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Language is a system of communication of a nation. Every nation has their own historical, civilized, cultural, climatic characteristics, so every nation has their own language. However, different nations have similarities and differences in expressing their ideas. Studying similarities and differences between idioms of comparison in English and Vietnamese is liable to help the researcher to affirm that. Moreover, making some comparisons is a good way to memorize English idioms of comparison effectively and enjoyably. Hence, translation skill can be improved thanks to more knowledge about idioms. In addition, making comparisons between English and Vietnamese idioms can help the researcher to understand more about cultures of both of countries since similarities and differences in culture reflect coincidences and dissimilarities in ways of thinking and looking at the world of English and Vietnamese people.
Idioms of comparison in Vietnamese and English
A Contrastive Analysis
Idioms of comparison are applied frequently in literature and in daily life. It serves as a tool to make the language more graphic. However, every language has differences in ways of expressing the same idea using idioms of comparison.
The goal of the study is to discover some common types of comparison used in English and Vietnamese idioms. In addition, the study chiefly aims at finding out some similarities and differences between comparison idioms in both English and Vietnamese.
Because there are so many comparison idioms in both languages, it is impossible to include all of them in the study. The study can just explore comparison idiomatic expressions which play an important part in the purpose of the study.
Theoretical background of idioms in English
Definition of idioms in English
The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defines idioms as: "A group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words" (Hornby, 2006, p.740).
The viewpoint is supported in A Dictionary of Linguistics & Phonetics. The author regards an idiom as "a term used in grammar and lexicography to refer to a sequence of words which us semantically and often syntactically restricted, so that they function as a single unit" (Crystal, 1985, p.225).
According to A Dictionary of Linguistics, an idiom is "any expression peculiar to a language, conveying a distinct meaning, not necessarily explicable by, occasionally even contrary to, the general accepted grammatical rules" (Pei & Gaynor, 1954, p.95).
Feature of English idioms
When mentioning semantic features of idioms, we had better focus on the figurative meaning of idioms. It is the most important characteristic of idioms to know whether an expression is an idiom or not. According to Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary:
A idiom is a group of words which, when they are used together in a particular combination, has a different meaning from the one they would have if you took the meaning of the individual words in the group. (Sinclair, 1987, p.718)
Smiley & Goldtein (1998) also suggest that "idioms are certainly more than the sums of their parts" (p.76). That means the meaning of components of an idiom is different from the meaning of the whole idiom. That we can guess the meaning of an idiom or not depends on open or closed classes. As Yong and Peng (2007) suggest:
In open class combinations, individual components are freely recombination and are used in a common literal sense. As co-occurrence of individual components is expected of this class of combinations, both their meaning and structures are predictable amenable to analysis. (p.178)
For instance, we can guess the meaning of the idiom "turn over a new leaf". "Turn over" means to "make something change position so that the other side is facing towards the outside or the top" and "a new leaf" is a leaf which is more beautiful, more perfect. Therefore, the meaning of the idioms can be guessed as "to change your way of life to become a better, more responsible person".
However, in close class combinations, we cannot guess the meaning of idioms. That is because "they are characterized by semantic opaqueness, syntactic restrictions and structural stability" (Yong & Peng, 2007, p.178). For example, the idioms "spread oneself too thin" or "for the birds".
Idioms have "a fixed form - that usually cannot be changed" (Heacock, 2003, p.ix). However, Heacock (2003) also claims:
Not all fixed phrases are idioms. For example, "close your eyes" is a common fixed phrase, but not an idiom because each word in it is used in its standard meaning. The phrase "keep your skirt" is an idiom, however, because the phrase does not mean "do not take off your skirt" - it means "stay calm". (p.ix)
Idioms can be divided into six different forms or structures:
+ Idioms located at noun entries such as "in addition to'", "for the birds"â€¦
+ Idioms located at verb entries such as "look forward to", "take off", "hear about"â€¦
+ Idioms located at adjectival entries such as "in short", "hot under the collar"â€¦
+ Idioms located at adverbial entries such as "once again, "worse off" â€¦
+ Idioms located at pronominal entries such as "give it up", "come to nothing"â€¦
+ Idioms located at numeral entries such as "give a hundred percent", "one by one"â€¦
It's really important to know that modifying any components and functional words can lose the idiomatic meaning (Yong & Peng, 2007).
Theoretical background of idioms in Vietnamese
Definition of idioms in Vietnamese
According to Tá»« Äiá»ƒn Thành Ngá»¯ và Tá»¥c Ngá»¯ Viá»‡t Nam:
Thành ngá»¯ Tiáº¿ng Viá»‡t là nhá»¯ng tá»• há»£p tá»« ngá»¯ cá»‘ Ä‘á»‹nh có cáº¥u trúc tá»« hoáº·c câu nhÆ°ng hoàn toàn thuá»™c pháº¡m trù cáº¥p tá»«, Ä‘Æ°á»£c mã hóa háºu háº¿t Ä‘á»u có tính cháº¥t cách Ä‘iá»‡u nghá»‡ thuáºt, và chá»‰ làm má»™t thành pháºn trong câu nói. (Nguyá»…n, 2010, p.5)
As Nguyá»…n (2007) has noted in his book, "thành ngá»¯ là táºp há»£p tá»« cá»‘ Ä‘á»‹nh Ä‘ã quen dùng mà nghÄ©a cá»a nó thÆ°á»ng không thá»ƒ giáº£i thích Ä‘Æ°á»£c má»™t cách Ä‘Æ¡n giáº£n báº±ng nghÄ©a cá»a các tá»« táº¡o nên nó" (p. 8).
Features of Vietnamese idioms
Idioms are characterized by figurative and metaphorical meanings. Therefore, it's too difficult to comprehend although we know the meanings of all their components. For example, "láº¥y thúng úp voi", "gà Ä‘á»ƒ gà cá»¥c tác", "Ä‘i guá»‘c trong bá»¥ng"â€¦ Especially idioms are originated from fairy tales, folk talesâ€¦such as "ba que xá» lá", "tháº±ng cháº¿t cãi tháº±ng khiêng", "ná»£ nhÆ° chúa Chá»•m", "sÆ° tá» Hà Äông"â€¦ (Nguyá»…n, Nguyá»…n & Phan, 2009).
Idioms usually consist of more than 3 components whose counterpoint, alliteration and rhyme are combined with each other in many different ways. There are some idioms of comparison such as "nóng nhÆ° lá»a", "khóc nhÆ° mÆ°a", "nhanh nhÆ° chá»›p"â€¦ Also, there are some idioms which are created according to counterpoint, alliteration such as "tai to máº·t lá»›n", "miá»‡ng hùm gan sá»©a", "cùng há»™i cùng thuyá»n", "ong bÆ°á»›m láº£ lÆ¡i"â€¦ Besides, some idioms are originally spoken words in everyday speech which are usually used again and again for a long time and then develop figurative meanings to become idioms, for instance "chá»Ÿ cá»i vá» rá»«ng", "theo voi hít bã mía", "nÆ°á»›c cháº£y chá»- trÅ©ng", "Ä‘i guá»‘c trong bá»¥ng"â€¦ (Nguyá»…n et al, 2009).
Theoretical background of English idioms of comparison
At first, we should find out the definition of idioms of comparison which are also called similes. There are a lot of definitions of simile. According to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, "simile is a word or phrase that compares sth to sth else, using the words "like" or "as", for example "a face like a mask" or "as white as snow"; the use of such words and phrases" (Hornby, 2006, p.1369).
An idiom of comparison is also defined as:
the comparison of two nouns with different meanings, using the words like or as to make the connection. Friendship is like ice cream, fear moved like lighting, and leaves feel as slippery as fish are examples of similes". (Tucker, 2002, p.41)
There is also a similar but shorter definition in The Challenge of Effective Speaking: "A simile is a direct comparison of dissimilar things using the word "like" or "as"" (Verderber, Verderber & Sellnow, 2008, p.197).
The meanings of similes are figurative. Take the simile "as tall as a tree" as an example. When you say: "Minh is as stubborn as a mule", you mean Minh is so stubborn, not Minh is as stubborn as a mule. Therefore, the simile "as stubborn as a mule" is considered figurative.
Learners can sometimes be confused between similes and metaphors but they are really different:
A metaphor, like a simile, is a comparison between two essentially unlike things. In contrast to a simile, however, where an explicit comparison is made (The eye is like a lamp for the body), the metaphor makes an implicit comparison (The eye is lamp of the body). (Robert H. Stein 15)
Huff (2004) asserts that "the only difference between simile and metaphor is that metaphor does not use the words "like" or "as" to make the comparison" (p.98). In other words, two distinctly different things in a simile are connected by "like" or "as" while a metaphor "is an implied but in many ways even more direct than comparison because the reader is expected to identify the comparison without the word "like" or "as"" (Osborne, 1997, p.124). However, "because similes merely join two disparate ideas or images, they are generally less fertile than metaphors, which can evoke additional and fresh shades of meaning" (Ehrenhaft, 2008, p.145).
Theoretical background of Vietnamese idioms of comparison
In Vietnamese, there are 2 kinds of idioms of comparison: one employs the word "nhÆ°", "tá»±a", "tày", "báº±ng", "tá»±a nhÆ°" or "cÅ©ng nhÆ°" and one doesn't.
Based on similarities of characteristics of 2 things, 2 phenomena, 2 actions, the Vietnamese create a large number of idioms which use A to name or to modify B.
Eg: Máº·t trái xoan: oval-shaped face.
Star: a famous and talented person (usually in art, sport, culture).
The other kind of idioms of comparison includes the word "báº±ng", "tày", "tá»±a", "sánh", "nhÆ°" or "cÅ©ng nhÆ°" which divides an idiom into 2 parts.
Both of parts can be a noun, verb, phrase or clause. The second part whose function is predicating and complementing the first part is counted from comparative word.
Eg: In the idiom "tá»™i tày Ä‘ình", "tày Ä‘ình" is the complement of the noun "tá»™i".
In the idiom "cháº¡y nhÆ° bay", "nhÆ° bay" is the complement of the verb cháº¡y.
A contrastive analysis of comparison idioms in English and Vietnamese
There are about 700 idioms of comparison in English, for example, "as warm as sunbeam", "to follow like a shadow", "to work like a Trojan",â€¦ There are a similarity in the number of idioms of comparison in English and Vietnamese. Some examples of Vietnamese idioms of comparison are "láº¡nh nhÆ° tiá»n", "xanh nhÆ° tàu lá"â€¦
Similarities of idioms of comparison in English and Vietnamese
Although the culture of two nations is different, ways of thinking and looking at the world of English and Vietnamese is somehow similar. Hence, both Vietnamese and English express ideas and concepts in the same way. In fact, a large number of Vietnamese idioms of comparison are similar with English idioms of comparison in terms of both concept and image to express.
English idioms Vietnamese idioms
As black as coal Äen nhÆ° than
As black as crow Äen nhÆ° quáº¡
As black as ink Tá»‘i Ä‘en nhÆ° má»±c
As sweet as sugar Ngá»t nhÆ° Ä‘Æ°á»ng
As black as soot Äen nhÆ° bá»“ hóng
As brief as a dream Ngáº¯n nhÆ° má»™t giáº¥c má»™ng
As bright as day Sáng nhÆ° ban ngày
As brilliant as stars Sáng nhÆ° sao
As changeable as the weather Hay thay Ä‘á»•i nhÆ° thá»i tiáº¿t
As cold as ice Láº¡nh nhÆ° bÄƒng
As cheerful as a lark Vui nhÆ° sáo
As cunning as a fox Xáº£o quyá»‡t nhÆ° cáo
As dark as midnight Tá»‘i nhÆ° ná»a Ä‘êm
As dumb as a an oyster Câm nhÆ° háº¿n
As fair as a rose Xinh nhÆ° hoa
As fast as a hare Nhanh nhÆ° thá»
As fat as a pig Máºp nhÆ° heo
As fierce as a tiger Dá»¯ nhÆ° cá»p
As firm as rock Vá»¯ng nhÆ° Ä‘á
As fleet as the wind Nhanh nhÆ° gió
As fresh a rose TÆ°Æ¡i nhÆ° hoa
As gay as a lark Vui nhÆ° sáo
As gruff as a bear Há»-n nhÆ° gáº¥u
As good (valuable) as gold Quý nhÆ° vàng
As green as a leaf Xanh nhÆ° tàu lá
As heavy as an elephant Náº·ng nhÆ° voi
As hard as a stone Cá»©ng nhÆ° Ä‘á
As heavy as lead Náº·ng nhÆ° chì
As hot as fire Nóng nhÆ° lá»a
As keen as a razor Sáº¯c nhÆ° dao cáº¡o
As light as down Nháº¹ tá»±a lông há»“ng
As light as a feather Nháº¹ tÆ°a lông há»“ng
As mum as an oyster Câm nhÆ° háº¿n
As pretty as a picture Äáº¹p nhÆ° tranh
As quick as lightning Nhanh nhÆ° ánh sáng
As quick as a flash Nhanh nhÆ° chá»›p
As red as blood Äá» nhÆ° máu
As red as a beetroot Äá» nhÆ° gáº¥c
As sharp as a razor Sáº¯c nhÆ° dao cáº¡o
As silly as a calf Ngu nhÆ° bò
As sour as vinegar Chua nhÆ° giáº¥m
As stink as a polecat Hôi nhÆ° chá»“n
As swift as lightning Nhanh nhÆ° chá»›p
As smooth as velvet Má»‹n nhÆ° nhung
As slow as a snail Cháºm nhÆ° sên
As swift as an arrow Nhanh nhÆ° tên báº¯n
As steady as rock Cá»©ng nhÆ° Ä‘á
As timid as a rabbit/ hare Nhát nhÆ° thá» Ä‘áº¿
As thick as ants Äông nhÆ° kiáº¿n
As transparent as glass Trong suá»‘t nhÆ° thá»y tinh
As yellow as saffron Vàng nhÆ° nghá»‡
As wet as a drowned mouse Æ¯á»›t nhÆ° chuá»™t lá»™t
As white as snow Tráº¯ng nhÆ° tuyáº¿t
As white as a sheet NhÆ° tá» giáº¥y tráº¯ng
Like father like son Cha nào con náº¥y
To fight like cat and dog NhÆ° chó vá»›i mèo
To stick like a leech Bám dai nhÆ° Ä‘á»‰a
To stick like glue Dính nhÆ° keo
To cry like a baby Khóc nhÆ° Ä‘á»©a tráº»
To follow like a shadow Theo nhÆ° hình vá»›i bóng
To swim like fish BÆ¡i nhÆ° cá
Differences of idioms of comparison in English and Vietnamese
The same content but different images to express
Images of idiomatic comparisons in twp nations are different result from differences in culture. Vietnam has the cultural tradition of the wet rice production. Therefore, animals have a strong attachment to Vietnamese daily life. That's why Vietnamese idioms of comparison consist of images related to buffaloes which are an animal familiar with rice production agriculture. Buffaloes pull ploughs, work very hard everyday to help farmers in their farming. As a result, wanting to mention strength, people often refer to buffaloes. In fact, to talk about someone very strong, the Vietnamese have the idiom "khá»e nhÆ° trâu" while the English have the idiom "as strong as a horse". That's because English people prefer horses to buffaloes. Horses can not only pull ploughs but also transport and entertain. They are really energetic and strong enough to help people in life.
In spite of that, it doesn't mean that English people don't consider buffaloes strong animals or Vietnamese people don't regard horses as strong animals. That results just from the difference in culture.
Also, dragons are a kind of animal which is very close in fertile imagination of Vietnamese people. Because of that, the image as a dragon appear in the Vietnamese idiom of comparison "Äƒn nhÆ° rá»“ng cuá»‘n" to talk about eating large quantities of food while the image of a horse is used in the idiom "to eat like a horse".
Lamp, butter are so familiar with English life while sweet potatoes, pig are familiar with Vietnamese life, as a result there are differences in images to express their ideas of gentleness and fatness:
English idioms Vietnamese idioms
As gentle as a lamp Hiá»n nhÆ° cá» khoai
As fat as butter Béo nhÆ° lá»£n
Besides, the differences in the ways of thinking and observing the world make differences in the images of idiomatic comparisons. Take some following examples to illustrate that:
English idioms Vietnamese idioms
As easy as ABC Dá»… nhÆ° trá»Ÿ bàn tay
As easy as pie Dá»… nhÆ° trá»Ÿ bàn tay
As easy as anything Dá»… nhÆ° trá»Ÿ bàn tay
As smooth as butter MÆ°á»£t nhÆ° nhung
As pale as a ghost Xanh nhÆ° tàu lá
As lazy as a lizard LÆ°á»i nhÆ° há»i
As soft as wax Má»m nhÆ° bún
As merry as a cricket Vui nhÆ° táº¿t
As cheerful as the birds Vui nhÆ° táº¿t
As glad as a fly Vui nhÆ° táº¿t
As happy as a child Vui nhÆ° táº¿t
As happy as a clam Vui nhÆ° táº¿t
As dark as midnight Tá»‘i nhÆ° Ä‘êm ba mÆ°Æ¡i
As black as midnight Tá»‘i nhÆ° Ä‘êm 30
As dark as midnight Tá»‘i nhÆ° hÅ© nút
As close as herrings Cháº·t nhÆ° nêm
As soundly as a log (Ngá») say nhÆ° cháº¿t
As cold as marble Láº¡nh nhÆ° tiá»n
As dry as a biscuit Khô nhÆ° ngói
As red as lipstick Äá» nhÆ° gáº¥c
As thin as finger Gáºy nhÆ° bá»™ xÆ°Æ¡ng khô
As weak as a kitten Yáº¿u nhÆ° sên
As weak as a baby Yáº¿u nhÆ° sên
As black as a stack of black cats Äen nhÆ° cá»™t nhà cháy
As black as the ace of spades Äen nhÆ° cú súng
As round as a barrel Tròn nhÆ° quáº£ bóng
As old as the hills XÆ°a nhÆ° trái Ä‘áº¥t
As hot as mustard Cay nhÆ° á»›t
Like hot cake Äáº¯t nhÆ° tôm tÆ°Æ¡i
As silent as the dead Im láº·ng nhÆ° tá»
As silent as the grave Im láº·ng nhÆ° tá»
What is more, the differences in human make differences between English and Vietnamese idioms. For example, in Vietnam, there is the idiom "ghen nhÆ° Hoáº¡n ThÆ°" to refer to a person who is dreadfully jealous. However, in English, the idiom "as jealous as Othello" is used to talk about a one's jealousy. Another example is "sÆ°á»›ng nhÆ° tiên" and "as happy as a king". Indeed, Vietnamese people consider a fairy the happiest one while English people consider a king the happiest one.
The same components but the dissimilar content
Every so often, some images of comparison can appear in both Vietnamese and English idioms but the meaning of the two whole idioms are quite different. That's because the meaning of components differs in culture.
Indeed, using the idiom "rõ nhÆ° ban ngày", the Vietnamese want to indicate a event which has nothing fishy. Meanwhile English people use the idiom "as bright as day" to describe a light room. Besides, when the weather is fine and sunny with good natural light, English people say: "It's as bright as day".
Besides, wanting to compliment someone on his or her beauty of eyes, Vietnamese people say: "Máº¯t cô sáº¯c nhÆ° dao cáº¡o". Still, English people use the idiom "as sharp as a razor" to refer to one's brainpower.
What is more, whilst Vietnamese people apply the idiom "cháº¯c nhÆ° Ä‘inh Ä‘óng cá»™t" to something steady, "as hard as nails" in English idiom means a person who is quite strict.
Also, when Vietnamese people say: "Nó tá»‘t nhÆ° vàng", they mean it's worth buying the object because of its good quality. In contrast, "as good as gold" cannot be used to compliment an object. In other words, English people never say: "It's as good as gold" but "The person is as good as gold". The person can be an assiduous and submissive child or a well-behaved adult.
Pedagogical Implications for Teaching English Idioms of comparison
Learning English idioms is one of steps so as to help learners master English. English idioms of comparison are frequently used in daily life. Therefore, teachers should help their students learn idioms most effectively.
Firstly, it's advisable for teachers to raise students' awareness of similarities and differences between Vietnamese and English idioms of comparison. When teachers teach their students a certain English idiom of comparison, they should let them guess the Vietnamese idiom which is equivalent to that idiom, making a comparison and explain why they are similar or different. It's really useful for them to have a long-term memory about that idiom of comparison.
Secondly, idioms of comparison as well as other idioms are taught and practiced in classroom but students rarely apply them to their daily speech. That's why teachers should encourage students to use idioms of comparison in their daily life as frequently as possible. Learners will memorize idioms better if idioms of comparison are put into communicative contexts. Don't make them learn by heart.
Thirdly, teachers should draw students' attention to idioms of comparison which are most useful and most frequent. As there are so many idioms of comparison in English culture, about 700, students aren't liable to memorize and apply all of them in their daily life. Students should be taught to know what idioms of comparison they should learn.
There are both similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese idioms of comparison. The same or different image can bear resemblance in the meaning of English and Vietnamese idioms of comparison. In addition, there are some idioms of comparison which have the same components but the meaning are quite different. Great as have the researcher made an attempt to do the research, there are some restrictions on the research out of the limited time and other unexpected factors. The researcher hopes that the research will a useful material for learners and teachers to learn or teach most effectively.