Definition Of Oral Communication English Language Essay

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Oral communication is a important process in our daily life. This communication can take place with different people, at different times, in different place and different situation. This communication occur within ourselves in our thoughts, ourselves with our family members, friends, working members, people we meet outside, socially or professionally. Some times we also may even need to communicate with a small group or a larger group of audience such as member of the public.

According to Carl Rogers (1952), a real communication occurs when we listen with understanding - to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person's point of view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the things he is talking about.

Other than that, Elizabeth Tierney (1998) saw communication as a process which begin when you have a message that you want to deliver to an audience. Your audience receive the message, reacts to it and then responds to your message. That respond may lead you to react and give another message. This process may continue. The message can be an idea, a thought or feeling which we wish to share with others. It also can be shorter or lengthier with a important rules where there is a sender and a receiver.

Moreover, Julia T. Wood (2009) describe communication as a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings. The important terms are process which is ongoing, continuous and always changing; systemic which happen within a system of interconnected parts that affect each other; symbols which represent things and meanings where any act of communication involves two essential aspects.

Joseph Devito (2009) says that communication take place when one person or more sends and receives message that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback with some basic elements. These are context, source-receiver, messages, channels, noise and effects.

In the view of Camp & Satterwhite (2002), in oral communication information, thoughts and ideas are conveyed via a spoke language in some ways such as face-to-face conversations, meetings, voice mail messages, teleconferencing, oral presentations and public speaking. Spoke messages are sent very quickly and feedback received almost immediately. They also said that the purpose in communication are to inquire, to inform, to persuade and to develop goodwill.

1.1 Form, Function and Strategies in Oral Communication

In this assignment I will attempt to discuss about how form, function and strategies are use in oral communication in the Malaysian context.

1.1.1 Form

Form are important in oral communication to deliver a message. There are seven forms that oral communication often take place. These are as below:

Intrapersonal communication

Interpersonal communication

Small group communication

Public communication

Mass communication

Corporate communication

Intercultural communication

1.1.2 Function

Function in oral communication means how the oral communication can bring a meaning full changes to a sender and a receiver.

1.1.3 Strategies

In Bialystok's book Communication Strategies, she cites four definitions relating to the strategies of second-language learners (Bialystok, 1990: 3):

(1) a systematic technique employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced

with some difficulty;(Corder, 1977)

(2) a mutual attempt of two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situations where

requisite meaning structures are not shared; (Tarone, 1980)

(3) potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a

problem in reaching a particularcommunicative goal; (Faerch & Kasper, 1983a)

(4) techniques of coping with diff second language.(Stern, 1983)

Considerable research has been done on communication strategies, for example, Bialystok (1990), who comprehensively analyzes communication strategies for second language use; and Dornyei (1995 cited in Brown,(2000), who outlines an explicit classification of communication strategies iculties in communicating in an imperfectly known

. According to Bialystok (1990: 1), "the familiar ease and fluency with which we sail from one idea to the next in our first language is constantly shattered

by some gap in our knowledge of a second language". The forms of these gaps can be a word, a structure, a phrase, a tense marker or an idiom. The attempts to overcome these gaps are described as communication strategies (ibid). Wenden and Rubin (1987: 109) state that learners who emphasize the importance of using the language often utilize communication strategies. Besides, O'Malley and Chamot (1990: 43) assert that communication strategies

are particularly important "in negotiating meaning where either linguistic structures or sociolinguistic rules are not shared between a second language learner and a speaker of the target language". For this reason, communication strategies, which involve both listening and speaking, can contribute greatly to FLL.

2.0 Oral Communication Process

In oral communication process we will talk about model of communication which show us how the sender and receiver communicate. There three models of communication such as linear model, interactive model and transactional model. These models help peoples to deliver and receive messages.

2.1 Linear Model

The linear model in communication is a one -way or linear process where the speaker deliver the message and the listener listen silently. According to Laswell's (1948) this model based on five question which effectively describe how communication works

Who said?

What?

In what channel?

To whom?

With what effect?

Other then that, Shannon and Weaver's (1949) explain this model includes noise or interferences that distort understanding between the speaker and the listener. The figure below shows the linear model.

This one-way process makes a situation where speaker only speak and never listen; listeners listen and never speak or send messages.

2.2 Interactive Model

The interactive model views communication as a process in which the speaker and listener take turns speaking, listening, and giving feedback to each other. Schramm (1955) and Wood (2009) produced a model which more interactive where the receiver or listener providing feedback to the sender or speaker.

In this situation the speaker or sender of the message also listens to the feedback given by the receiver of listener. Both the speaker and listener take turns to speak and listen to each other. The feedback can be verbally or non-verbally, or in both ways. Here the speaker and listener can communicate better if they have common fields of experience.

However the main drawback in the interactive model is that it does not indicate that communicators can both send and receive messages simultaneously. This model also fails to show that communication is a dynamic process which changes over time. The figure below shows the interactive model.

2.3 Transactional Model

The transactional model views communication as an ongoing and continuously changing process which takes into consideration the effects of noise, time, and systems. In this model, communicators can send and receive messages simultaneously.

This model shows that the elements in communication are always interdependent. All the communicator are act as a speaker and listener; and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages. There are three implications in the transactional model such as the meaning, the process and the reacts.

Transactional means a communication is an ongoing and continuously changing process. You are changing, the people with whom you are communicating are changing, and your environments is also continually changing as well.

In any transactional process, each element exists in relation to all the other elements. There is this interdependence where there can be no source without a receiver and no messages without a source.

Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their background, prior experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs and self-esteem. The figure below shows the transactional model.

3.0 Oral Communication Form and Elements

In oral communication people using verbal and non-verbal messages to create meaning within and across various contexts, channels and medias. These skills includes the ability to speak coherently and persuasively, understanding of communication theory and processes, knowledge of verbal and non-verbal cues, audience analysis, listening skills as well as communication ethics.

There are seven forms that oral communication always occurs. In this section I will describe more detail about every forms.

3.1 Intrapersonal Communication

A self-talk or a conversation you hold with yourself under certain circumstances; as when you need to make an important decision or learn something about yourself called intrapersonal communication. This form is not only describing the thinking process. It is a thinking that goes on inside us which relies on language to express itself.

According to Shakespearean "soliloquy" where the character in question engages in self-talk to reflect on events that have transpired. This communication increases self-awareness and mindfulness, and hones critical thinking skill. Below is the example of form, function and strategies in intrapersonal communication.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

3.2 Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal communications take place between several people. Here more than two peoples are involved. The form of communication may range from the impersonal to the very personal. Impersonal communication is when you talk with a person you do not really care about. There is often coldness or an in difference in your attitude when you engage in this kind of communication.

There is social communication where you engage in niceties with people you meet in a social context. Here the most personal type of communications takes place when you talk with people who are close to you, as your best friend, family members and colleagues. All that relationships are interdependent, meaning that the action of one party very often directly affects the other party. Interpersonal communication can take place face to face as well as through electronic channels like video-conferencing, chat rooms, e-mail and twitter.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

3.3 Small Group Communication

As the title, these communications take place in a group. This group usually comprising five to ten people at time. This communication serves relationship needs companionship, family bonding and affection or support as well as task-based needs, for example, deciding on disciplinary action or resolving conflict in the workplace.

Other than that, in an academic institutions students often form small group which meet regularly for study discussion or to work collaboratively on projects. At the workplace, this small group of people may meet to discuss issues related to work, or for problem-solving or team-building purpose. Learning to communicate effectively in teams contributes to success and advancement in many careers. Small group communication allows you to interact with others, be it at home, in school, at the workplace or in public. You learn to exchange ideas, solve problems and share experiences.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

3.4 Public Communication

The forth form is public communication. This communication also known as public speaking, involves communication between a speaker and an audience. The audience may range from just a few people to thousand or even millions of people. The aim of the speaker is usually to inform or to persuade the audience to act, or think in a certain way. A teacher may address an assembly of students on codes of behavior or school rules. A politician may make speeches on how he will be dealing with certain issues in order to win their votes. An executive may give a business presentation to get more sales. It is important to understand some of the basic principles of effective public speaking so that you are able to influence, persuade as well as entertain your audience when you communicate with them.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

3.5 Mass Communication

When a message is sent out from a source to many receivers all over the world it called mass communication. This communication happen through media like film, radio, video and television. Modern avenues of mass communication like the internet and blogs can be very powerful indeed as information is disseminated instantly.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

3.6 Corporate Communication

This corporate communication occur among members of co-workers, talking with a supervisor or manager, giving employees explanation and direction, interviewing and making presentation are some examples of corporate communication. Effective corporate communication skills enhance corporate image and impact positively on morale, commitment, and productivity in corporations.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

3.7 Intercultural Communication

Communication between people of diverse cultures and ethnicity is named as intercultural communication. The world is increasingly becoming a global village and every country has people of various ethnicities. Thus, it is important to note differences in the communication practices of differe nt cultures if intercultural harmony and understanding is to be maintained. For example, in many Asian countries, students will seldom contradict or disagree with a teacher in the classroom as this shows disrespect. In Western academic institution, however, it is the norm for students to think for themselves and engage their teachers in debate and discussion. It is important to make efforts to recognize and respect the communication practices of people from different cultures and nationalities.

Form : Am I doing the right job.

Function : Analyzing or comparing to myself.

Strategies : To change the topic.

4.0 Conclusion

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