Role of Technology for Gender Equality in Education

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Role of Technology for Gender Equality in Education

ABSTRACT

In this paper, I argue that technology could play revolutionary role to acquire gender equality in education by considering gender and space analysis which could provide open, flexible and liberating features of education spaces that seem to favour women. Hence, we can open doors for everyone by giving an equal opportunity to access knowledge by eliminating the distance barrier in development of education to gain gender equality in education. In this paper, I describe the role, impact and benefits of using technology in education. I describe, how technology could promote gender equality in education by facilitating the global social justice imperatives; how technology could bridge the gap between the gender and education goals. Previous Literature and my personal observations have been used to determine the ways these technologies can be used for gender equality program and its desirability on the basis of its segmentation and implementation in different contexts. The findings are consolidated into a framework for gender education equality. This framework may contribute to planning and implementing more inclusive gender education equality programs provides a framework that how teachers, librarians, youth workers, parents and international policies can use to empower next generation specially girls to succeed in today's technology-rich world for their better tomorrow,thereby arguing why well integrated and usage of information technology globally provide an ideal environment/platform for 21st century achievement for gender equality in education.

KEYWORDS

Education Technology, Technology education, Gender education equality, Gender equality. By the word technology: I meant the technological devices i.e. computer, laptop, iPad, mobile devices, media ,multimedia etc. and accessibility of information through these technology.

INTRODUCTION

The primary focus of this paper is to highlight the importance and influence of technology in our lives, and thus how could we exploit it to address the social and educational issues in regard to gender equality. Technology has become a defining force of our lives, and its relevance is spreading to virtually every field in one way or another. While some people might never have attended formal school in their entire lives, other might have little access to formal schooling or might be regularly attending formal school ,in any case main objective of attaining education is to learn the life skills and knowing about one’s and others rights. Life is about experiences and learning enhances by sharing and thus, ultimately learning new or better life skills by comparing to others. The journey of experiences with technology could most certainly can come in to play very early during the childhood.As technology continues to advance, the use of computers and the Internet in educational environments has immensely increased. But just how effective has their use been in enhancing children's learning specially considering gender equality? Educators at all levels are being challenged to come up with new ideas and adaptations to learning theory. Comparative education provides a vehicle for exploring changes in education for new and emerging gender equality issues.

The paper is a conceptual attempt to explore the new roles of technology in education which has increasingly become more than a sole medium, as was its description in the past. Basically, the key idea is that technology, with the powers of ICT, in education has now three main roles, namely: a medium/resource, a management, and a delivery. These new roles, when combined, could set the stage for restructuring the education institutions in an innovative way that leaves the current education system in history.

UNESCO indicates that one of the biggest problems we have to solve in the early twenty-first century is the abolition of differences between individuals. Intercultural education is a necessary and urgent alternative in order to change the current situation, and ICTs, with their potential to meet and interact with people specially girls from different countries and cultures, offer interesting tools in this matter. Thus we need to acknowledge the right of indigenous girls especially next generation to access bilingual, intercultural and international education and seeks to improve technology access and ICT skills to achieve a better quality of education that allows equal opportunities. As Mumtaz A., 2013 argues “The pedagogy of synchronous remote class-room teaching resembles with that of traditional class room teaching. The amalgamation of advanced technology into higher education in general and Open Learning System in particular, presents tremendous opportunities to improve the services available to concerned people. In addition, these modern technologies may compensate learners for absence from conventional class rooms and thereby virtual campus is created”.There is no clear policy to solve this intercultural problem of gender inequality and a program of integration of ICTs in the classroom has not yet been implemented. It also analyzes the performance of students and its relation to the use of technological tool. “Since the 1980s (Byron and Glagiardi) massive changes have occurred in the area of information technology (for example, the development of the Internet and (CD-ROMS) which have resulted in more knowledge being available. This growth has brought about a new form of human relationships in terms of participation, feedback and partnership. That being the case it is reasonable to compare technology effectiveness for gender equality in terms of the manner in which they can adopt this new form.

Only the hindrance of using technology for achieving gender equality in education could be seen so far that technology will be utilized by the educational field, but only in those areas where it can be proven to be economically feasible. In the area of improving the quality of education, technology will be utilized only by those areas that can afford a large increase in expense. With the promise of reduced costs, and in the face of resistance by entrenched individuals and arguments regarding dehumanization, and in view of the lack of a clear demonstration of effectiveness, technology will remain only a dream for the next decade.

BACKGROUND OF THE ISSUE

Every country does have a national system of education. One advantage of having separate education plans in a country is that regional needs are more likely to be addressed. Education is carried out in various kinds of institutions such as schools, colleges, universities, academies, technical universities and higher pedagogical schools, whereas girls might don’t have or have limited access to them.

The key factors affecting this problem

  • to understand gender differences in accessibility of education for social awareness
  • how to develop cognitive and non-cognitive abilities in early childhood,
  • the ineffective structure ,policies and practices of education ,and
  • How gender differences might amplify other kinds of inequalities, such as racial, ethnic, class, or nativity inequalities and create social misbalances in the society.

ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

The purpose of this paper is to examine role of technology in regard to gender equality in education. To increases the understanding and to address the multiple dimensions of gender equality in education, following areas will be reviewed in context of theoretical perspective and observations drawn from my own professional life.

  • How technology could be used to promote non formal education around the world?
  • Which different types of technologies could be used to achieve the gender equality in education?

The following four aspects of gender equality in education is used as a lens to establish the argument:

  1. Technology for equality of access ,
  2. Technology and equality in the learning process,
  3. Technology and equality of educational outcomes, and
  4. Technology and Equality of external results

This paper will focus on pervious literature (World web, articles, journals, world organization agendas and books available on the issues of gender equality in education and role of technology in education will using Harvey’s framework for evaluating the role of technology discourse enabled critique of educational access and opportunity by next generation.) to arrive at logical conclusion.

ARGUMENT

We all know learning does not take place only within the boundaries of the classroom. It is also very clear that formal schooling cannot serve all and above all, in the same manner. Education is very important for improving the quality of life. Education should be a part of the ongoing development of a community. This view of education and learning is focused on human beings ;its intention to help an individual find ways of articulating his needs and those of his community ,mobilizing resources to meet these needs and taking command of his own destiny for self-realization. It is type of learning that is not imposed by outside forces, but it is ought and developed by learners themselves. This type of education is distinguished best by the role it plays, and not by its structure. It has capacity to serve young and adults women ,literates and illiterates ;it is closely related to local needs , and it is neither time bound nor place bound .It is life long process of learning .It is education in broad sense ,regardless of where ,when ,or how the learning occurs. It focuses on the improvement of social and personal living, and occupational capabilities .It is important because e of the immediate and practical utility of learning it produces. This accessibility of education help a women young or old, make practical changes in herself, her daily life and his environment in accord with her own goals and wishes. Technology provides flexibility, so it has considerable potential for innovation in the learning process and bring about social change, thus it would be highly suitable for achieving gender equality in education.

The question should no longer be one whether technology are useful to education, but rather how to use them effectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Thus, I concluded that discourse and ideology of technology are not beyond our comprehension .We simply need to step back and recognize technology discourse as a particular way of constructing and understanding our world. We need to give this discourse a history, recognize it connections to gender equality and socioeconomic conditions in general . Education no doubt depends too much on technology.As the framework shows that the achievement of gender equality requires an approach which addresses its multiple dimension of gender equality in and an understanding of the roles and relationships between boys and girls and the harmful gender norms that exclude many people specially girls from meaningful attainment of education. Suggested approaches, such as scholarships for girls to or the establishment of girls’ clubs, although successful in could be used, providing access and improving girls’ education through technology in the short term. Investing in technology that not only ensure access to education and also focus on quality and retaining it. Adopting a broader perspective that promotes transformation of gender dynamics in an ongoing process, as the Framework advocates, holds greater promise for realizing true and lasting progress in the effort to achieve gender equality and education for all.

ANNOTATED BIBLOGAPHY

1. Erneling, Christina E, discursive education: philosophy, technology, and modern education ISBN 0521144027, 202

As technology continues to advance, the use of computers and the Internet in educational environments has immensely increased. But just how effective has their use been in enhancing children's learning? In this thought-provoking book, Christina E. Erneling conducts a thorough investigation of scholarly journals articles on how computers and the Internet affect learning. This book seeks to define the extent of the technology and future interdependence and how could it can be used to achieve learning goal of the future and give me insight into my subject matter.

2. Sharma, Suniti, 2012, Girls behind bars: reclaiming education in transformative spaces, the last chapters of the book.It supports calls for educators and practitioners in their desire to envision and create transformative spaces that enable young girls behind bars to reclaim their education.

3.UK government: Technology can revolutionise education for all learners. (2003, Jul 08). M2 Presswire.Launching the Government's consultation document on its e- learning strategy, Mr. [Charles Clarke] said he wanted to build on much of the excellent work which is already happening in some areas. This includes: - Coopers Technology College, Chislehurst, Kent, has set up a programme of flexible study which means pupils can learn even when away from school. One Year 12 pupil who had to spend time in Australia during his A level course was able to continue his studies through the programme. Assignments were set by the teacher, marked and returned with feedback via the internet.

4.Kirk, M. (2006). Bridging the Digital Divide: A Feminist Perspective on the Project. In G. Trajkovski (Ed.), Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies (pp. 38-67). Dale Spender compares the contemporary growth of digital information (due to computer technology) with the centuries-old growth of written information (due to the printing press), which inspired a tremendous social revolution. Today, digital information has the potential to inspire a similar social revolution, if we all have access as users and creators of information technology. Some have described the gap between those with power to use and create digital information and those who do not as a “digital divide.” How can we use the potential of information technology to birth a new social revolution on a global scale? How can we bridge the digital divide? The answers lie in a re-evaluation of science and technology to include us all. This chapter explores the problem from a feminist perspective and proposes a variety of solutions.

5.Technology@ School education. (2010, 07), Digital Learning, http://search.proquest.com/docview/610249542?accountid=14771 With education becoming a right for all, it is time that the immense potential of low cost technologies be exploited to help make the education system more responsive to the learning needs of the huge student population, school drop outs, and differently abled children.

6.Paul Kim,Teresita Hagashi ,Laura Carillo, Irina Gonzales, Tamas Makany,Bommi Lee, Alberto Gàrate , August 2011, Socioeconomic strata, mobile technology, and education: a comparative analysis ,Volume59(Issue4) Page p.465To-486.This article discuss Mobile devices are highly portable, easily distributable, substantially affordable, and have the potential to be pedagogically complementary resources in education. This study, incorporating mixed method analyses, discusses the implicationsof a mobile learning technology-basedlearning model in two public primaryschools near the Mexico-USA border in the state of Baja California, Mexico. One school was located in an urban slum and the other in a rural village community. Empirical and ethnographic data were collected through a series of achievement tests, observations, surveys, and interviews involving 160s grade school children recruited by convenience sampling. The general technology infrastructure, distinctive features of mobile learning to supplement literacy development, profound contextual phenomena arising from the two uniquely underserved communities, and social factors possibly influencing the educational experiences are discussed. The findings suggest that students in the rural village, seriously lacking educational resources and technology exposure, may have benefited substantially more from mobile technologies than urban school students possibly due to their relatively higher socio-economic status and higher parental involvement and interest in education. In contrast, there was no evidence of interaction with parental education levels, the experience of teachers or school principals, or the teacher’s perception or preparation of the technology. Overall, the mobile learning technology adoption was rapid, seamless, and actively driven by the students rather than the teacher. The challenges of the phenomenal migratory nature of most families in this unique geographical region are also discussed to benefit future studies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Author: Al Musawi, Ali Sharaf February 19 2014 13:35 Redefining Technology Role in Education

Bates, A. T. (2004). Technology, e-learning and distance education. Routledge.

Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. Routledge.

Collins, A. (1991). The role of computer technology in restructuring schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(1), 28-36.

Deborah Nelson, September 2013, Reaching All Students via Technology , Volume100 (Issue1) Page p.26To-29

Fien, J., & Tilbury, D. (2002). The global challenge of sustainability. Education and sustainability: Responding to the global challenge

Flavio Caldas (E.P.E.T. Nº 12 de San Martin de los Andes, Argentina), Ana García-Valcárcel Muñoz-Repiso (University of Salamanca, Spain) Chapter 4 The Role of ICTs in Rural Schools of Patagonia (pages 38-58)

Glennan, T. K., & Melmed, A. (1996). Fostering the Use of Educational Technology: Elements of a National Strategy. National Book Network, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706.

Goldin, C. D., & Katz, L. F. (2009). The race between education and technology. Harvard University Press

Morse, T. E. (2004). Ensuring equality of educational opportunity in the digital age. Education and urban society, 36(3), 266-279.

Nanjappa, A., & Grant, M. M. (2003). Constructing on constructivism: The role of technology. Electronic Journal for the integration of Technology in Education, 2(1), 38-56.

Selwyn, N., Gorard, S., & Williams, S. (2001). Digital divide or digital opportunity? The role of technology in overcoming social exclusion in US education. Educational Policy, 15(2), 258-277.

REFRENCES

  1. All-girls technology class battles gender gap." Curriculum Review Jan. 2010: 4+. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
  2. Basic education and gender equality-Technology, Aug 25, 2004 www.unicef.org/education/index_focus_technology.html‎
  3. Candy Ku by on Monday, August 1, 2011-Achieving gender equality in technology and innovation: 50:50 by 2020? http://gender.stanford.edu/news/2011/achieving-gender-equality-technology-and-innovation-5050-2020#sthash.Y3yLlFm2.dpuf.
  4. Mumtaz A. (2013, Dec 17). Modern technology and education. Pakistan Observer.
  5. NL Butler - ‎2006, The impact of Poland’s 1990 bill on schools of higher education.

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