# Artificial neural network

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### Introduction to ANN

An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in unison to solve specific problems. ANNs, like people, learn by example. An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern recognition or data classification, through a learning process. Learning in biological systems involves adjustments to the synaptic connections that exist between the neurons.

### Historical background

Neural network simulations appear to be a recent development. However, this field was established before the advent of computers, and has survived at least one major setback and several eras.

Many important advances have been boosted by the use of inexpensive computer emulations. Following an initial period of enthusiasm, the field survived a period of frustration and disrepute. During this period when funding and professional support was minimal, important advances were made by relatively few researchers. These pioneers were able to develop convincing technology which surpassed the limitations identified by Minsky and Papert. Minsky and Papert, published a book (in 1969) in which they summed up a general feeling of frustration (against neural networks) [1] among researchers, and was thus accepted by most without further analysis. Currently, the neural network field enjoys a resurgence of interest and a corresponding increase in funding.

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The first artificial neuron was produced in 1943 by the neurophysiologist[1] Warren McCulloch and the logician Walter Pits. But the technology available at that time did not allow them to do too much.

### Advantages of ANN

Neural networks, with their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. A trained neural network can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyze. This expert can then be used to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer "what if" questions. Other advantages include:

- Adaptive learning: An ability to learn how to do tasks based on the data given for training or initial experience.
- Self-Organization: An ANN can create its own organization or representation of the information it receives during learning time.
- Real Time Operation: ANN computations may be carried out in parallel, and special hardware devices are being designed and manufactured which take advantage of this capability.
- Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding: Partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance. However, some network capabilities may be retained even with major network damage[1].

### Neural networks versus conventional computers

Neural networks take a different approach to problem solving than that of conventional computers. Conventional computers use an algorithmic approach i.e. the computer follows a set of instructions in order to solve a problem. Unless the specific steps that the computer needs to follow are known the computer cannot solve the problem. That restricts the problem solving capability of conventional computers to problems that we already understand and know how to solve. But computers would be so much more useful if they could do things that we don't exactly know how to do.

Neural networks process information in a similar way the human brain does. The network is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in parallel to solve a specific problem. Neural networks learn by example. They cannot be programmed to perform a specific task. The examples must be selected carefully otherwise useful time is wasted or even worse the network might be functioning incorrectly. The disadvantage is that because the network finds out how to solve the problem by itself, its operation can be unpredictable[2].

On the other hand, conventional computers use a cognitive approach to problem solving; the way the problem is to solved must be known and stated in small unambiguous instructions. These instructions are then converted to a high level language program and then into machine code that the computer can understand. These machines are totally predictable; if anything goes wrong is due to a software or hardware fault.

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Neural networks and conventional algorithmic computers are not in competition but complement each other. There are tasks are more suited to an algorithmic approach like arithmetic operations and tasks that are more suited to neural networks. Even more, a large number of tasks, require systems that use a combination of the two approaches (normally a conventional computer is used to supervise the neural network) in order to perform at maximum efficiency.

### Objectives of Present Study

The Project objectives are train a ANN using Hopfield Net that will identify pattern from set of unique patterns. We will be using Alphabets and the ANN application will be designed using Matlab.

### Chapter 2. Human and Artificial Neurons

### Working of Human Brain

Much is still unknown about how the brain trains itself to process information, so theories abound. In the human brain, a typical neuron collects signals from others through a host of fine structures called dendrites. The neuron sends out spikes of electrical activity through a long, thin stand known as an axon, which splits into thousands of branches. At the end of each branch, a structure called a synapse converts the activity from the axon into electrical effects that inhibit or excite activity from the axon into electrical effects that inhibit or excite activity in the connected neurons. When a neuron(Fig 2.1) receives excitatory input that is sufficiently large compared with its inhibitory input, it sends a spike of electrical activity down its axon. Learning occurs by changing the effectiveness of the synapses so that the influence of one neuron on another changes.

### Biological-Type Neural Networks

It is estimated that the human brain contains over 100 billion neurons andsynapses in the human nervous system. Studies of brain anatomy of the neurons indicate more than 1000 synapses(Fig 2.2) on the input and output of each neuron. Note that, although the neuron's switch time (a few milliseconds) is about a million fold times slower than current computer elements, they have a thousand fold greater connectivity than today's supercomputers[3].

The main objective of biological-type neural nets is to develops a synthetic element for verifying hypotheses concerning biological systems.

Most neurons possess tree-like structures called dendrites which receive income signals from other neurons across junction called synapses. Some neurons communicate with only a few nearby ones, whereas others make contact with thousands.

There are three parts in a neuron

- a neuron cell body,
- branching extensions called dendrites for receiving input, and
- an axon that carries the neuron's output to the dendrites of other neurons.

How two or more neurons interact is not already well known, is different for different neurons. Generally speaking, a neuron sends its output to other neurons via its axon. An axon carries information through a series of action potentials, or waves of current, that depends on the neuron's potential. This process is often modeled as a propagation rule represented by a net value[1].

A neuron collects signals at its synapses by summing all the excitatory and inhibitory influences acting on it. If the excitatory influences are dominant, then the neuron fires and sends this message to other neurons via the outgoing synapses. In this sense, the neuron function can be modeled as a simple threshold function f(.). As shown in the following figure the neuron fires if the combined signal strength exceeds a certain threshold, in the general case the neuron value is given by an activation function f[1].

### From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons

We conduct these neural networks by first trying to deduce the essential features of neurons and their interconnections. We then typically program a computer to simulate these features. However because our knowledge of neurons is incomplete and our computing power is limited, our models are necessarily gross idealizations of real networks of neurons.

### Chapter 3. An engineering approach

### A simple neuron

An artificial neuron(Fig 3.1) is a device with many inputs and one output. The neuron has two modes of operation; the training mode and the using mode. In the training mode, the neuron can be trained to fire (or not), for particular input patterns. In the using mode, when a taught input pattern is detected at the input, its associated output becomes the current output. If the input pattern does not belong in the taught list of input patterns, the firing rule is used to determine whether to fire or not[4].

### Firing rules

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Examples of our workThe firing rule is an important concept in neural networks and accounts for their high flexibility. A firing rule determines how one calculates whether a neuron should fire for any input pattern. It relates to all the input patterns, not only the ones on which the node was trained.

A simple firing rule can be implemented by using Hamming distance technique. The rule goes as follows:

Take a collection of training patterns for a node, some of which cause it to fire (the 1-taught set of patterns) and others which prevent it from doing so (the 0-taught set). Then the patterns not in the collection cause the node to fire if, on comparison , they have more input elements in common with the 'nearest' pattern in the 1-taught set than with the 'nearest' pattern in the 0-taught set. If there is a tie, then the pattern remains in the undefined state[3].

### Feed-forward networks

Feed-forward ANNs (figure 3.2) allow signals to travel one way only; from input to output. There is no feedback (loops) i.e. the output of any layer does not affect that same layer. Feed-forward ANNs tend to be straight forward networks that associate inputs with outputs[3]. They are extensively used in pattern recognition. This type of organization is also referred to as bottom-up or top-down.

### Feed-back networks

Feed-back networks can have signals travelling in both directions by introducing loops in the network. Feedback networks are very powerful and can get extremely complicated. Feedback networks are dynamic; their 'state' is changing continuously until they reach an equilibrium point. They remain at the equilibrium point until the input changes and a new equilibrium needs to be found. Feedback architectures are also referred to as interactive or recurrent, although the latter term is often used to denote feedback connections in single-layer organizations.

### Network layers

The commonest type of artificial neural network consists of three groups, or layers, of units: a layer of "input" units is connected to a layer of "hidden" units, which is connected to a layer of "output" units.

- The activity of the input units represents the raw information that is fed into the network.
- The activity of each hidden unit is determined by the activities of the input units and the weights on the connections between the input and the hidden units.
- The behavior of the output units depends on the activity of the hidden units and the weights between the hidden and output units.

This simple type of network is interesting because the hidden units are free to construct their own representations of the input. The weights between the input and hidden units determine when each hidden unit is active, and so by modifying these weights, a hidden unit can choose what it represents.

We also distinguish single-layer and multi-layer architectures. The single-layer organization, in which all units are connected to one another, constitutes the most general case and is of more potential computational power than hierarchically structured multi-layer organizations. In multi-layer networks, units are often numbered by layer, instead of following a global numbering.

### Perceptrons

The most influential work on neural nets in the 60's went under the heading of 'perceptrons' a term coined by Frank Rosenblatt. The perceptron (figure 3.4) turns out to be an MCP model ( neuron with weighted inputs ) with some additional, fixed, pre--processing. Units labeled A1, A2, Aj , Ap are called association units and their task is to extract specific, localized featured from the input images[3]. Perceptrons mimic the basic idea behind the mammalian visual system. They were mainly used in pattern recognition even though their capabilities extended a lot more.

In 1969 Minsky and Papert wrote a book in which they described the limitations of single layer Perceptrons. The impact that the book had was tremendous and caused a lot of neural network researchers to loose their interest. The book was very well written and showed mathematically that single layer perceptrons could not do some basic pattern recognition operations like determining the parity of a shape or determining whether a shape is connected or not. What they did not realized, until the 80's, is that given the appropriate training, multilevel perceptrons can do these operations.

### Chapter 4. The Learning Process

There are three major learning paradigms, each corresponding to a particular abstract learning task. These are supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. Usually any given type of network architecture can be employed in any of those tasks.

### Supervised learning

In supervised learning, we are given a set of example pairs (x, y), x \in X, y \in Yand the aim is to find a function f : X \rightarrow Y in the allowed class of functions that matches the examples. In other words, we wish to infer the mapping implied by the data; the cost function is related to the mismatch between our mapping and the data and it implicitly contains prior knowledge about the problem domain[2].

A commonly used cost is the mean-squared error which tries to minimize the average squared error between the network's output, f(x), and the target value y over all the example pairs. When one tries to minimize this cost using gradient descent for the class of neural networks called Multi-Layer Perceptrons, one obtains the common and well-known backpropagation algorithm for training neural networks.

Tasks that fall within the paradigm of supervised learning are pattern recognition (also known as classification) and regression (also known as function approximation). The supervised learning paradigm is also applicable to sequential data (e.g., for speech and gesture recognition). This can be thought of as learning with a "teacher," in the form of a function that provides continuous feedback on the quality of solutions obtained thus far[2].

### Unsupervised learning

In unsupervised learning we are given some data x and the cost function to be minimized, that can be any function of the data x and the network's output, f.The cost function is dependent on the task (what we are trying to model) and our a priori assumptions (the implicit properties of our model, its parameters and the observed variables).

As a trivial example, consider the model f(x) = a, where a is a constant and the cost C = E[(x - f(x))2]. Minimizing this cost will give us a value of a that is equal to the mean of the data. The cost function can be much more complicated. Its form depends on the application: for example, in compression it could be related to the mutual information between x and y, whereas in statistical modeling, it could be related to the posterior probability of the model given the data. (Note that in both of those examples those quantities would be maximized rather than minimized).

Tasks that fall within the paradigm of unsupervised learning are in general estimation problems; the applications include clustering, the estimation of statistical distributions, compression and filtering[5].

### Reinforcement learning

In reinforcement learning, data x are usually not given, but generated by an agent's interactions with the environment. At each point in time t, the agent performs an action yt and the environment generates an observation xt and an instantaneous cost ct, according to some (usually unknown) dynamics. The aim is to discover a policy for selecting actions that minimizes some measure of a long-term cost; i.e., the expected cumulative cost. The environment's dynamics and the long-term cost for each policy are usually unknown, but can be estimated.

More formally, the environment is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP) with states {s_1,...,s_n}\in S and actions {a_1,...,a_m} \in Awith the following probability distributions: the instantaneous cost distribution P(ct | st), the observation distribution P(xt | st) and the transition P(st + 1 | st,at), while a policy is defined as conditional distribution over actions given the observations. Taken together, the two define a Markov chain (MC). The aim is to discover the policy that minimizes the cost; i.e., the MC for which the cost is minimal.ANNs are frequently used in reinforcement learning as part of the overall algorithm.Tasks that fall within the paradigm of reinforcement learning are control problems, games and other sequential decision making tasks.

### Learning algorithms

Training a neural network model essentially means selecting one model from the set of allowed models (or, in a Bayesian framework, determining a distribution over the set of allowed models) that minimizes the cost criterion. There are numerous algorithms available for training neural network models; most of them can be viewed as a straightforward application of optimization theory and statistical estimation[5].

Most of the algorithms used in training artificial neural networks employ some form of gradient descent. This is done by simply taking the derivative of the cost function with respect to the network parameters and then changing those parameters in a gradient-related direction. Evolutionary, simulated annealing, expectation-maximization and non-parametric methods are some commonly used methods for training neural networks. See also machine learning.

Temporal perceptual learning relies on finding temporal relationships in sensory signal streams. In an environment, statistically salient temporal correlations can be found by monitoring the arrival times of sensory signals. This is done by the perceptual network[2].

### Employing artificial neural networks

Perhaps the greatest advantage of ANNs is their ability to be used as an arbitrary function approximation mechanism which 'learns' from observed data. However, using them is not so straightforward and a relatively good understanding of the underlying theory is essential.

- Choice of model: This will depend on the data representation and the application. Overly complex models tend to lead to problems with learning.
- Learning algorithm: There are numerous tradeoffs between learning algorithms. Almost any algorithm will work well with the correct hyper parameters for training on a particular fixed dataset. However selecting and tuning an algorithm for training on unseen data requires a significant amount of experimentation.
- Robustness: If the model, cost function and learning algorithm are selected appropriately the resulting ANN can be extremely robust.

With the correct implementation ANNs can be used naturally in online learning and large dataset applications. Their simple implementation and the existence of mostly local dependencies

### Chapter 5 Hopfield ANN

### Introduction

In the beginning of the 1980s Hopfield published two scientific papers, which attracted much interest. This was the starting point of the new era of neural networks, which continues today.

Hopfield showed that models of physical systems could be used to solve computational problems. Such systems could be implemented in hardware by combining standard components such as capacitors and resistors.

The importance of the different Hopfield networks in practical application is limited due to theoretical limitations of the network structure but, in certain situations, they may form interesting models. Hopfield networks are typically used for classification problems with binary pattern vectors.

The Hopfield network is created by supplying input data vectors, or pattern vectors, corresponding to the different classes. These patterns are called class patterns. In an n-dimensional data space the class patterns should have n binary components {1,-1}; that is, each class pattern corresponds to a corner of a cube in an n-dimensional space. The network is then used to classify distorted patterns into these classes. When a distorted pattern is presented to the network, then it is associated with another pattern. If the network works properly, this associated pattern is one of the class patterns. In some cases (when the different class patterns are correlated), spurious minima can also appear. This means that some patterns are associated with patterns that are not among the pattern vectors.

Hopfield networks are sometimes called associative networks since they associate a class pattern to each input pattern.

### Training ANN using Hopfield

We will train a ANN using Hopfield Network, that recognizes patterns. Its written in Matlab . The GUI is Simple (Fig 5.1). Where a user can Load images and train the network. Maximum number of learned patterns are 10. After training the program identifies a pattern from the Set of learned pattern using Hopfield Network.

### References

- Shumeet Baluja. Expectation-Based Selective Attention . pages 432-433, Carnegie Mellon University Computer Science Department,October1996. CMU-CS-96-182.
- Gilles Burel and Dominique Carel. Detection and localization of faces on digital images. PatternRecognitionLetters,15:963-967,October1994.
- AntonioJ . Colmenarez and Thomas S. Huang. Artificial Neural Networks ,pages782-787,1997.
- Harris Drucker, Robert Schapire, and Patrice Simard. Boosting performance in neural networks. International Journal of Pattern Recognition andArti?cialIntelligence,7(4):705- 719,1993.