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Overview Of Pumps Industries And Scope Of Submersible Pumps In Global Market
India’s economy is based mainly on agriculture and it is the backbone of the country. India’s agriculture depends upon the timely monsoon and the amount of rainfall in any year. To avoid the uncertainty and vagaries of the monsoon, farmers in India resort to various methods of irrigation. India, being a vast country with much variation in geographical conditions, needs several irrigation techniques.
In areas of shallow water levels (1-6 metres head axial flow or mixed flow pumps are used to lift water. Where water levels are at 6-40 metres head or on river sides, mostly radial flow pumps are used.
For deep bore wells submersible or jet or compressor pumps are used depending on head and discharge requirements and on availability of water in the bore well (yield).
Pumps are the vital elements in an enormous range of fluid handling applications and range from small household pumps to immense units utilized in the water, chemical and energy industries. Pump performance requirements and duties vary considerably in terms of material of construction, wide range of temperature, pressure, viscosity, density etc. Pumps are employed in almost all the industries.
Pumps Industry In India
The first electric motor in India was manufactured in Coimbatore in 1930 and thereafter the motor pump industry expanded rapidly there. Today 60% of India’s requirements of domestic and agricultural pumpsets are made in Coimbatore. The Southern India Engineering Manufacturers’ Association (SIEMA) (established in 19522)has 215 members, most of whom manufacture motors and pumps of various types. Indian pumps are made according to the specifications of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Coimbatore (with 1.2 million population) is also famous for Textile machinery manufacture and is rated sixth in the world. It is called the “Manchester” of South India due to the presence of hundreds of spinning mills, cloth and garment manufacturing units in and around Coimbatore. Besides Coimbatore, Ahmedabad, Baroda, Calcutta and Dewas and the other places where agricultural pumps industries are situated. Similarly Rajkot, Agra and Kolhapur are famous for oil engines and Rajkot alone accounts for 50 percent of engines production.
Special Criteria For Motor And Pumps Design:
Apart from the general requirements for motor and pump design such as rating, power factor, head, discharge and efficiency, the following factors are to be considered during design of pumpsets.
1) In India, the three phase electricity power supply to villages varies from 240 – 450 volts with a 47.5 to 51 cycle frequency (standard 415 volt and 50 cycle frequency). Average power supply is 6 to 8 hours daily during summer and most of the time, power supply is around 240 – 300 volts. In the single phase, voltage varies from 140 – 250 volts.
2) During summer the ambient temperature is 35 to 40 degree calcius with dry humidity, when hear dissipation by motors or engines is poor. Hence pumpsets are designed for such extreme conditions.
3) The literacy level in Indian villages is very low as is the economy. Consequently, people cannot afford to spend on the maintenance of equipment.
Hence, motors, pumps and engines are designed for easy installation, trouble free operation, and easy maintenance for a long service period.
Small Industries Testing And Research Centre. ( SITARC)
This centre was set up in 1986 for testing motors, pumps, monoblocks, submersible pumps, raw materials and for calibration of instruments. SIEMA contributed an 8,000 m2 piece of land to SITARC where the testing centre is now functioning. The present cost of the land is approximately US$ 500 000.
SITARC has the following divisions and facilities:
Ø Mechanical, electrical, materials testing and meteorology divisions
Ø Research and development, design and engineering divisions
Ø HRD/consultancy/information cell
Ø Prototyping products and tools in model tool room
SITARC is approved as a research centre by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. It is accredited by NABL in the disciplines of mechanical, electrical, chemical and fluid flow and recognized by the Bureau of Indian Standards for ISI testing. Test certificates are recognized by the Export Inspection Agency, RITES, Ministry of Defence, State Electricity Board and the State Water and Drainage Board.
SITARC Pump Institute funded by UNDP, UNIDO, Government of India and the Government of Tamil Nadu, is in the process of setting up the most modern pump testing institute. The cost of the project is US$ 5 million.
Product Quality And Performance Of Pumps Industries At Global Level:
The BIS assists exporters and industry to meet international standards and quality specifications for global acceptance through its standards formulation, certification, technical and other related activities. BIS is actively involved in the International Organization for Standardlization (ISO) and International Electro- Technical Commission (IEC) and also participates in various technical committees of ISO and IEC.
Product quality begins from the selection of raw materials. The BIS has defined materials specifications for each component of pumps and motors and has specified time schedules for calibration of gauges, meters and other tools used in regular testing of pumps. All industries are required to keep calibration records of their equipment and meters.
It is mandatory that qualified and properly trained technicians and inspectors are appointed to conduct testing. Most industries have their own quality control systems which are used during the manufacturing stages of each component. A few SIEMA member units are beginning to obtain ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 system certification. Medium and large scale industries use the latest model CNC machines and fully computerized testing facilities to achieve the desired quality.
BIS has issued separate standard specifications for each type of pump. Similarly, testing facilities for agricultural, Jet and Submersible pumps are also specified by BIS to be followed by the industries.
Each pump manufactured will undergo the following testing procedure before dispatch.
Routine Test For Motor:
1) No load current, watts, speed (clock wise and anti clockwise)
2) Breakaway test to find starting torque
3) Full load test of watts, amps, speed, power factor, efficiency slip and temperature
4) For single phase motor, test for moisture proof and current leakage for user safety
Routine test for Monoblock in addition to motor test:
5) Test for overall efficiency of the monoblock
6) Test for guarantee of Performance at duty point
7) Overload test in operational range.
Because of such a stringent quality control system, pumpsets thus manufactured will have high reliability and superior performance.
Types, Perfomance range and price of Indian Pumps at Global Level:
1) Axial flow pumps
2) Monoblock pumps- single phase (240 Volts)
3) Jet centrifugal combination pumps
4) Monoblock pumps- three phase (415 Volts)
5) Submersible Pumpsets
6) Direct coupled or belt driven centrifugal pumps
Axial Flow Pumps
Axial flow pumps or propeller pumps are used for a head range of 1-6 metres and give high discharge. No priming is necessary for this pumps and it operates at 80-90 percent of pump efficiency.
Capacity Head Rnage (cm) output lps
5-30 HP 1-6M 60/300
Prices for Axial flow pumps vary depending on the requirements of head and discharge.
Single Phase 2880 Rpm Centrifugal Monoblocks
These pumpsets are easy to install, lightweight, ruggedly built and designed for trouble free operation. They are of monoblock construction with a common shaft for the motor and pump. High efficiency of these pumps minimizes power charges. Numerous applications include irrigation of small land holdings, garden, domestic water supply and circulating systems. Motor are made of TEFC body and covers are of cast iron with capacitor start and run, Class “B” insulation running at 2880 RPM and enclosures with protection IP44 & IP 55. Pumps are of end suction, centrifugal design. Castings are of cast iron. Impellers are bronze and dynamically balanced. These Monoblocks are fitted with high quality mechanical seals for long reliable life.
Jet Centrifugal Pump Combination Sets
These pumpsets are used in borewells are openwells where suction depth is 8-60 metres. They are easy to install on borewells of 75 mm (3”) and larger. As there are no moving parts inside the borewell jet units, maintenance is easier than with submersible pumps. Jet units are available in many sizes for various suction lifts.
Three Phase Monoblock Pumpsets
Motors are the TEFC 1440/2880 RPM squirrel case induction type. Pumps are the single stage, and suction type and are fitted with cast iron impellers and castings. Stainless steel bushes and brass impeller locking nuts are provided at the pump ent. Gunmetal gland, stainless steel studs and brass nuts are fitted to avoid rusting and to make it easy to replace asbestos packing ropes. Various models are available in monoblock range for selection to meet specific requirements.
Three Phase Submersible Pumpsets
Submersible motors are designed to operate with 250/450 volts, 50 Hz, 3 phase AC supply. They are fitted with wet type, water-filled, water lubricated squirrel cage induction motors. The motor casing is of stainless steel. The starter winding is made of PVC/Polyester film, wrapped around waterproof copper winding wires. The rotor laminations are fitted with electrolytic grade copper rods, and the ends are brazed with forged copper end rings, mounted on a stainless steel shaft, which is hardened and ground to ensure long life. The shaft is supported by two sets of leaded bronze journal bearings lubricated by water. The Axial thrust generated by the pump is absorbed by a thrust bearing fitted at the bottom of the motor. The motor is seated on radial seal rings.
The pump is of multistage centrifugal design, with radial or mixed flow impellers which are of bronze and dynamically balanced. The diffusers are designed to give best possible efficiency and are built into the castings with replaceable guide bushes for easy maintenance. The pump shaft is made of stainless steel hardened and ground. A strainer is fitted at the inlet of pump to prevent entry of solid particles.
Single phase submersible pumpsets suitable for 100 to 115 mm borewells are also available.
Submersible pumps can be installed in bore wells and very deep wells for irrigation schemes, domestic uses and industrial requirements. Submersible pumps are versatile and are suitable for sprinkler irrigation schemes as booster pumps.
Submersible Pumps Suitable For 150 Mm Bore Diameter
Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps are single stage, radial flow and suction type with horizontal shaft and vertically split casings. Pumps are fitted with pulleys or with flexible couplings, to be driven by electric motors or diesel engines. Direct coupled pumps are supplied with a common base plate for fixing the drive units.
Vertical four stroke cycle, single cylinder compression ignition “ water cooled”/ “air cooled” cold star diesel engine.
Diesel engines are designed as prime movers for agriculture, with high efficiency, low fuel and lubricating oil consumption. Grade: 15 and Grade: 20 cast iron and EN 9 matetials are used in the manufacture of these engines. Rigid inspection of components at every stage of the assembly makes every part easily interchangeable. Each engine is tested thoroughly for speed, output and fuel consumption according to the BIS specifications.
Thermo-Syphen or a fresh water system is used for wated cooled engines. A blower is attached with a fly wheel for air cooled engines. Single cylinder diesel engines are manufactured up to 10 HP and for above 10 HP, multi cylinder diesel engines are manufactured according to specifications.
Electrical Starters And Switches
Starters for direct-on-line or manually operated Star-Delta models are suitable for 220 and 440 v-50 Hz, three phase or single phase – A.C. These are built-in with over load and single phase protection with bimetal relay arrangements, silver oxide bimetal contacts and other standard features to protect the electric motor from varying supply conditions.
Product Average Price FOB Durban $
3-10 HP range 101
12.5 HP range 106
Three Phase Iron clad Switches (Rewireable):
Capacity RatingAverage Price FOB Durban ($)
16 amps 16
32 amps 30
63 amps 69
100 amps 140
Indian Pump Industry Poised To Increase Global Share
The Indian Pump manufacturers have traditionally catered to the needs of domestic market. In India, pumps are mainly used for pumping water from wells in households. With the effect of LPG (Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization) the Indian pump manufacturers have started exporting to foreign countries, where pumps are used for various purposed in different industrial sectors like, oil refineries, steel mills, mines etc. This has led to the increasing trend in export of pumps.
Indian Pump Industry is capturing more and more market in the world. Exported to around 70 to 80 Countries, the Indian pump industry is poised to register a faster growth rate than the global average to capture a bigger slice of the international market, states an industry.
‘The Indian Pump industry is set to grow at 6-7 percent over the next three years as against the world pump market, which stands at euro 10 billion and is expected to grow at 4.0 percent per annum, says by Y.I Buch, president of Indian pump Manufacturers Association, in press released published on IndiaPRwire.com.
The Industry, which currently has euro 500 million global market share, ‘is expected to grow at a rate faster than the world pump market growth, capturing a larger share of the market,’ states the study released by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII).
Among machinery, pumps are produced and used in the largest numbers, second only to electric motors.
According to industry estimates, India currently produces around one million pumps of various kinds an uses worth around Rs. 900 large, medium and small units producing pumps in the country catering to a range of sectors from agriculture to industries including nuclear power generation.
‘Indian pump manufacturers are able to meet most of the domestic market demand,’ states Sarita Nagpal, head of manufacturing services of CII, which works closely with the Indian Pump Mnaufacturing Association.
Exported to 70 countries, including developed countries, Indian pump industry exports have registered 11 percent growth in the last two years after reversing a negative 11.5 percent trend in 2002-03 to clock 45 percent growth in 2003-04.
‘India has today become a reliable, technically competent, competitive and enterprising outsourcing option for many multinational companies in industrial pumps and systems,’ said Buch.
The growth story has emerged through technical collaborations and joint ventures that Indian companies have had with multinational majors.
‘Technical know how of global standard has thus been well absorbed,’ Buch said.
In addition, various research institutes such as the Small Industries Testing and Research Centre (Si’Tarc) in Coimbatore, have developed energy-efficient designs for pumps to meet the norms of Indian Standards, keeping in mind manufacturing feasibility with only the basic facilities of small-scale sector.
The Indian Pump Industry has an outstanding record of indigenous research and development in all three areas of technological intensities – from mass – produced pumps for agriculture to gigantic pumps for interlinking rivers, and pumps for critical services such as nuclear power generation,’ said Nagpal.
Keeping pace with changing global standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards has developed 42 sepcifications for indigenous pumps.
Till date no other country in the world has set specific norms for minimum efficiency. The norms for minimum efficiency have also been periodically upgraded, such that even the minimum norms are close to 95 percent of internationally recognized ‘chart’ efficiencies,’ said Nagpal.
Spares, Accessories, Availability And Supply To Global Market
For each pump, a trouble shooting and repairing manual, installation and maintenance hand book and spare parts catalogue I supplied to help the customer understand the procedure to follow in dismantling, reassembling and ordering spare parts. Centrifugal, monoblock, jet and submersible pumps consume minimum spares during their lifetime.
The manufacturer will specify the required spares for each pump or batch of pumps ordered and these spare parts, can be supplied with the consignment. As most of the items are in regular production, any requirement can be met at short notice and delivery can be arranged.
Service Assistance For Installation And Maintenance
Centrifugal Pumps are easy to install and run. For Submersible and Jet Pumps, an installation guide book is provided with each pump.
Proper training can be provided for a few mechanics at the suppliers’ premises. SITARC will also have training facilities for pump assembly, testing as well as installation techniques which can also be utilized.
Further a few engineers can be made available to train local people at various centres by organizing seminars and classes.
Joint Venture With Local Private People.
In India economic reforms have been in progress since 1991. Joint ventures, either in India or with African countries are encouraged, depending on the requirements. Joint Ventures either in India or with African countries are encouraged, depending on the requirements. Joint Venture in Africa is possible when the requirement of pumpsets by value is US $ 3 to 4 million per year. Interested parties can contact SIEMA.
Most MNCs were initially interested in exporting to the Indian market, but soon realized the need and economic viablility of indigenous manufacturing and working out a joint venture of foreign direct investment for manufacturing. Apart from labour being cheap, availability of technologically skilled and knowledgeable manpower with communicative competence made them to favourably consider the above. MNCs feel that manufacturing base in India can help not only to cater to this market but also to markets in Asia and Africa.
It is hoped that the above information is useful. The similarity between India and Southern and East African countries in respect of soil, monsoon pattern, climate, water table, literacy levels, literacy levels, electric system and user method, makes Indian pumps ideal one for African countries.
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