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The first part of the assignment will accommodate description of management and the importance of leadership within management.
According to Daly et al, (2009), stated a manager is an individual who is responsible for his/her workforce; a manager is someone who is in charge of all the decision making of a workforce; a manager is a person that everyone goes to with their problems, and a person that passes on information that is given by higher authority to the workforce.
Rodd (2004), define management as a reasonable working pattern of support, inspiration and reasoning, including systems and administrations. Whereas, Mondy (1992) constitute that the role of management involves; working with human, financial, and physical resources in order to achieve organisational objectives. Mondy (1992) also stated that planning, organising, leading and controlling were the four general functions of managements; and that all of these four functions were equally important, as the coordination of these provision enables management to operate as a whole.
In addition an effective management skills, it is also crucial for a manager to have effective leadership skills; Burns (2004) assert that management skills can be defined as one's ability to administer a group of individuals in a way that will approve them to work together timidly and in a harmonised way, as this will result in the attainment of setting goals and aspirations. Mullins (2005) build that effective leadership is one of the many fundamental influences in the development of quality service for children; both effective leadership and management should be amalgamate together in bringing affirmation service for young children.
Quote states:- by Mullins (2003, P291); "Leadership style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which the manager typically behaves towards members of the group". A manager that used a democratic type of management style within their setting; they are established that they have open door policy within the setting which approve their staffs to communicate with the manager whenever they required; it can a articulate that the manager leads their staff into feeling a part of a team by including them in all of the decision making process of the setting through staff meetings. Respecting Each Other; ensuring staff act as good role models; Use of positive language; Establish good relationships between practitioners and parents; updated with Policies and procedures; Open door policy; Encourage turn taking and sharing; Supervision and staff appraisals.
The manager can demonstrate by having an open door policy and involving the staff in all the decision making of the setting draws and influenced the staffs to work harder; this could be associated, quote suggests, Sadek (1996)'s argument which stated that staff encouragement is a considerable task for managers as it is foremost for the action of the crew.
The next part of the assignment will contribute enlightenment in relation to the role and responsibilities of the early year's manager.
A manager who is established will believe one of their main duties at the setting ensuring that the children are safeguarded and happy; this is a positive attitude for an early years manager to have as according to a research carried out, quote stated, by Lunn (1998), most of the nursery managers that were found to be successful leaders in the research were managers who were involved in the children before their speciality.
Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of all individuals in the education system to make sure their surrounding is as safe as possible for their pupils (Directgov 2012). Furthermore, it is the manager position to ensure they have health and safety rules and regulations; and implement within the setting by all staffs by regularly involving and motivating all staffs in all matters concerning health and safety issues through training. Free choice to inform own learning;- Support and plan for children's interests; Opportunity for children to explore and the Key person enables the child to feel safe and secure; Provide a safe and secure environment; Regular observations are carried out and children are provided with indoor and outdoor activities,
Quote states:-, Watson (1998) that the financial needs of provisions should be taken vigorously and planned precisely as the maintenance provided to the children.
A manager needs to handle the financial matters of the setting; budget is the key factors that can be threat to the quality of service being provided to the children. Therefore the manager must ensure that the nursery's budget is being managed correctly as miscalculations of the budget can have a negative impact on the function of the setting as it could result in the nursery not being able to meet some of its goals and objectives.
Furthermore, According to Megginson (1992), employees' doing what is required from them establishes the effectiveness of the manager's management skills. This indicates that the manager must take fully responsibility to ensure that all of the staffs doing what were expected of them; a good way is by regularly monitoring the staffs. Preferably, have fitted cameras in every room of the setting and that the images from all of the cameras reflected back to the camera located in the managers office. This strategy can be positive effects on the function of the setting as the manager have faith for the staffs carried out their duties effectively and accordingly to the fact that they knew they were under continual surveillance.
A excellent principle for a manager to adhere is to keep a constant revise of the policies and procedures of their settings; these will enables their employees to understand their roles and responsibilities; policies and procedures also grant management to inspire acts without constant management interferences. (Mondy1992).
Besides Mullins (2005), suggests that a critical part of the process of management comprehends given a competent attention to the adequate use of resources, in human resources; human resources have an important role to play in the success of an organisation. In dispute by, Curtis and O'Hagen (2003) that it is essential for a manager to ensure that staffs are trained and are appropriately qualified to a standard that will enable them to provide the establishment with the best possible services. The manager must take a full responsibility to employ individuals that are appropriately qualified to work with children; He/she must be articulate that when employing staffs; they looked for two considerable aspects: the first is the person likes children and had some experience working with children; and secondly they have the appropriate qualifications.
To addition, "The Children's Act 1989" states that it is legally the responsibility of professionals to work in partnership with parents (Tassoni 2000). The manager must also ensure and have a good on-going relationship between the parents of the children attending the setting and the staff. As a factor this can be devoted to the quality of service being provided to the children as according to the Livestrong article (2010), both teachers and parents have passion for the same thing which is the best learning experience and allows a good accessible learning for the children; effective communication between the professionals and parents can help to attain this as important information such as; children's likes and dislikes can be shared through the communication; and this will be beneficial for the function of the setting as the information will help the staffs gain knowledge of how to handle each individual child.
The role and responsibilities of a manager are not only affected by factors within the workforce; external factors such as society's attitude, beliefs and values and government policies cam also have an impact on the role and responsibilities of a manager.
Quote states: - according to Turner (2003); society's attitude, beliefs and valued has gradually changed throughout the period; issues concerning young children and families have been high on public agendas. The diminish role in society has provided women with better liberty; and this is resulted in more mothers going into education and back to work. This involves a positive impact because the role and responsibilities of an early year's manager will have more pupils attending nurseries balancing great more responsibilities for early years managers due to increase of children under their care.
The manager also has responsibility to ensure that equal opportunity practices are being carried out within the setting. This can be of various reasons, as an example a provision can be located in a multicultural area and the children attending the nursery are from a variety of backgrounds. The EYFS's Statutory Framework (2010) demonstrates that early year's practitioners has fully responsibility to promote positive attitudes to diversity and difference and that practitioners also have a duty to focus on each individual child's learning, development and needs. The manager will be required to provide equal opportunity for all children regardless of their race, culture, religion, language or ability and that the centre also positively encouraged all the children to participate in all activities. A well established manager can also strive to help all children feel inclusive and that the provision must be able to promoting positive recognition, understanding, knowledge and celebration of different culture celebrations. Equal opportunities; Cultural and ethnic diversity; Parents are involved as partners; Open door policy for parents to have they say; Support from other professionals (agency) when necessary; All children and their families are included and valued from different backgrounds.
The Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage (2011), OFSTED (Office for Standards in Education) is an official government body ensures the responsibility is to inspect schools in England and to produce inspection reports which are meant to be used to improve standards of achievement and quality in education. The manager needs to be knowledge that all of OFSTED's health and safety policies and procedures are implemented in the provision; otherwise as failure of the implementation of these policies and procedures could result in the closure of the provision. In addition the OFSTED's safeguarding policies are maintained and carried out by the member of the staffs within the setting by constantly emphasising the importance of the rules and regulations of OFSTED's safeguarding policies; this can be maintained through staff meetings; regularly endure watching the staff within the setting; raising any awareness of any health and safety issues that comes across with all staffs.
Nonetheless, OFSTED's policy in relation to safeguarding in early years education; there are some concerns regarding the extent in which children's safety are met in early years settings; quote states:- Pugh (2003) argued that there are still concerns over the neglect of children's health and welfare at the expense of their education. Although Pugh's argument suggests that there are early year's settings that might believe that children's education is more important than children's health and safety as overall.
A good manager who has a good established for the setting can have a good impact through influence of their provision and their role as manager is from learning and developments requirements of the EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage). Through daily safety checklists carried out for Health and safety policy; Regular fire drills are implemented; Safeguarding children policy should be updated on regular basis; Designated member of staff responsible for child protection issues or immediate manager; Safeguarding children training for staff must be provided; Behaviour policy; Adult : child ratio observed; Accident / incident forms Rules displayed and adhered in the setting.
In accordance to the Department for Education (2012), it is stated that the EYFS is a central part of the government's 10 years child care strategy; the EYFS is in charge of placing the curriculum guidance for the foundation stage. The Statutory Framework for the EYFS sets standards for the learning, developments and care for children from birth to five; nursery managers, school governors and nursery directors; are all legally responsible for ensuring that the provisions of their settings meets the learning and developments requirements of the EYFS, that their provisions meets the regulations of the EYFS, and that notes of new and additional requirements in the Early Years Foundation Stage Statutory Framework are taken down and implemented within their settings.
Moreover, according to the Statutory Framework for the EYFS (2011); it is interpreted there are seven areas of learning and developments that are required to shape educational programmed in early years setting, as follows: personal, social and emotional developments; physical developments; and communication and language; these three areas are described as maturity areas in the Framework as they are believed to be the areas that are particularly important for extinguish children's curiosity and enthusiasm for learning and also for building children's capacity to learn and thrive. The Framework also exhibit that early years education providers must also support children in the following four specific areas: literacy; mathematics; understanding the world; and expressive arts and design.
The media concept on the BBC News (2000), the National Childcare Strategy was introduced in the UK in 1998; the aim of the Strategy was to create more childcare places and helping parents to go back to work by giving them more support. Beaver (2001) established that the aim of the National Childcare Strategy was to ensure good quality, accessible and affordable childcare for children in the UK. The introduction of the National Childcare Strategy has a negative bond impact on the finances of day private settings can have a negative effect on the role of an early years manager in the following case; suppose if there can made deductions to be made from the cost of the private settings as a result of less children attending day care centres; it would be the manager's role and responsibility to figure out a way of cutting down the costs of the provision in a way that will not affect the quality of service being provided to the children.
Quote taken : - Adirondack (1998) cited in Curtis and O'Hagen (2003) stated 'no good can be good at every aspects of management'; an early years setting manager has a variety of duties to carry out; therefore it would be impossible for a manager to be perfect at every activity their may conduct out. A good provision manager will express and show a good use of their own knowledge and management skills, which can be a good advantage enabling her to be the accomplished manager, however, other managers will experience difficulty at times.
To conclude, it can be formed in many of the convincing and vital elements of management issues that has been identified in the essay indicating that there are many factors that needs to be considered when managing a provision. In an early years setting, the primary role of the manager is to be responsible for the organisation of the staff; and the resources that will be used to translate the setting's vision to providing a high quality service to the children that will be attending the setting.
Parent questionnaire are in place; Suggestion box; Settling in policies and procedures is should been implemented and staff are made fully aware; providing advice and support when necessary, an good example will be a Drop in session and finally meeting the cultural requirements. A well established good manager in early settings needs to be multitasking as this factor is very important. He/she also requires an excellent knowledge of different policy on their provision should be updated regularly. Staff should be trained at all times as required. A manager should be able to solve problem and is able to be a good decision maker and build a strong team.
Finally, the managers need to be aware of most government policy; Every Child Matters; safeguarding; Child Protection rules and regulations. Quote suggests: "Educating a child takes cooperation and involvement from educators, parents, families, and the community." Everyone has heard the saying "It takes a village to raise a child." Research has shown the greater the family and community involvement in schools, the greater the students' achievement (Niemiec, R., Sikorski, M., & Walberg, 1999).