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Waste allowance of muna building

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Tue, 25 Apr 2017

Introduction

Waste is any substance or object(s) the holder discards or intends to discard. Any material which is perceived to have no further use is waste.Waste becomes more a product because of the cost and location of aggregates and other new materials and also because of the cost of disposal. These two factors drive the definition of waste. If you have easy availability of landfill and large quantities of aggregate close at hand you will not get a premium on the use of recycled materials.

Concept of construction waste

Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar. Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors.

Efficacy of waste allowance

The following benefits can be achieved if estimators use waste allowance while pricing:-

Ø Cost savings

Ø Financial benefits

Ø Financial benefits

Ø Identify the actual cost.

Ø Uses materials efficiently

Ø Uses materials efficiently

Ø Ensure that waste issues are considered and addressed

Ø Comparing against estimates and targets

(Reducing_Material_Wastage_in_Construction.3b4442f9.4711.pdf,http://www. longworthconsulting.co.uk )

Encouraging Prevention of Construction Waste

In general the environmental advantages of using reclaimed or recycled materials are greatest if the material or product is used in the highest grade application possible. For example one should process demolition rubble and use it as aggregate for a new concrete rather than just using it for fill.

Waste arriving methods in construction materials

Flooring:- cutting of floor tiles to fit room layouts

Ceilings:- cutting of ceiling tiles and fixing to fit room layouts

Insulations: -cutting of insulation boards to fit openings

Tiling: -cutting of floor and wall tiles to suit design and rooms shapes

Paving::-cutting of paving slabs to fit layout

To reduce waste on construction sites certain general recommendations may be made, e.g.

Ø Need to critically assess the quantities ordered

Ø Review the ordering procedures

Ø Manage deliveries

Ø Protect materials during storage

Ø Only take the material that is needed

Ø Return surplus materials to stores

Ø Protect materials at the work-site

The Different Waste Types

Visible Waste

What you see in the skip.

Process Waste

Badly designed procedures or working practices that lead to inefficiency, ineffectiveness and errors. Waiting and searching for someone/something/information is a big invisible waste.

Transaction Waste

Transactions are people-to-people activities such as communications, excessive planning/discussions and delayed project handovers. The idea of ‘lost time’ is an invisible waste.

The waste produced by the construction industry is not just a burden on the environment and the ecological system, but it is also a huge cost to the industry itself.

For example:

Ø Transport cost of “excess” material to site

Ø Cleaning and collection of “excess” material and waste

Ø Transport of waste from the building site

Ø Waste disposal costs

Ø Better project planning: planning of material requirements (exact quantities), planning of material deliveries to site and planning of material usage

Ø Organized waste disposal

Ø Increasing the level of recycling of construction waste

Solving the problems of waste disposaltouches many vendors involved in the construction project: the owner, designers, contractors, etc. It starts from making it a concern already at initial stages of the project planning and continuing it through the design phase. Contractors and sub-contractors can play their part by better project planning which will also reduce their material and waste disposal costs bringing them a direct financial benefit.

Reduce

Ø Reduce the amount of money spent on waste.

Ø Reduce waste disposal costs, e.g. handling charges, transport and taxes/levies.

Ø Reduce the amount of raw material used.

Ø Reduce the amount of waste on site.

Ø Reduce transport of waste movements to recycling centres or landfill.

Ø Reduce the amount of effort used to do a repetitive job.

Improve

Ø Improves efficiency on-site.

Ø Influence worker habits while a relative degree of choice exists for disposal costs/options.

Ø Better jobsite tidiness = improved health and safety.

Ø Improves the site image.

Ø Improves site management processes.

(Construction_waste,< http:// www. wikipedia.org >)

Table – 1 – Compare The West Allowance For Three Published Sources

WORKS

WESSEX PRICE BOOK(%)

LAXTONS PRICE BOOK(%)

SPON’S PRICE BOOK(%)

D

Groundwork

5-10 %

5 – 40 %

Add in to total

E

In situ concrete/Large precast concrete

2-12.5 %

2.5 – 15 %

Add in to total

F

Masonry

1.5-5 %

2.5 – 15 %

Add in to total

G

Structural/Carcassing Metal/Timber

2.5-5 %

2.5 – 10 %

Add in to total

H

Cladding/Covering

2.5-10%

2.5 – 10 %

Add in to total

J

Waterproofing

2-10 %

2.5 – 20 %

Add in to total

K

Linings/Sheathing/Dry partitioning

2-10 %

2.5 – 20 %

Add in to total

L

Windows/Doors/Stairs

2.5-10 %

2.5 – 10 %

Add in to total

M

Surface finishes

2.5-10 %

5 – 50 %

Add in to total

N

Furniture/Equipment

2.5-10 %

2.5 – 25 %

Add in to total

P

Building fabric sundries

2.5-10 %

2.5 – 20 %

Add in to total

Q

Paving/Planting/Fencing/Site furniture

2.5-10 %

2.5 – 40 %

Add in to total

R

Disposal systems

2.5-10 %

1 – 15 %

Add in to total

S

Piped supply systems

2.5-10%

2 – 10 %

Add in to total

T

Mechanical heating/Cooling/Refrigeration systems

2-10 %

1 – 5 %

Add in to total

U

Ventilation/Air-conditioning systems

5 %

2.5 %

Add in to total

V

Electrical systems

5%

2.5 – 15 %

Add in to total

W

Security systems

2.5-5%

2.5 %

Add in to total

Conclusion

Waste allowance, the third essential element of a bill of materials, is important because during construction a certain amount of material is wasted due to cutting, fitting, and handling. For example, lumber comes in standard lengths which seldom can be used without cutting and fitting. Sometimes the piece of lumber cut off is used, but more often it goes into the scrap heap. Another example is mortar sand which is normally stored at the job site. The sand on the bottom of the pile cannot be picked up without some earth getting in it. This generally makes the sand unusable and therefore wasted.

Waste allowance must be included in a bill of material to cover unavoidable losses. Allowance percentage is based on the function of the items, when developing waste allowance multiply the total quantity of any one particular part.

Here spon’s price book didn’t mention waste allowance separately Because that ‘s included in total all in rate.

Here my comparing purpose i used three published sources (Spon’s Architects And Builders Price Book, Laxton’s building price book, Wessex price book) for finished this task, If we consider all works there is slide different for all three sources. So I recommended percentage waste allowance is most reliable for building works.

Construction Industry Joint Council (CIJC) Working Rule Agreement

The Working Rules Agreement (WRA) is published by the Joint Council for the Building & Civil Engineering Industry (NI). The WRA contains the promulgated wages, allowances, holiday pay and pension entitlements together with a variety of other basic terms and conditions of employment. It forms the basic contract of employment for the industry. The WRA is incorporated by express reference in the standard Statement of Main Terms and Conditions of Employment.

The working rules

Part of the cost of labour is naturally the actual wages paid to the workers carrying out the productive work. The workers are generally referred to as operatives and we will return to the idea of productive work later in the chapter. The remainder of the cost of labour is made up of a number of payments which the builder must make and which are a direct result of employing operatives.

Table -2 -Type of works & relevant rules

Type

Rule

Work in difficult conditions

WR1

Bonus

WR2

Working hours

WR3

Overtime

WR4

Daily fare and travel allowance

WR5

Rotary shift working

WR6

Night work

WR7

Continuous working

WR8

Tide work

WR9

Tunnel work

WR 10

Refuelling,servicing&maintenance

WR 11

Storage of tools

WR12

Loss of clothing

WR 13

Transfer arrangements

WR14

Subsistence allowance

WR15

Period leave

WR16

Guaranteed miniweekly earnings

WR17

Annual holidays

WR18

Sick pay

WR20

Benefit schemes

WR21

For my comparing purpose here also i take three public sources (Spon’s Architects And Builders Price Book, Laxton’s building price book, Wessex price book).Here i mention Wessex price book example calculation ( under Construction Industry Joint Council (CIJC) Working Rule Agreement)-

Table – 3 – Calculation of labour cost – CIJC award

Annual Cost of wages

Craftsman

Labourer

Flat time

1893,8hrs,at 9.00

17044.20

at 6.77

12821.03

Non- productive overtime

65.5 hrs at 9.00

589.50

at 6.77

443.44

Public holidays

63.0 hrs at 9.00

567.00

at 6.77

426.51

Holiday pay allowance

176.0 hrs at 9.00

1584.00

at 6.77

1191.52

Sick pay

5 days at 18.72

93.60

at 18.72

93.60

Plus rate

2022.3 hrs at 9.83

—-

At-

19878.30

14976.09

Employe’s national insurance

12.80%

2544.42

12.80%

1916.94

Training allowance

0.50% of paye

99.39

At 0.50%

74.88

22522.11

16967.91

Severance pay &other statutory costs

2.00%

450.44

2.00%

339.36

22972.56

17307.27

Total cost of productive hours

2.00%

459.45

2.00%

346.15

23432.01

17653.41

Total labour cost per hour

12.625

9.512

Effect of 10p/h pls rate on total cost pr hr

0.1284

0.1284

“Wessex price book: 23rd edition” (2006), Wessex Electronic Publishing Limited”

Conclusion

The CIJC Working Rule Agreement will be recognized as Public Holidays for the purposes of the employees & Employer. WRA provide flexible working hrs ,over time & bonus.If we calculating all in rate (plant, material & labour) we must follow the working rule agreement.


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