of the middle class people.
She had written with rheortic way using facts and words like I and You.She had utilized philosphy in full way.She had written in such way that provoked th reader and forced to think and take action on it.She had written like I must relieve myself by drawing picture in different profile.She often compares women with slaves which put her on the thought that women are powerless and living like slave.At one instance, she pointed that women can become either slave or tyrant.She also compared women to soldiers who are valued only for their appearance.
[Reference:- The Vindications: The Rights of Men and The Rights of Woman. Eds. D.L. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf. Toronto: Broadview Literary Texts, 1997. ISBN 1-55111-088-1]
After release of her essay , it was reviewed by sevearl means.Taylor had said that it is immediate success.She said women in most societies preferably in western are facing a third class living and citizenship.She had tried to change the old era of women by writing her book.During her period women were having very less control on their life , men were leading them.She shoed that this is not natural or by nature that women are like it and they should live like it rather she changed this myth.Marry had seen and faced french revolution.
Marry was not ready to sit idle and see the opression of her gender.She wanted to focus that we are all human beings in this society rather focussing and categorization based on sex organs.At her time men were judged by their intellect but women were judged by their modesty and beauty.At that time if men had done sex to women and men is not amrrying her then it was pitty situation for women and at the same time she was boast to society.Finally they were not having any option other than prostitution.This was happening because women were alone and uneducated so they were helpless.She wanted that women should get education in school similiar to men and for the same long period as men.Advancement of socielty is totally dependednt on education of women.
She had explained her philosphical based on the facts like once a uneducated women get widow then there is no one who will teach her childeren.Then a entire family will get depend on a man who is not having any interest in family or love rather in other things subject to lust.Marry said in broader way that educated women will raise educated children with or without husband.
Without her effort , writing her observations and disgust , our society would not have come so far towards equality.
[Reference:- â€¢ General Magazine and Imperial Review 6.2 (1792): 187-191.]
Knower , Known and Knowledge all these are past and time bound. Formulas needs explanation
and this explanation can be presented in the form of Song, Dance, Drama but it might be
deriving myth ideology.So to avoid it there is philoshophy which is always based on
facts.Philoshphy explores all angles of view . It also touches the roots of human
intellect.Philoshphy is a tool to get wisdom for the accured intellect.We can say Philosphy is the
starting point for curriculum development .Philosphy is a tool used by students and teachers to
convey their common sense outlook on educational and curricular matters.
As from Pragmatist school thought knowledge can be created through the experience using
reconsruction.Philosphy is just like the process of creating painting where it reflects the artist's
persepective of subject from ground.
Ancient Greek philosopher Socrates said that unexamined life is not worth living.Philosphy
gives tools to students to examine their own life critically as well as world in which they are
living. Philosphers are lovers of wisdom as from the Greek "philo" = love and "sophia" =
wisdom). We may think that our most and eminent people are having Ph.D. i.e. Doctor
of Philosphy although they are not teaching Philosphy. Philosphy is oldest academic
and not having any boundaries. Tools learned from philosophy can be used in personal
life and will help us to resolve our daily life problems.
Studying philosophy increase below skills in student:-
Openness to new Ideas