Analysis Study Of Colonial Discourse In Literature

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Colonial discourse has been defined by many writers such as Diniz (1996:126) who points out hat “Colonial discourse usually refers to the writing which runs from five hundred years, through the days of European mercantile expansion, to our own time (1996:126).

This definition suggests that the era of Colonialism in literature began in the 17th C. with the publication of Shakespeare’s The Tempest (1611-12). In this paper, however, the term is used to refer to the literature written in English, but confined to the century of British Colonialism and the decades of anti- or post colonial activity which followed.

Said’s Orientalism (1978) uses the concept of colonial discourse to re-order the study of colonialism. So it can be said to inaugurate a new kind of study of colonialism. Said’s Orientalism examines how the East, including the Middle East, is represented in the history and the literature written by the West. The West always looks at the East as inferior people without religion or morals.

Said’s projecttries to show how knowledge about the non-Europeans was part of the process of maintaining power over them. In short, Orientalism is primarily concerned with how the Orient was constructed by Western Literature and not with how such construction was received by colonial subjects. It examines the Western attitudes toward the East. Said concludes that the Western writers depict the Orient as “irrational,” “week” and “feminised other”. This depiction can be contrasted with the depiction of the West as “rational”, “strong” and “masculine”.

Said’s Culture and Imperialism (1994)

Colonial discourse is a concept popularized by Edward Said. In this paper, it refers also to the knowledge of Africa constructed by the West (colonial writers: as Defoe and Conrad) to bolster its colonizing interests, and the reaction of the East (colonized writers as: Achebe). Colonial discourse has not been the product of a certain age and it has attracted the attention of several writers and critics. Those celebrated authors as Conrad and Defoe created remarkable works out of the subject of Colonialism. Nowadays, Colonial discourse is one of the most current issues in literary criticism.

1.2. Life and Works of Defoe, Conrad and Achebe

1.2.1. Life and Works of Defoe:

Danial Defoe was born about 1660 in London. His father, James Foe, was poor but hard working butcher. Defoe was not able to attend traditional institutions like Oxford and Cambridge because of his father’s opposition. Defoe is often considered the father of English novel. He is a master of simple prose and powerful narrative with a love of realistic detail. He is a great imaginative writer who creates one of the most familiar resonant myths of modern literature. He is influenced by the writings of Addison, Steel and Swift. Defoe’s important works are: Robinson Crusoe (1719), Moll Flanders (1722), Capitan Singleton (1720) and The History of Peter the Great and Colonel Jack (1722). Defoe died in London on April 24, 1731.

1.2.2. Life and Works of Conrad

Joseph Conrad was born in December 3, 1857. His childhood was affected by his homeland’s struggle for independence. He is a Polish novelist and short story writer. Conrad is one of the English language’s greatest stylists. He becomes one of the greatest writers in the world. His major works include Heart of Darkness (1902), Lord Jim (1900), The Secret Agent (1907), Under the Western Eyes (1911) and Nostrome (1904). He died of heart failure on August 3, 1924.

1.2.3. Life and Works of Achebe

Chinua Achebe was born in Ogidi in eastern Nigeria on November 16, 1930. His parents instill in him many of the values of their traditional culture. He is one of most well-known post colonial writers. He has become renewed as a father of modern African literature. After publishing Things Fall Apart, he became one of the founders of the new Nigerian literature.

Achebe’s important novels are: Things fall Apart (1959), No Longer at Ease (1960), Arrow of God (1964) and A Man of people (1966). His novels are primarily directed to an African audience, but their psychological insights have gained them universal acceptance. His education in English allows him to capture both the European and the African perspectives on colonial expansion, race, religion and culture.

1.3. The Relevance of the Study

There are many writers who have tackled the concept of colonialism in their works. It is customary to read Shakespeare’s The Tempest as the first important major work to present colonial discourse: the way the colonizer and the colonized portrayed in the characters of Prospero and Caliban. In The Tempest, Shakespeare’s major addition to the story is to make the island inhabited before Prospero’s arrived. That single addition turns the adventure story into an allegory of the colonial encounter.

There are two ways of representing colonialism in literature. The first one is represented by the colonizer’s point of view; the European writers. Those colonial writers are Shakespeare, Defoe, Conard and J.M. Cotezee. Those writers have written plays and novels which deal with the theme of colonialism as Defoe’s with the them of colonialism as Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719), Corad’s Heart of Darkness (1902), Cary’s Mister Johnson ( ) and Cotezee’s Foe (1986).

Those writers give a negative picture of Africa in particular and the East in general. Africans are depicted as “primitrue”, “savages, uncivilized”, inferior and ignorant. As a result of this negative representation of Africa in particular and the East, including the Middle East, which is seen as sub-human in general several critics criticized this subject. Among the critics who criticized this subject are Edward Said, Achebe and other African critics like Ngugiwa, Chinwerza and Nkruma. Those African critics provide a theoritcal frame work to examine the representation of the colonized in the literature produced by the writers belonging to the countries of the colonizer. They have re-written the representation of the colonized from non-Euro. centric perspective.

So their writing is a mean of re-writing the history, the culture from their cultural perspective which is called Afro-centric point of view.

Said’s Orientalism(1978) one of the first works which examines how the East, including the Middle East, is represented in the history and the literature written by the West. The West always looks at the East as an inferior people without religion or morals. Said’s projects tries to show how “knowledge” about the non-European was part of the process of maintaining power over them. It also examines the Western attitudes toward the East.

In short, Orientalism is primarily concerned with how the Orient was constructed by Western literature and not how such construction was received by colonial subjects. Said concludes that the Western writers depict the Orient as “irrational’, “weak” and “feminized other”. This depiction can be contrasted with the depiction of the West as “rational”, “strong” and “masculine”.

Said’s Culture and Imperialism (1994) is another work to explain the complex and the ongoing relationships between the East and the West, the colonizer and the colonized, the white and the black. Said specifically addresses the way in which subjugated people are represented within literature and how it has affected not only these people but also the cultures in which they live.

Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1959) is one of the first books to represent the African image from an Afro-centric perspective. This novel is always seen as a response to the image created by Conrad and Cary.

In this novel, Achebe writes the story of colonization of the Ibo society from an African point of view. In his essay “An Image of Africa: Racism in Heart of Darkness,” Achebe views that Conrad’s treatment of native Africans in Heart of Darkness as racist. Achebe focuses on Conrad’s treatment of Africa as an “other world,” an antithesis at Europe and therefore at civilization” (9th. In Achebe, 3).

Achebe specifically criticizes Conrad’s racism which is expressed through the choice of words, ignorance, fiction, comparison and imagery of the writer. Achebe argues that the choice of words Conrad uses is very limited. He repeats words like “inscrutable” and “frenzy” too many times and at several occasions. Conrad changes these for their synonyms. (Ibid).

According to him, the image of darkness pointed in the book is just the stereotyped view of Europeans towards African as whole. Achebe believes that Conrad is just pleasing the readers by telling them what they want to hear. In his conclusion, Achebe calls Conrad a bloody racist who mock both African land and African people.

1.4. The Method of the Study

This term paper is based on an analytical method. The analysis includes the themes, the characters and the techniques of each novel.

Chapter II:

2.1. The Purpose of the Study

The principle aims of this research are as follows:

To examine the them of colonialism and how its consequences are reflected through Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and Achebe’s Things fall Apart.

To examine how three different writers of two different cultures, races, countries and religions represent the colonizer and the colonized in these three novels.

To compare and contrast literary pieces written from the point of view of European imperialists and the African/colonized perspectives.

To compare and contrast these two “negative and positive” representations of the colonized (Africa) [both as land and people] as it was presented in these three novels.

2.2. The Significance/ Importance of the Study

Chapter III: section 1

(Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe)

3.1.1. Plot Summary of Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe from the perspective of Colonial Discourse

Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719) takes place in the second half of the 17thC. when European companies vied for control and exploitation of colonized lands around the world. Crusoe, the central character, appears to represent his imperialist spirit: first when he goes to Guniea, next when he travels to Brazil and opens plantation, and finally when he becomes king of an island.

Crusoe colonizes the island by building houses, taking Friday as his servant after meeting him and refereeing to the mountaineers as his subjects.

3.1.2. Understanding Colonialism in Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe: Analysis of the Theme and the Characters

Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719) was written when the people of the 18thC. were traveling abroad, discovering new lands and spreading Christianity. They were colonizing lands and imposing their culture and language there. The powerful nation controls the economy, and the territory of a week country. Africa was one of the main colonies of the British Empire and the British were at the centre of power whereas the “Other” were at the margin of power. In other words, the colonizer suppressed the Other, his language and his culture too.

Robinson Crusoe is the second important work to present colonial discourse; the way the colonizer and the colonized are portrayed in the figures/ characters of Crusoe, Friday, non whiteman, and Xury, a servant of Crusoe. The roles of Crusoe, Friday, Xury and the mountaineers have been discussed in terms of rules and subjects in close connection to the treatment of those people by Crusoe. Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is often read in modern times as an allegory of colonialism, and there is much in the last chapters to defend this view.

Friday’s “subjection”, “servitude” and “submission” to Crusoe reflects colonial race relations (Defoe: 185). This is clear when Crusoe thinks that he is helping Friday by making him his servant. Moreover, Colonial terms appear when dealing with the host he mountaineers. Crusoe and the Captain terrify them by referring to a fictional governor of the island who will punish Hem severely. This fiction of governor for shadows the very governor who will no doubt be installed on the island eventually. Because Crusoe has claimed the territory for England.

Indeed, Crusoe refers to this community as ‘my colony’ in the island, which makes us, the readers, wander whether he really consider it his own or it is officially a colony or figuratively so.

As the novel sheds light upon the theme of colonialism, the reader observes the way the colonizer and the colonized are portrayed in it. In the novel, Crusoe, the central character, is the representative of colonialism whereas Friday is the symbol of the subjects races. Friday is instructed, given language and converted to Christianity, Crusoe’s religion.

Crusoe’s instructions on Friday are examples of his attitudes towards human beings who he trained to do his work. As a colonizer, Crusoe wants to spread his religion. He refers to Christianity and to the Bible in order to convert Friday to Christianity. Crusoe teaches Friday the word “master” even before teaching him “yes” or “no” and lets him know that was to be Crusoe’s name (Defoe:185).

Crusoe refers to himself as king over the natives and Europeans, who are his subjects. Moreover, Friday is an example of the “self” and the “other”. Crusoe instructs him, gives him language, in order to help him to run his Empire on the island. He is an example of the “Other” because he is only servant.

Pennycook suggest that “Colonialism is probably the context without equal of contractions of Self and Other’ (2002:10). We can observe the process of this construction in the dialogues between Crusoe and Friday:

Master: Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they take? Do they carry them a way and eat them, as these did?

Friday: yes, my nation eat mans up too; eat all up.

(Defoe: P.192).

In such dialogues, we can see the relationship not only between Self and Other as constructed by colonialism but also between these and English. Friday has been given a very particular, colonizing English words to expenses his cultural background, besides his speaking in Crusoe’s own language.

Phillispson’s discussion (1992) of Crusoe’s lessons to Friday is one of the earliest instances of English linguistic imperialism which he calls as “the locus-classical” of the start of English linguistic imperialism to Crusoe, and he has no right to disobey him.

Phillipson states that Crusoe’s-Friday’s relationship reflects the “racial structure of Western society at the hey day of slavery” (P.109). Phillipson sees Crusoe as the epitome of imperialist slavery, i.e. a key figure in the European attempt to gain political and economic mastery over the large areas of the world. According to Brantlinger, “what Crusoe cant’s master- or get to call him “master”- he sees only as savagery and desert island.” (1990:P.2).

Crusoe’s relationship with Friday comes in several layers. At one point in the novel, Crusoe refers to Friday’s people as “blinded, ignorant pagans” (Defoe:170). The relationship between them is like that between Crusoe and Xury. Earlier, Crusoe has told Xury that if he will be faithful to him, he will make him a great man. As soon as the Captain offers 60 pieces of gold for Exury, Crusoe accepts it and sells him for the sake of economic gain. Crusoe stands for the colonizer who occupies the other countries under the pretext that he educates and develops the nation.

Crusoe, as a colonizer, changes Friday’s language, religion, habits, culture and even his name. This is how the colonizer imposes his own language, religion, culture and identity on the occupied nations. The banishment of Friday’s religions beliefs emphasizes the colonization theme.

Crusoe’s attitude towards Friday is reflected in his description. His attitude is that of a master-servant. He requires a complete subservience and faith fullness from Friday. Crusoe looks upon Friday as a creature when he will care for, giving him water, food and clothing. Crusoe does not even try to learn Friday actual name which shows the European supremacy theme in the novel. Crusoe gives Friday his name as he has done with his parrot, Poll.

Regarding the Euro-centric attitude of the time, Defoe ensures that Friday is not Crusoe’s equal in the novel. Friday is clearly a servant and inferior in rank, power and respect. Crusoe’s vocabulary reveals much about how he imagines his role on the island. He starts to describe himself as “generalissimo” of an army with Friday as his “lieutenant-general.”

At the very opening of the novel, he is a mere castaway but towards the end, he openly refers to himself as a national leader of military forces. We sense how deeply ingrained Crusoe’s imagined national role as a king of this island when he refers to his new guests as his subjects.

Friday is probably the first non white character to be given a realistic, individualized and human portrayal in the English novel. Friday has a huge literary and cultural importance. If Crusoe represents the first colonial mind in fiction, then Friday represents not only a Caribbean tribes man but also all the natives of Asia, Africa, and America who would later be oppressed in the age of European colonialism.

When Crusoe teaches Friday to call him master, Friday becomes an enduring political symbol of racial injustice in modern world and critical of imperialist expansion. Recent rewritings of the story of Crusoe, like Cotezee’s Foe and Tournier’s Friday, emphasize the consequences of Crusoe’s failure to understand Friday and suggest how the tales might be told very different from the natives’ perspective. In any case, Crusoe has turned his story of one man’s survival into a political tale replete with its own ideas about imperialism.

In short, it is not surprising that contemporary readers regard Defoe’s novel as the prototypical colonial novel of the 18thC. if not in all of English literature. To conclude, this novel is not only a reflection of colonialist practices, but part of large discourse concerned with the colonial customs of the British Empire.

3.1.3. Analysis of the Narrative Techniques in Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe

Defoe combines many narrative methods in Robinson Crusoe to make the novel authentic and realistic. These techniques are narration (point of view), the use of irony, attention to details, symbols and the use of dates and names of places. Robinson Crusoe is both the narrator and the main character of the novel. He narrates the story in both the first and the third person, presenting only what he himself observes. He describes his feelings occasionally but only when they are over whelming. He usually favors a more factual narrative style focused on actions and events.

Another important narrative device is the use of symbols and irony. As for the symbols, the author uses three symbols like the foot print, the cross and the bower. The foot print stands for Crusoe’s conflicted feelings about human companionship in whole he interprets it negatively as the print of all the devil. The cross symbolizes Crusoe’s new existence on the island and the power stands for the radical improvement in Crusoe’s attitude toward his time on the island.

As for the irony, it is a literary device for Defoe. There are several examples of its use in the novel, but the best example are the discovery of the foot print and the warning of Crusoe’s father. First, Crusoe ignores his father’s advice;

“…if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that was ever born,” (Defoe. P.4)

Second, Crusoe wishes for human beings to come because he was alone, but when he sees the foot print of a naked man, he is afraid. Crusoe comments on this irony:

“How strange a checker work of providence is the life of a man…. Today we love what tomorrow we hate; today we seek what tomorrow we shun; today we desire what tomorrow we fear.” (Defoe: P140).

The third narrative technique is the use of a circumstantial method which tells us not only what Crusoe did but how he did it. There are numerous examples of the uses of details such as Crusoe’s project in raising of the crops of barley and rice on the island, killing the gouts and making a sieve, and the description of the ship wrecks and Crusoe’s adventures. Such details produce the effect of realism. The last method is the use of dates and geographical place-names. All of these devices add to the realistic effect of the novel.

Chapter Three: Section Three: Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

3.3.1. Plot Summary of Things Fall Apart from the perspective of Colonial Discourse.

Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1959) traces the life in the Ibo village of Umuofia just before and after its initial contact with European colonialists and their Christian religion. The novel is divided into three parts: the first part deals with the life of the Ibo people before the arrival of the while man, illustrating various aspects of Ibo’s way of life.

The second part deals with Okonkwo’s exile and the arrival of the missionaries and the effect of their arrival, including the conversation of Nwoye to Christianity. The third part deals with the effects of the white man’s religion, education, power, laws and economics on the tribes’ culture.

The first signs of colonization come to Abame when the first white man appears. He is killed by the people of Abame on the order of the Oracle who tells them that the white man would be soon followed by others and he would destroy their way of life. As a result, the village has been destroyed by other white men. During Okonkwo’s exile, the white man comes to both Umuofia and Mbanta and wins many converts. When Okonkwo returns to Umuofia, he finds that life begins to change. Therefore, he stands up to the colonizers in an attempt to protect his culture. When he kills a British messenger, Okonkwo realizes that he stands alone, and he hangs himself.

3.3.2. Understanding Colonialism in Things Fall Apart: Analysis of the Theme and the Characters

Achebe’s Things Fall Apart relates the story of disintegration falling apart of an African society that came in contact with Western values as a result of the colonization. The novel explores the coming of the white man and its effects on the culture of the people of Umuofia.

The coming of the white man brought about culture conflict which affects the people of Umuofia’s religion, their agriculture, their judicial system and their social life. The collapse of a society that was strongly united is told through the story of Okonkwo and the village Umuofia. The novel shows the general disintegration of this culture when it is attacked by another culture.

The incursion of the colonizer is changing every aspect of the Ibo society such as religion, family structure, gender roles, relations and trade. The colonizers bring language, religion, education, commerce, government and law to Umuofia which are unquestionably disruptive. Okonkwo, the representative of the Ibo culture, realizes that the white man has been too successful in his ways to change the tribes’ ways. He grieves the loss of his tribe and the life he once knew.

Okonkwo feels betrayed by his son who joins the white missionaries and his élan who have not stood up against the white intruders. The arrival of the white man and his culture heralds the death of the Ibo culture. The while man does not honor the tribe’s customs and strives to convince the tribes’ men that their ways are better. As a result of colonialism, the tribe is split, pitting brother against brother and father against son. Many of the tribe’s leaders have joined the missionaries and the tribal beliefs and customs are being ignored. Okonkwo’s final act of resistance exemplifies how Africans and other colonized people have courageously resisted colonialism instead of passively accepting it.

In Things Fall Apart, the representatives of the colonizer are Mr. Brown, Mr. Smith and the District commissioner and the colonized are Okonkwo and the entire Ibo society.

Achebe gives the reader a dramatic contrast between the first white missionary Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith who replaces him. As his name suggests, Mr. Brown is able to navigate successfully the racial division between the colonizer and the colonized. Mr. Brown appears reasonable, respectful, kind, patient and an open-minded man who is willing to make effort to respect and understand the Ibo beliefs. Mr. Brown succeeds in winning a large number of converts because he listens to the villager’s stories, beliefs, and opinions. He be friends many great men of the élan and discusses religious beliefs with them. He accepts the converts unconditionally. Mr. Brown is the most influential character in the novel who does not encourage the conflict between the old and the new faith.

Mr. Brown realizes that the direct attack with Ibo is useless. Therefore, he adapts a very clever policy by building a school, hospital and finally a church. Achebe states:

“In this way Mr. Brown learnt a good deal about the religion of the élan and he came to the conclusion that a fro natal attack on it would not success”. (Achebe: 163).

Then he asks the people to send their children to the school and argues that the leaders of Umuofia will be men and women who can read and write. It is Mr. Brown who warns them that strangers like the District commissioner will come from other places to rule them.

Actually, Mr. Brown is a man who loves peace and respects the traditional culture. So there was no conflict between the Ibo culture and the Western culture during his period. He has a real interest in the welfare of the Ibo people. As an individual, he is a good representative of his society. Mr. Brown stands for the bright side of the colonizer.

Another representative of the colonizer is Reverend Smith who replaces Mr. Brown as the new head of the Christian Church. Mr. Smith is strict and uncompromising, the opposite of Mr. Brown who was kind and compassionate. Unlike Mr. brown, Mr. Smith encourages people to hate the traditional people and their religion. Mr. Smith is the stereotypical white colonist. He has no respect for the culture or the traditions of the Ibo.

Mr. Smith remains ignorant of all the traditions and therefore has no hope of being respected enough. Mr. Smith thinks he is superior and others are inferior. Mr. Smith sees things as “black and white and black [is] evil”. (Achebe: 166).

Smith’s black and white thinking leads to the destruction of the church and the clash between both cultures. As a result of this new missionary, the Christians attack the Ibo belief and culture and insult the tribes’ traditional customs. One of their victims Okonkwo, whose return co-insides with the arrival of Mr. Smith, the new faith divide father from son. Smith’s policy and treatment of the Ibo people show that the colonialist system is more primitive than the Ibo system.

The District Commissioner is another figure of the colonizer. He seems more inhuman because he takes interest in Okonkwo’s suicide only because it will give him a new material for his book. He decides to title his book The Pacification of the Primitive Tribes of the Lower Niger.

This decision demonstrates his knowledge about African as primitive and his inability to recognize how he has brought violence instead of peace to the Lower Niger. By concluding his novel with the District Commissioner’s misinterpretation and misinterpretation writing of the scene of colonial encounter, Achebe suggests that his novel is not simply about the colonial encounter between two different cultures. By drawing the attention to the District Commissioners’ erroneous sense of history. Achebe reminds the realer that the Western descriptions of Africa have largely been written by men like the District Commissioner. Consequently, Things Fall Apart seek to correct such erroneous historical records by retelling African history from an African perspective.

In brief, Achebe’s Things Fall Apart illustrates what happened to the Ibo society at the time of its colonization by the British and how the colonialism affects the Ibo in many different ways; their religion, family, children and their dead. Achebe describes what happens when different cultures works against each other.

“… Now he [the white man] has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us tpgether and we have Fallen apart”. (Achebe: 160).

In this lines Oberika seems to voice Achebe’s own thought on colonialism. Okonkwo’s suicide at the end of the novel represents the end of the Clan’s ancient way of life because he represents the clansman.

3.3.3. Analysis of the Narrative Techniques in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

Achebe uses a number of techniques un Things Fall Apart such as the mixture between English language and Ibo vocabularies, use of proverbs and folk tales, symbolism, use of similes and metaphors, comparisons and contrasts and the shift from present tense to past and again to present.

The first method that Achebe uses is to develop a hybrid language that mixes Ibo and English words by introducing numerous African terms thought the novel like Chie (personal God-Fate), Obi (hut), Agbala (a man without title) and Osu (outcast). Achebe uses English language as a model of communication between people and to convince the Europeans that Nigeria is a nation with great potential. Achebe uses his language to draw the reader’s attention to his own language. Another important method is the use if Ibo proverbs as well as traditional folk tales which bring to life the oral culture of Ibo and indicate their intelligence, knowledge, morals, the strong religion and the culture of the country.

Early in the novel, Achebe says: “if a child washed his hands, he could eat with the kings.” Referring to Okonkwo (Achebe:8). This implies that if Nigerians washed their hands, the country could be just as important as Britian.

The third method is Achebe’s use of similes and metaphors to bring the narrative to life and his use of different kinds of comparisons that are related to the Ibo experience as “proverbs are the palm oil with which words are eaten.” (Achebe: 6). The novel is developed in terms of comparison and contrast between the characters like the comparisons between father and son; Unoka and Okonkwo and between friends like Nwoye and Ikemefuna, Unoka and Okoye Oberika and Okonkwo.

Fourth, Achebe provides considerable detail about many aspects of traditional African life like family and clan relation, ceremonies and rituals, social structure (gender relations), political and religions practices and the role of nature in their world.

This digression helps the reader to understand the daily activities and religious beliefs of the Ibo people. Achebe shifts from present to past then to present while describing the events and the characters.

The best method is the narrative voice. May critics see Things fall Apart as a book with two narrative voices: the traditional which dominates the first two/third of the book, and the modern which takes over the last third. Other critics see the book as narrated by a single narrator, whose tone changes and adopts overtime. The narrator mediates between the individual and the community, between the present and the past. All the previous devices make the novel authentic and realistic.

3.3.4. Comparisons and Contrasts between these three texts

Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe and Acheb

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