Impact of Power Distance on Employee Performance

1342 words (5 pages) Essay in Employment

23/09/19 Employment Reference this

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Alignment, in the context of writing, requires the author to master the skill of staying on topic for the entirety of the paper (Jones, 2016). Remaining on topic and only including relevant information to the paper can be difficult but will create a cohesive and well organized paper. The organization and alignment of the paper should be apparent in the topic, problem, purpose and the summaries the writer includes in the scholarly writing; keeping continuity of topic throughout those sections of the paper will show proper alignment. One way to ensure continuity is to create a thesis and tailoring research questions to proofing said thesis. The author will continue to refer back to the thesis and questions when analyzing the sources, literature, and data being included in the paper. Achieving alignment will help persuade readers and increase the likeliness of reading comprehension by demonstrating keen focus on addressing the thesis and answering the research questions specifically.

Article One

 Shahwan authored a study completed in 2016 in regards to and appropriately titled, “Relationship between ‘Power-Distance’ and Employee Performance in Multi-National Organizations” which aimed at giving employers some insight into accurately assessing employee performance in a multi-cultural business.


 This study’s aim was to establish the effects of “power distance” and the impact it has on employee performance. Power distance is term coined by Geer Hofstede when he established a framework from which to analyze cultures (Shahwan, 2016).  This paper offers a qualitative analysis of specified issues that harm or repair workplace relationships.


 The necessity of this study stems from the need to understand the cultural differences that need to be understood when evaluating employee performance (Shahwan, 2016). This understanding must come from more than just the human resources department, or the direct manager. For this reason, evaluating and understanding cultural differences and how employee’s performance is affected by these differences is necessary to include in work performance evaluations (Shahwan, 2016). The authors indicate the gaps in research surrounding the cultural variations and their effects on employee performance. This lack of understanding from employees to organizations’ CEO can negatively impact work performance anywhere on the spectrum between lowered work performance to extreme employee dissatisfaction (Shahwan, 2016).

Research Questions

 The author boiled the research questions down the following: (1) what cultural dimension Hofstede suggested, impacted performance and productivity at work (2) if any impact was found, how much influence the cultural dimension has on workplace performance (Shahwan, 2016, p.50).


 Alignment between the topic, thesis, purpose, literature review, and research questions was achieved with this study as the author stayed on topic and addressed the thesis and research questions throughout the paper.

Article Two

Goodstein, J., Butterfield, K., & Neale, N. (2016). Moral Repair in the Workplace: A

Qualitative Investigation and Inductive Model. 


 The experience of losing trust is a multi-dimensional experience. It can be felt by those those who have perpetrated or by those whom are experience the receiving end of a wrong-doing and find themselves loosing trust in someone else. The efforts taken by the offender and the response elicited in the receiving party, is referred to a “moral repair”, Goodstien and Butterfield have created a study in response to what methods used by offenders work and if they are affected by the motive, method of apology, or both.


 This study is intending on addressing the problem of moral repair following breaches of trust. The article focuses on the methods and responses to the methods used by the offenders to regain trust. The authors of this study were seeking understanding “moral repair” which entailed understanding the apology method, motive, and what combination of history, method, and motive results in what types of response. This study seeks a better understand of what it takes to repair a relationship after harmful events that have occurred and what can be done to salvage the relationship.


 This study articulates what motivates the offender to search for redemption, what actions they take, and why seeking redemption is important. This study is helpful in the moral and behavioral realm due to its impact on how one may apologize and how one may receive and apology. Why relationships have been violated, it is imperative to offenders that care about the relationship, to gain back trust and honor that has been lost (Goodstein & Butterfield, 2015).

Research Questions

“(1) What factors motivate offenders to make amends with those they have harmed? (2) In what ways do offenders attempt to make amends? (3) What outcomes emerge from attempts to make amends?” (Goodstein & Butterfield, 2015, pg. 1, para 1).

Article Three

 The third and final article being analyzed is Hartung & Wilson’s 2016 article titled “Conversational Moves That Matter”.


 Hartung and Wilson are covering the topic of “learning conversations” which they explain as dialogue that simultaneously covers exploration and examination while reframing an individual’s processing by affecting their (1) reasoning (2) assumptions (3) and perspective (Garmston & Wellman, 2009; Power, 2013; Senge, 1994).


 The learning conversations are important and beneficial to the learning process; specifically, in a workplace or academic-based setting. The article is addressing the lack of knowledge about what kinds of interactions during the learning conversations were notable; if any were notable, where the notable interactions could they be categorized by learning outcome. 


 The purpose of the study is to determine the functionality of learning conversations in the overall learning process, but more specifically about categorizing any reoccurring learning outcomes as to determine the efficacy of certain conversational moves (Hartung & Wilson, 2016). The study was tailored towards the workplace or academic setting and emphasized the usefulness of learning conversations in shifting a way of thinking and how to harness the most beneficial conversational moves during learning conversations.

Research Questions

 In earlier research, Hartung and Wilson outlined five specific learning outcomes, from which they also based their analysis in this current study being examined. Using these same five outcomes, the authors shaped their research and methods. Hartung & Wilson (2016)

 Research Question 1: What are the types and distributions of conversational moves that occur in the conversational moments in which reported learning outcomes can be found?

 Research Question 2: What, if any, conversational moves are significantly associated with different types of reported learning outcomes? (pg 257, para. 4).



  • Goodstein, J., Butterfield, K., & Neale, N. (2016). Moral Repair in the Workplace: A Qualitative Investigation and Inductive Model. Journal of Business Ethics, 138(1), 17-37.
  • Hartung, K. J., & Wilson, D. G. (2016). Conversational Moves That Matter. Adult Education Quarterly, 66(3), 254–272.
  • Jones, R. (2016). Dissertation writing: The importance of alignment. The Lentz Leadership Institute. Retrieved from
  • Shahwan, U. (2016). Relationship between “Power-Distance” and Employee Performance in Multi-National Organizations. Skyline Business Journal12(1), 48–54. Retrieved from              =119661135&site=ehost-live



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