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In this assignment we will be looking at organisation behaviour and the different aspects, form perceptions to managers and leadership. We will look at case studies on organisations. Here I also looked at Robert Mugabe. Then looked at mangers and leaders in general. Then we will compile a full report of our findings.
1.1 Here we will be looking at the process of perception within the work situation, and what can influence a manager's relationship with staff, how they go about it. To help explain this we will be looking at the principles and supporting them with examples.
As being manager you cannot attend to everything, the sensory basis has limits. Therefore managers are selective in their attention and perception. So therefore this will influence the relationships with staff members. The initial factor that influences ones process of perception and attention is internal factors. This basically relates to how you would see an individual as they are. You could perceive one on their appearance. For example you see a person who is not dressed well and was sloppy, you would perceive them have a low intellectual level. Also body language can influence ones selectiveness to attention and perception. For instance someone who has poor posture and does not give eye contact and looks unprofessional won't give a high level of production as some who is the opposite.
Another factor that falls under internal factors that will affect a manager's perception is psychological factors. These factors such as motivation, learning, intelligence, training and so on will affect the stimuli that will allow a manager to perceive an individual. A person may want to learn new things in an organisation and is motivated to do work, is enthusiastic about work, this will give a good perception of the person to the manager. This brings out the “Pollyanna Principle” that if the perception is good, the stimuli will be processed faster as bad perception.
The factor of language is very important as it will allow people to perceive one another and the environment in which they are in. For example the language one may use will be different from when they in a business environment rather than a social one. If the person uses the wrong language type in a work environment, using social language to their manager, the perception won't be good.
The next factor is external factors, this is viewed as the environment the individual is in rather than the actual individual. This gives a person or manager the perception and stimuli the environment the person is in. Factors such as loud, large, bright and so on. An example would be maybe in a office the person working in it is playing the radio, the type of music and the volume can influence ones perception and stimuli.
1.2.1 Anne's main motivating factors before and after her collapse can be best explained using two motivating theories. One is being Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model and Herzberg's two factor theory. Maslow's models shows individual needs are organised in a series of levels of importance. Herzberg's has two factors, first being motivation and job satisfaction.
Before Anne's collapse her main motivating factors were:
• She could gain work and commercial experience
• She had a sponsored year to study in America to get her MBA
• She was made a partner
• She got executive privileges which were first class travel, top corporate salary, free of the companies London flats.
After her collapse and return to health, she found herself with a pile of work that had to be done. Since she was not there she felt she had to get it done. So her motivation was guilt to get the work done. Yes she still gained experienced, but her motivation changed. She was work orientated but she want a change of life, a better personal life. This can be contributed to Maslow's self actualisation, self esteem and love and safety. Before her collapse her motivations were different from after the collapse and she never reached self actualisation. So that's when her motivations changed.
1.2.2 Yes, I would give her the job as she has enough experience and qualifications. Form this case study you get the impression that she know what's she is doing and is very good at her job. She is a goal orientated person, so the motivation I would give her is lots of goals throughout the year for her to achieve. That why she will stay motivated. Yes, she had motivation factors from her other jobs, like experience and executive privileges. I would also give her different motivation, such personal and work recognition as opposed to recognition for her gender in that specific field.
1.2.3 Issues that might be raised in her annual appraisal are:
• Her performance
• Her work attitude
• Is she happy
• Anymore required training
• Salary review
• Contract review
• Leave taken or still in play, or other leave issues
They should all be done in a professional manner, everything must be documented. all aspects must be dealt with. If there are any problems with the issues they must be seen too and dealt with. Then from there we can see what needs to be done or there will be any change.
1.2.4 There are many type of motivation theories that a manger can use in the work place. All people/employees need motivation in the work place. The word motivation can be defined as “the effort or drive that an individual puts into an activity” (Ncube,2009,38).
Probably the best two known motivation theories are Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg's Hygiene Theory. Maslow's theory is a series of levels of needs, in order to satisfy the last need which is the need for self-actualisation we need to satisfy each need in turn stating from the first one onwards. Whereas, Herzberg's theory concentrates on job satisfaction and being motivated in the work place. You would think that money would be a main motivator for people, but he said that motivation for people is achievement, recognition and so on.
There are more motivation theories but all of them give an indication on how managers can motivate their staff in the work place. If the staff are motivated in the work environment it will make them work harder and be more happy in their job.
1.3 There are many factors that can influence an individual to behave in a certain in a department of an organisation. In an organisations all individuals need to be managed
We will be looking at personalities within an organisation, as in all organisations there are employees with different personalities. Personality is basically a person's characteristics that allow them to behave in certain ways. The personality of a person can tell a lot about them, some characteristics may be viewed as stable or un stable, meaning if they stable they have a consistent personality. There are many personality characteristics like assertiveness, weakness, independence and self-control or lack of self control. Personality can have many potential influences such as employees differences, influence on work performance, cliques. For example two employees may not have the same personality types and don't see eye to eye. Therefore there is tension.
Different people have different abilities and employees in an organisation may apply their abilities differently to others. There is a Hierarchy of abilities. It basically has three main. The first one is major factors, the general factor for this spatial and mechanic ability. Its a specific ability like verbal educational ability. The next one is minor factors. The general factor would mechanical reasoning, which is also a specific ability like verbal reasoning. The factor is specific operational skills. The general factor for the specific operational skills is dexterity test which is once again a specific ability, an example of it will be a vocabulary test (Mullins 2007,136-137).
Attitudes are basically the manner in which someone acts and behaves. Attitudes are a part of life and people have learnt attitudes all their lives. They allow one to respond to various things in different ways. There are a few functions of attitudes. They can include knowledge, the interpretation and classification and the way in which attitudes take this information. The next one is expressive; attitudes are expressive and allow them to express how they fell about something. Attitudes cannot be predicted, you can't look at someone and their attitude. As attitudes cannot be seen. Also people's attitudes change all the time. Someone does not keep the same attitude all the time, they are continuously changing depending on the person.
In all organisations today, there is diversity within the organisation. Some of the factors of diversity can be:
• Age- there will be people of all sorts of ages within an organisation, there might be some older and younger generation people.
• Gender- also organisations these days are not subject to one type of gender to work in the organisation. Both female and male should be working in one organisation
• Race- all types of races are working in organisations. People should be allowed to work in organisations whatever their race is
Some other factors
• Work experience
• Marriage status
• Income status
There is lots of diversity within organisations today so they need to be managed in the proper ways dealt with the managers of the organisation. They have to stop any conflict that might come about because of diversity and make sure whether male or female, black or white that they are all managed and happy. All people should also get equal opportunities, doesn't matter if they married gay or straight if they qualified they should get equal opportunities.
2.1. First of all we need to look at the definition of what a group is. A group is a “collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goals” (group n.d).
Now we are going to look at the four main stages of group development.
Bass and Ryterband indentified four distinct stages of group development. They are:
• Mutual acceptance and membership- this is basically when members will accept one another into the group. Like new people joining the group, for a group to work in a effective and efficient way, all the members must accept who is in the group and identify each other's membership within the group.
Whether its formal or informal groups.
• Communication and decision making- in a group there should always be communication. Communication is key in a group. The members need to communicate between one another. So a group should be able to communicate well and make decisions with ease.
• Motivation and productivity- as like anyone in an organisation, groups need to be motivated in various ways. This will increase the productivity of the group. Last thing an organisation wants is a group that is unmotivated and less productive.
• Control and organisation- all groups need control and organisation in order to be productive.
The relationships and behaviour that most common to groups in an organisations. They have been identified as 5 main stages. Tuckman identified:
• Stage1:forming- this is when the group is brought together. The individuals identify the purpose of the group. The groups structure is made, who is the leaders, what are the various responsibilities. Some members are tested by other members here
• Stage2:storming-this is when the group gets to know one another. Members put their views forward, it may cause disagreements and conflict. Some members might no like what others have to say but this is a stage of working things out
• Stage3:norming-this is when conflict has been controlled and the members set guidelines, rules and standards for their group. They set how they want to work as a group. This allows them to cooperate as a group
• Stage4:performing-this is when the group can work together as a group and work towards the purpose and performance of the task on hand
• Stage5:adjouring-this is when the task is finished and members move on, especially if its been a long group task. Members might feel sad at the end of it all
2.2. First of all a work team is “Cross-functional, multi-skilled, and self-directed group of employees responsible for its own assignments, cost control, goals, quality control, work orders, work scheduling, and other such duties and tasks. Work teams are most useful where job content changes frequently and employees with limited skills and a specific set of duties are unable to cope” (team work n.dl).
There are some reasons why a group or team would be formed. They include:
• Some tasks can only be done when there are a number of people involved. Different people have different skills, experiences and expertise that will make some tasks easier to do.
• Some people might need companionship or understanding and support from other people who are in the same team. This can help with solving problems and could be a type of motivation
Being in a team might give one the sense of belonging. This will give one an identity and a chance to have a status in a group (Mullins 2007,306).
So as you can see, a team is very similar to a group. Within an organisation there are many groups and work teams, there are marketing teams, and many others. My work team I am going to identify, is the finance team within an organisation. This is a very important team in an organisation as they work with the finances of the business. They make sure that things are paid in time that they get money back from their debtors as soon as possible. They see if the business is making or losing money. They need to work in an effective and efficient way and always be on top of their work, communicate with each other, as it is dealing with the businesses money. The purpose of this work team is too benefit the business in a financial way. Make the finances of the organisations are correct and not being done incorrectly. There are many characteristics to an effective group/team. Some are:
• A belief in shared aims and objectives- teams members should all work towards the aims and objectives of the organisation
• A sense of commitment to the group-all members should be committed to the group/team so they can all work together
• Acceptance of group values and norms- everyone in the team must all agree on the values and norms so that there is no conflict.
• A feeling of trust and dependency- all members should trust each other, can't have a team that can't talk to each other cause they don't trust one another.
There needs to be a balance between team and individual building. Although there are many advantages of working in a team, such as improvement in communication, co-operation and co-ordination in a business. It also creates creativeness and energy. It also allows the team to become more effective and efficient. There still needs to be a balance between team and individual. That can be done by allowing each group member to know what their roles and responsibilities exactly.
Then they work alone and then put forward their opinions when needed.
Building successful is very important within organisation. Groups, teamwork etc is becoming more used in businesses today. This will make the manager aware of some interrelated factors. Such as:
• Classifications of objectives and resources
• Management styles and leaderships
• Training and development
• Social processes and the informal organisations
Performance of the task will be affected by the characteristics of the members. So all of the above is for an effective work team. All organisations should take into account these factors in order to have well formed work teams. Last thing a business wants is teams that do not work together.
3.1) There are different approaches to leadership.
They all are different and have different characteristics. The first approach in leadership styles is the qualities or traits approach. This approach believes that are born, and they are not made. So from the time they are born, they are leaders already. This is basically inherit traits or characteristics. They focus on the person of the job and not the job itself.
The next approach is the functional approach. This is also known as the group approach. This focuses not on personality traits or the people of the jobs but the leadership functions. They believe the leader can be trained. They also see how the leader affects or is affected by a group. It also focuses on what they do. There are 3 areas. Team functions, task functions and individual functions.
Leadership as a behavioural category is basically the kind of behaviour people in various leadership position have and the influence on group performance. Also looks at behaviour of leaders in different situations. This consists of two dimensions. Consideration and structure.
Now we going to look at styles of leadership. This is how the functions of leaderships are carried out. It looks at how different managers react to their employees and to certain situations. Every manager has their own leadership style. Whether its a authoritarian style, democratic style or laissez-fair style. Then are four styles of leadership, tells, sells, consults and joins.
The situational approach and contingency models focuses on situation being a main factor in the behaviour of managers. Although situation is a main factor, this approach can be limited due to a number of various factors. Such as some people might be effective in some situations but not all the time. Contingency theories don't believe there is one style of leadership right for all situations. That is why there are contingency and situational models. Look at different situations and give leadership characteristics. Some of the models are, Fiedlers, Vroom and Yetton, Vroom and Jargo models.
The last two approaches is transformation and inspirational leadership. The first one is about motivating followers and getting commitment. Also creating visions. There is transactional and transformational leadership. The second one is based on personal qualities and charisma of the leader. This also deals with the manner in which the leader works and influences people. These two approaches are linked together. As they both are very similar.
3.2) There were so many great leaders to think about for this particular task.
There are some presidents, freedom fighters, some leaders that are not good people but yet still very good leaders. So it took a while to come up with a decision. The leader I have chosen to write about is probably one of the most hated men in the world right now. Still he is a leader. I am going to write about Robert Gabriel Mugabe. As you know he is the President of Zimbabwe. He was born in1924, which will make him 85 years old. Robert Mugabe was raised and educated as a roman-catholic. He was educated in missionary schools where he received 7 degrees. Robert Mugabe is a guerilla leader. He came into power in 1980, where he spoke of peace. Even after civil wars. Since then he has ruled Zimbabwe, back then he was a totally different type of president. In the past few years he has changed. Instead of peace and co-operation, he went into war with his own country. Since then he pushed over 75000 white Zimbabweans out. Now his country is almost nothing. Many years ago I was staying in the same hotel as him in Zimbabwe, back then he was a good leader and he was loved. Now if people don't support him he is against them and wont worry about hurting them (Anon. 2000, Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's Strongman).
There are a number of different types of leadership styles, but we need to find the right one that suits Robert Gabriel Mugabe best. Now we can look at this in two different ways. First being that Robert Mugabe was once a different person. So you could look at his leadership style back then. The second one being that we look at Robert Mugabe leadership style now. I think if we compare the two we will see an enormous difference. In the past he was a good leader like I said before. Everyone loved him, black people and white people.
Let's look at his leadership style when he just came into power in 1980. When he came in, Zimbabwe just got over being ruled by white-colonials and civil wars. Even though that happened, he wanted peace, cooperation and fairness whether you were black or white. Robert Mugabe had the qualities of being a great leader. He was a democratic back then. Where he believed to take into consideration of the country as a group. He wanted to better the country. Then he had more strengths than he had weaknesses. A lot has changed since then.
Let's look his leadership in the present time. He has changed since he has come into power. He went from being someone who was loved to someone who some say is the next Hitler. They were and are both leaders whether they were good or bad. We not sure that made him turn into someone like this. He is now ruling the country and doing what he wants and not caring about the people of the country. His leadership style is now an authoritarian style. He holds all the power and makes the decisions. Even when he agrees for change he changes his mind very quickly. He doesn't care about anything but himself. They say its for the love for his country but is that the truth? He has the “tells” style of leadership, where he just tells people what to do and they must do it or they will be punished. Mugabe has too much power and he knows it which almost gives him the right to do whatever he wants.
Like I said, years ago he had more strengths than weaknesses, but now that has completely changed. Let's have a look at the various strengths and weaknesses of Robert Gabriel Mugabe:
• He is a well educated person, having 7 degrees.
• His got very good health, being 85 years old and still going strong.
• His love for his country.
• Being a strong individual, not letting anything get him down.
• Different types of experience, being in power for so long.
• Being an authoritarian.
• Not caring about the people of the country.
• Being corrupt.
• Being the type of person that doesn't care about hurting people.
• Not wanting to change things.
• Having too much power.
• Wanting absolute control.
So as you can see he is not a good person, far from it . Robert Gabriel Mugabe is still a leader and has been for most of his. He will continue to be a leader for the rest of his life. Will he ever change? We don't know. Either way, his done some terrible things, yet he has put himself in the history books.
Effective Management: a question of context
We looked at the case study titled “Effective Management: a question of context?”. There is a debate of the effectiveness woman managers and the difficulty they find in performing in traditionally dominated sectors. Work is traditionally viewed as a male orientated arena. It speaks about the issues of managerial effectiveness in relation to gender. There was a CIPD study (2004) that said woman in senior positions in an organisation can be placed into three general categories. They are the corporate high flyers, soloists and pioneers and submarines(Mullins 2007, 475-477).
Here we are going to look at some effective leadership and management styles, roles and behaviours. There are a few styles of leaders and they were:
• Coercive leaders: so these are basically leaders that prefer immediate results. This could be related to the autocratic style of leadership.
• Authoritative leaders: these leaders who are able to guide people to a certain goal. This could be related to the democratic style of leadership
• Affiliative leaders: those whole have a emotional connection to their staff or followers. This could be related to the laissez-faire style of leadership
• Democratic leaders: these allow employees to participate in decision making. This could be related to the democratic style of leadership.
• Pacesetting leaders: they want everything to be of excellence and everyone to be self-motivated. This could be related to the autocratic style of leadership.
• Coaching leaders: they want to teach people for the future. This could be related to the laissez-faire style of leadership
(Mullins 2007, 388).
Most leaders use a number of these styles in order to be more effective. There is no one best form of leadership style as there are a few variables that affect the effectiveness of a leadership style. One variable can be the characteristics of the manager, another could the type of power the manager has and the reason for their leadership style. More variables could include the characteristics of the followers, the relationship between the leader and followers. So as you can see there many aspects that can influence the effectiveness of leaders. So leaders will have different types of roles depending on the style they are and therefore will have different behavioural patterns.
Now we are going to look at effective managerial style, roles and behaviour. There are three main roles of managers. They are:
Interpersonal Roles- some of the roles are:
• Figurehead role
• Leader role
Informational Roles- some roles are:
• Monitor role
• Spokesperson role
Decisional Roles- some roles are:
• Disturbance role
• Resource allocator role
• Negotiator role
The styles of a manager are very similar to the styles of a leader. Like leadership styles, management styles also have autocratic and democratic styles which are explained above. Another style of management is the Paternalistic style. Which the manager is more concerned that their employees are happy. The behaviour of managers can vary like the behaviour of leaders. Depending on the style and roles of the manager, it will influence the behaviour of the manager. There are many characteristics that can be part of the way a manager can behave. Could be the type of work they do, or the type of people you having to manage, or the type of organisation they work in.
It has been argued that effective leadership and managerial styles, roles and behaviours are universal and others contextually determined. If you go into any organisation anywhere in the world you will find leaders and managers. All organisations need leaders and managers. Some leadership and management styles might be the same. Some leaders and managers tend to have the same styles. Take China as an example, the whole country is run be a dictator. Therefore that falls under an autocratic management and leadership style. So you will probably find most business managers and leaders are dictators. Therefore that is universal. In some other cases leaders and managers might have a leadership or management style that was influenced and determined by the kind of environment they are working in or are surrounded. Therefore I will agree with the statement. Its like the same concept some leaders are born a leader as where some leaders are made into leaders.
This report is about a company called Direct Telecommunications PLC. The chairman of Direct Telecommunications is David Williams. DT was one of the most successful telecommunications companies. Direct Telecommunications was very asset rich. Now DT is finding them in trouble as they have gotten themselves into some serious debt. This has put pressure on David Williams as the shareholders are not happy. Most of the blame has been put on David Williams. There were a number of suggested reasons of what went wrong. So we have to give David Williams advise in order to change Direct Telecommunications.
Management and leadership
Management and leadership do have some sort relation to one another. See a manager is a person who is in charge of certain group tasks or activities. They are also in charge of a staff of people who are to report them. When there are specific office projects a manager will be in charge too and also within a business there are departments and each department will have a manager (business dictionary n.d). So basically managers work with people and manage them.
Leaders are similar, but leaders hold superior or dominant power. So they lead people and get work done through other people. So as you can see they both got to do controlling people in some way. It will still be better if David Williams became more of a leader than being a manager. Being a manager is still essential, in order for David to make the changes in order to save Direct Telecommunications he needs to become a leader. He cant just manage his staff he needs to lead them. Leaders are able to adapt to change, such as new technologies and so on. He might also need to motivate his staff through this tough time. So it is very important for David Williams to become a leader.
Characteristics of a successful leader
• First characteristic of a successful leader is the ability to listen, as most leaders don't listen but do too much talking
• Next one is being able acknowledge and change as a lot of people find it hard to change. They think the way they do things is the best
• The ability to form one - on - one relationship with people. People, customers or employees need to be able to get hold of you, so it's important for the leader to make themselves available to the various people, especially if its new business
• The ability to know yourself. A leader should know themselves, like what they most best at, their strengths. Also what their weaknesses are. Leaders must not forget who they are, if they do they should be able to seek assistance
• Probably one of the most important characteristics of a successful leader is the ability to communicate with others. As we all know communication is a huge factor in any organisation. So a leader must be able to communicate correctly whether its customers or employees
• A leader should be able to motivate people, especially through tough times.
• They must also be confident, also optimistic. They must be sure of themselves and not be afraid of taking risks and possibly failing. They should be positive
• A leader should enjoy what they do, be passionate about their job, this will also help in motivating people, as if they were not passionate they wouldn't be able to do their jobs well
• Also they must want the organisation to grow, so they must have patience and dedication
“Top 10 characteristics of a successful leader” ( L, Lee 2008).
So as you can see David Williams need to have these characteristics. Managers these days are leaders.
Disadvantages of a Hierarchical Organisation Structure
There has emphasis on rules and procedures, as record keeping and paper work is becoming more important rather than a means to an end. So basically people or organisations are too busy keeping records or paper work of different rules and procedures in order to solve situations, instead of when a situation arises the take action. Another disadvantage is that someone night depend on their hierarchical status. Might be through symbols or rules. So someone will go through life in the work place on their hierarchical status, for example a manager might use that status in order to get lower positioned people to do their work. There could be bad communication between employees and other staff. A higher positioned employee could of not communicated with their employees properly, so therefore communication was lost. Some employees do not like change, so if someone of a higher position, like a manager, makes change they will maybe not get the cooperation of their employees, but since they are a manager and are of higher position they can make changes that the employees have to do. So they might think they doing something for the better so therefore it creates tension. There could also be jealously if one person gets a promotion and the person you used to work with is now your boss (Mullins 2007, p. 48-49).
A responsive organisation is well what it says, an organisation that responds. So basically it is an organisation that responds well to different aspects that might influence that organisation. They are quick to respond on these aspects. Its good for an organisation to be responsive.
The benefits of a responsive organisation are:
• They are quick to take action if a situation arises within the organisation
• They are able to adapt when change occurs
• They are always aware of problems and situations outside the business
• They are able to take care of problems and situations whenever.
DT should always be aware of what is happening around them, inside and outside the business. As situations or the need for change comes about they need to act upon it then and there. Not leave decision making for the committee, DT shouldn't wait for change they should know about what needs to be changed, like technology. DT needs to be a more responsive structured organisation. They can have people in the organisation that can take care of this and David Williams needs to be responsive himself.
So we have looked at that David Williams needs to become more of a leader rather than being a manager, so he needs to acquire some of the skills and characteristics that a successful leader has. Also that DT has a hierarchical organisation structure, which has its disadvantages, so therefore David Williams needs to take action in order to help the company and become more of a responsive organisation.
I had to a lot of research in order to find some of the required answers. This allowed me to learn more about the different aspect to this subject. Especially the report on Robert Mugabe, I learned a lot more about him as a person and as a leader. Also found out what it takes to become a successful leader. The over all of the assignment was quite interesting.
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