Communication Is Art And Science English Language Essay

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The definition of science is "The systematic study of humans and their environment based on the deductions and inferences which can be made, and the general laws which can be formulated, from reproducible observations and measurements of events and parameters within the universe" (Commonwealth, 2010). The definition of semantics is "the study or science of meaning in language" (Answers, 2010). Therefore, forming a sentence from one or more words is applied science. The sentence is reproducible, inferences can be made, and general laws can be formulated. The definition of art is "the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way to affect the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression…" (Retyi, 2010). The definition of adjectives is "words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence" (Capital, 2010). Therefore, forming a sentence that affects the senses or emotions is art. The sentence may encompass a diverse range of activities, creations, and expressions. However, it may not affect similar emotions every time, which makes it irreproducible.

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ART AND SCIENCE

Communication is art and science

Communication is requisite for life. It allows sharing of information. It sustains businesses, schools, churches, governments, hospitals, and homes. Communication defines us, our personality, our connections, and our ability to reason. We could not survive without it. We would have limited cognitive processes. There would be no society. There would be no friendships. Marriages and families would be nonexistent and humans would not reproduce. Thus, we would not be.

The earliest recorded form of communication was in 3500 BC when the Phoenicians developed an alphabet (New York Times, 2010). Communication slowly progressed through the centuries from hieroglyphics, homing pigeons, human messengers, heliographs, Morse code, books, newspapers, typewriters, telephone, photography, radio, television, recordable media, and computers. Today, communication can be instantly transmitted across the world via the internet or cellular phone. Endless hours of communication can be recorded on digital media. Languages are immediately translated between ethnicities and races via electronic devices. The technical evolution of communication from its earliest form to present day is a result of science. The relationship, feeling, emphasis, and bias of communication are art.

The definition of science is "The systematic study of humans and their environment based on the deductions and inferences which can be made, and the general laws which can be formulated, from reproducible observations and measurements of events and parameters within the universe" (Commonwealth, 2010). The definition of semantics is "the study or science of meaning in language" (Answers, 2010). Therefore, forming a sentence from one or more words

ART AND SCIENCE

is applied science. The sentence is reproducible, inferences can be made, and general laws can be formulated.

The definition of art is "the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way to affect the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression…" (Retyi, 2010). The definition of adjective is "words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence" (Capital, 2010). Therefore, forming a sentence that affects the senses or emotions is art. The sentence may encompass a diverse range of activities, creations, and expressions. However, it may not cause similar emotions every time, which makes it irreproducible.

If communication were only science, then art would not exist. There would not be a way to describe how an individual feels. If communication were only art, then science would not exist. There would not be a way to describe science because pure scientific writing is void of art. Science and scientific writing is reproducible. It is not formed by deliberating arranging words to cause emotion.

There is a way to combine science and art. The University of California at Santa Cruz has the "only graduate science writing program in the nation that requires a degree in science and experience in research" (UCSC, 2010). The program introduces scientists to mass media journalism. Students learn to "practice science writing as a fine art… [and]… explore creative and distinctive forms of science writing" (USCS, 2010). Graduates work in mass media reporting on stories in science, technology, and medicine. A well known example is National Public Radio. Several writers for NPR are graduates of the program. They have successfully alchemized science and art.

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ART AND SCIENCE

Nonverbal communication is art. Nonverbal communication includes elements of vocal tone, somatic posture, spatial arrangements, clothing, and silence. Meaning can be changed without changing the vocabulary or structure. In addition, it is culturally specific. In the United States, thumbs up are a symbol of support and acceptance but in Iran it is considered vulgar. Also, in the United States, maintaining eye contact is important and a sign of respect but in Zimbabwe it is considered rude (Wu, 2010).

The science of communication is found in its vehicle. The most primitive scientific form of mass communication was the use of clay. In 2900 BC, the Sumerians invented cuneiform writing (New York Times, 2010). Wedge-shaped impressions called pictographs were pressed in clay. Merchants used the pictograph clay tokens to document the amount of materials shipped or traded. However, record keeping became difficult because the pictographs would slowly fade from the clay (New York Times, 2010).

A more permanent form of mass communication became necessary. Thus, the science of communication began to evolve. The vehicles of papyrus, parchment, and paper were made from the science of botany. Gutenberg's invention of the printing press was made from the science of metallurgy. According to Mark Twain, "The whole world admits unhesitatingly; and there can be no doubt about this, that Gutenberg's invention is the incomparably greatest event in the history of the world" (Project Gutenberg, 2010).

The vehicle of electronic communication is possible because of computer science. The art of nonverbal communication can be conveyed perfectly via electronics. Telephone, radio, television, and computers have made possible mass transmission of the art of nonverbal communication. In addition, they have made conveying the art and science of communication

ART AND SCIENCE

easier, faster, and less expensive. In contrast, the art of nonverbal communication is difficult to convey in typewritten form. Recently, the science of expressing emotion - the art of nonverbal communication - in written typewritten form has become popular by the use of emoticons. Emoticons are not vocabulary; they are text-based representations of a writer's disposition. For example, the emotion happy is symbolized by writing or typing :-). It is commonly placed at the end of a sentence or idea.

Howard Gardner, framer of multiple intelligences theory, sheds light on the art and science of communication. He reveals similarities between the art and science of communication and philosophy. Gardner views the invention of cognitive science a wonderful stimulus for philosophy or the art of communication. Furthermore, philosophy is an indispensable handmaiden for empirical scientists (Gardner, 1987). Gardner writes, "Philosophy enables us to define fundamental cognitive scientific questions in a coherent way, and assures the proper integration of work in disparate fields," he continues, "It is thus fitting that the field of philosophy, whose initial agenda helped to stimulate the rise of cognitive science, has been fueled by that new discipline, even as philosophy can, in turn, help to reform and interpret work spawned by its recent intellectual offspring" (Gardner, 1987). The art or science of communication can be dissected and presented on its own. However, it can not exist in reality :-)

ART AND SCIENCE