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Engineering is oldest and the most important science ever. As people continue to advance in life engineering became the only way to use and develop tools and processes needed for surviving and advancement in creativity of the human beings. Engineering includes many sciences such as the knowledge of mathematics, the applied science of chemistry and physics and is considered the master of all sciences and the origin of minor specialties.
The Mesopotamians, one of the greatest and most ancient civilizations used engineering in their daily lives as they created the wheel and built water canals, and temples, also they’ve had great advancements in architecture such as pyramid like structures and towers. More than 4000 years have passed since that civilization yet the most complex astronomical instruments are based on the invention of the revolutionary Astrolabe. The main aim of the device is to be used in astronomical observations; it consists of a graduated circular circles and a sighting arm and was based on the 60-unit numerical system used at that time.
The greatest form of architecture created by the Mesopotamians is called the Ziggurat, a temple tower built to honour their gods and religious beliefs; it consists of a terraced pyramid of brick with steps, setbacks and a shrine at the top. Hammurabi, the king of Mesopotamians at that age assembled a system of laws that holds his name; it states that whoever builds poor structures should be penalized rightfully. Another Mesopotamians innovation is the Nahrwan, a 400 foot wide channel watering 200 miles of the land around.
The Ancient Egyptians were the first civilization to master construction; they had specialists who were consultants to pharaohs and were identified as chiefs of works. At that time surveying, and irrigation systems were invented. The best architectural structure in history was left by the Egyptians which are The Great Pyramids, the first pyramid was built for the burial of Zoser, symbolizing absolute power, and it contained six mastabas to prevent thieves from access to the tomb and the surrounding artefacts.
The largest Pyramid is Cheops’ it’s 481 feet high & has a 13 acre base, above two million blocks of stone with standard mass of 2.5 tons were used, the inner stones weighed up to 30 tons. 100, 000 men working for 20 years, the stone blocks were glided down a special ramp, using wood rollers, ropes, and sledges.
Greek Architects completed the progress to proficient stature, renowned as great construction professionals. The Greeks build great harbours overcoming any obstacles such as mountains, they were first to come with the ideas of artificial docks. In addition to their achievements is the Pharos lighthouse of Alexandria which was the first lighthouse ever built the Greek builder gathered wooden frames and levering devices that included capstans and pulleys.
Romans have discovered hydraulic cement, achieving pile drivers, treadmill hoists and wooden bucket wheels. They constructed the Circus Maximus at which roman fighting games and contests took place. The Pantheon was a temple built by the outstanding ability of a Roman Engineer and it had a special height equal to its internal diameter.
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The middle ages are known for the great cathedrals, the enhancement of wind mills. The origin of the word Engineer is the Latin words In Generare which means to create. Engineers back then created war equipment such as catapults, and the discovery of gunpowder. Also the paper we use now was invented in the Far East.
Some advanced Scientists made it easier for the advancement of engineering, such as Leonardo Da Vinci a unique artist, talented architect, and scientist has contributions to the field of abstract designs.
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