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Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Self-Esteem

Info: 4709 words (19 pages) Essay
Published: 8th Feb 2020 in Employment

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Abstract

This study examines the relationship between job satisfaction and self-esteem. The scales used in this study are a developed scale for job satisfaction and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale to measure self-esteem. Results of this study found that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and self-esteem. Future studies on this correlation could be improved by using a more diverse sample population paired with a larger population.

 

Job Satisfaction and Self Esteem

 

For many people, their workplace is where they spend most of their time. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Americans worked 34.5 hours per week on average, which is 1,656 hours a year. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018). It is reasonable to make a connection between how one feels at work and other parts of life, like self-esteem. When people are not feeling fulfilled in their job or career, their self-esteem can suffer as a result. When people feel valued and fulfilled at work, they are more able to go above and beyond what is asked of them, which lends to a feeling of accomplishment and more confidence. It is important to explore this correlation because what we do for work and how we feel at the end of the day, can prove to be important when it comes to our own personal mental and emotional health. This study can help examine the relationship of job satisfaction and higher self-esteem, and how this relates to our lives.

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Previous research has been conducted that examines this relationship. A study conducted by Jacobs and Soloman titled Strategies for Enhancing the Prediction of Job Performance from Job Satisfaction studied this relationship by using two moderator variables; performance to reward contingency and self-esteem. These variables were put into equations with the goal of increasing the predictability of job performance rations from job satisfaction information. This study consisted of 251 employees answering a questionnaire package delivered via mail. The questionnaire used 4 self-report inventories in the are of job satisfaction, self-esteem, and the effects of rewards on job performance. The results of this study showed that using the moderator variable approach increased the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. (Jacobs, Solomon, 1977).

A study conducted by Abraham Korman (1968) examines how task success and task satisfaction are affected by people who possess high self-esteem and those that do not. The first experiment used 15-20 college students and used the Self-Assurance scale of the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory. Based on their answers, they were either given a “Success” or “Failure” after they had completed a task. The second experiment used this same experiment, except researchers told them what their peers thought about the task. The same self-assurance scale was used. The second third experiments were similar to the first was the same as the second, but the task was from a different measure, and participants were told of the other participants’ answers. All of these studies supported the hypothesis between success in a task and satisfaction and someone with high self-esteem, but no correlation when someone has low self-esteem. (Korman, 1968).

 Inkson based a research study off of Korman’s “consistency” theory of work motivation. The hypothesis was that there would be a correlation between job performance and work satisfaction for workers who were high in self-esteem and that there would be no correlation for workers with in low self-esteem. This study used 93 meat-processing workers was divided on two measures of self-esteem. Ratings of performance were correlated with the Job Descriptive Index measures of satisfaction. The results of this study were that self-esteem was a moderating effect on the correlation between job performance and satisfaction. It also found that self-esteem was not correlated with job performance and extrinsic satisfaction. The results matched Korman’s theory of work motivation. (Inkson, 1978)

According to a study by Tharenou and Harker, results showed that global self-esteem and a sense of competence did not affect the relationship between job satisfaction and performance, or the relationship between job complexity and job performance or job satisfaction. surveys and scales were given to 166 people aged 15-22, who had electrical apprentices. These were then given 20 months later to 92 of the original people. This study aimed to study the moderating influence of employee self-esteem on relationships between organizational variables. (Tharenou, Harker, 1984).

This study can also be found in other parts of the world. A study titled, The associations of Quantitative/qualitative job insecurity and well-being: The role of self-esteem, examines the relationship with job insecurity and how it affects a person’s well-being, with an emphasis on self-esteem. Warr’s model was used and included four indicators of self-esteem. 751 Italian employees participated in this study and completed a self-reporting questionnaire. The results of this showed that job insecurity had an effect on self-esteem. (Callea, Lo Presti, Mauno, & Urbini, 2017)

Additionally, A study conducted by Alavi and Askaripur, titled, The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction of Personnel in Government Organizations found a significant relationship between self-esteem and satisfaction from salary and wages was found. A random sample of 310 personnel from government offices in Iran was used. Two reliable closed questionnaires were used. Results of this study was that there is a positive relationship between self-esteem and the five dimensions of job-satisfaction that were included in the questionnaire. This study found that personnel with higher self-esteem had more job satisfaction compared to personnel with low self-esteem. (Alavi, H. R., & Askaripur, M. R. (2003).

This study studies the correlation between job satisfaction and self-esteem. I expect the correlation to be positive. As job satisfaction increases, self-esteem will increase.

Methods

Subjects

The subjects in the present study consisted of 40 college students, (29 female, 11 men) (see figure 1). The average age was 22.4 years old (See figure 2). Researchers accessed subjects from 1550 Del Norte Hall on November 7, 2018. The subjects were students in Psychological Research and Statistical Methods I. Two subjects were eliminated from the study because they did not complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, which would have led to incomplete results.

Materials

 The materials for the present study included a questionnaire with scales and SPSS. One of the scales was developed by the researcher and the other scale was Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (1965). The developed scale consisted of five statements related to one’s job satisfaction. An example of one of the statements on this scale is, “I like going to work every day” (See figure 3). The highest a subject can score on this scale is 20, and lowest one can score is 4.

The established scale consisted of ten statements related to one’s self-esteem. An example of one of the statements on this scale is, “I feel that I have a number of good qualities.” (See figure 3). The highest a subject can score on this scale is 30, and the lowest one can score is zero. If someone got a higher score then it would mean that they have more self-esteem than someone who gets a lower score.

Procedure

During class period, it took subjects approximately one hour to fill out the questionnaire. Each student entered their data into SPSS.

Results

Most subjects have average job satisfaction. (M=13.8, SD=3.296) The distribution was not skewed (0.02) and is slightly plateokurtic. (-1.02) (See Figure 4). The most frequent score was 14 with a range of seven to 20.

Subjects have fairly high self-esteem. (M=20.8, SD=5.506). ) The distribution was not skewed (-0.08), and has no problem with kurtosis. (0.47) (See figure 5)  The most frequent score was 20 with a range of nine to 30.

The correlation between job satisfaction and self-esteem was significant, r (38)=.488, p<.05 (one-tailed). The more the subject is satisfied with their job, the higher the subject’s self-esteem. (See figure 6). In order to predict a person’s self-esteem based on their job satisfaction, the following linear regression could be used: Self esteem= .82 (score on Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem scale) +10.06. For example, if someone scores 4 on the job satisfaction scale, this model predicts that they would score 13.34 on the self-esteem scale. (See figure 6 and 7)

Discussion

 

As predicted, the study found a positive relationship between job satisfaction and self-esteem. The more satisfaction a subject has, the higher their self-esteem is.

Some flaws of this research was that there was an overall lack of diversity. The population sample was taken from students attending Cal State University Channel Islands, most of which were students who’s major is psychology. The ratio of genders is also misrepresented, as CSUCI students are predominately female. The age range was also not diverse, most college students are young adults, which leaves out the population of people who are older than the typical college age. More possible flaws are that future research could benefit from more questions on the job satisfaction questionnaire, as five questions is not thorough enough to really assess one’s job satisfaction. The amount of time people had to take surveys was also too brief, as some may have rushed their answers, felt fatigue in answering multiple group’s surveys at once, or might not have taken the surveys seriously. Additionally, participants did not take their surveys in an isolated area, but rather in close proximity to others taking their surveys at the same time; this might have led to outside influence changing someone’s true answers, from judgement of their answers, or participants comparing answers. It is also possible that participants might have misrepresented themselves on the self-esteem survey, as it can be hard to self-reflect on something so sensitive in nature. The job satisfaction is also not a perfect measure as some students might not have jobs, or have part-time jobs, which means the survey might not apply to them.

If someone was to redo this study, a more diverse population would yield better, more accurate results that would be representative of a more diverse population. A larger population would also give better results, but is secondary to the importance of a diverse population. There would be more questions on the survey and participants would take them separate from other participants. This study could not be conducted as an experimental design, because you cannot recreate a work environment with all of its complexities. However, this study could be conducted as a case study, in which a longitudinal study is done to assess how participants’ job satisfaction affected their self-esteem.

References

  • Alavi, H. R., & Askaripur, M. R. (2003). The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction of Personnel in Government Organizations. Public Personnel Management, 32(4), 591–600. https://doi.org/10.1177/009102600303200409
  • Callea, A., Lo Presti, A., Mauno, S., & Urbini, F. (2017). The associations of quantitative/qualitative job insecurity and well-being: The role of self-esteem. International Journal of Stress Management. https://doi.org/10.1037/str0000091
  • Inkson, J. K. (1978). Self-esteem as a moderator of the relationship between job performance and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(2), 243–247. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.2.243
  • Jacobs, R., & Solomon, T. (1977). Strategies for enhancing the prediction of job performance from job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 417–421. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.62.4.417
  • Korman, A. K. (1968). Task success, task popularity, and self-esteem as influences on task liking. Journal of Applied Psychology, 52(6, Pt.1), 484–490. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0026498
  • Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 
  • Tharenou, P., & Harker, P. (1984). Moderating influence of self-esteem on relationships between job complexity, performance, and satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(4), 623–632. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.4.623

 

Appendix

Figure 1-

Gender

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Female

29

72.5

72.5

72.5

Male

11

27.5

27.5

100.0

Total

40

100.0

100.0

Figure 2-

Age

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

19

3

7.5

7.5

7.5

20

7

17.5

17.5

25.0

21

8

20.0

20.0

45.0

22

7

17.5

17.5

62.5

23

5

12.5

12.5

75.0

24

3

7.5

7.5

82.5

25

2

5.0

5.0

87.5

26

3

7.5

7.5

95.0

27

1

2.5

2.5

97.5

35

1

2.5

2.5

100.0

Total

40

100.0

100.0

Gender: _____ Age: _____                                                                            This belongs to:    ♡

Job Satisfaction

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

NEUTRAL

AGREE

STRONGLY AGREE

I like going to work every day.

1

2

3

4

5

I go above and beyond what is asked of me at work.

1

2

3

4

5

I often feel like my work accomplishments are ignored.

5

4

3

2

1

I have opportunities for promotions at work.

 1

2

3

4

5

Total: _____

Exercise

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

NEUTRAL

AGREE

STRONGLY AGREE

I exercise daily.

1

2

3

4

5

I sweat profusely by the end of exercising.

1

2

3

4

5

My heart feels like it is beating faster during/after exercise.

1

2

3

4

5

I push myself to my limit when I exercise.

1

2

3

4

5

Total: _____

Role Models

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

NEUTRAL

AGREE

STRONGLY AGREE

There are people I look up to (Teachers, Fictional Characters, Family, etc.)

1

2

3

4

5

I question how I present myself.

5

4

3

2

1

I love superheroes.

1

2

3

4

5

I think highly of myself.

1

2

3

4

5

Total: _____


 

Self Esteem & Depression Scale

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

NEUTRAL

AGREE

STRONGLY AGREE

I feel hopeful about my future.

1

2

3

4

5

I am more critical of myself than I am with others.

5

4

3

2

1

I like who I am as a person.

1

2

3

4

5

I feel empty most days.

5

4

3

2

1

I feel as if most better are better off than me.

5

4

3

2

1

Sometimes I have feelings of sadness I can’t explain.

5

4

3

2

1

Total: _____

Rosenberg’s Scale

Statement

STRONGLY AGREE

AGREE

DISAGREE

STRONGLY DISAGREE

I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.

3

2

 1

0

I feel that I have a number of good qualities..

3

 2

 1

 0

All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.

0

 1

2

 3

I am able to do things as well as most other people.

 3

 2

 1

 0

I feel I do not have much to be proud of.

 0

 1

 2

 3

I take a positive attitude  toward myself.

 3

 2

 1

 0

On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.

 3

 2

 1

 0

I wish I could have more respect for myself.

 0

 1

 2

 3

I certainly feel useless at times.

 0

 1

 2

 3

At times I think I am no good at all.

 0

 1

 2

 3

Total: _____

Figure 4-

Figure 5-

Figure 6-

Correlations

Job Satisfaction Scale

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Job Satisfaction Scale

Pearson Correlation

1

.488**

Sig. (1-tailed)

.001

N

40

40

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Pearson Correlation

.488**

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

.001

N

40

40

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Figure 7-

 

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