Transportation And Communication In Pakistan Economics Essay
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In Pakistan there are 96 roads of inland freight and 92 of passenger traffic and undoubtedly the backbone of Pakistans economy.
Current road network of Pakistan is about 2,60,000 km which caters services to 11 million vehicles of all type and also NHA roads network is around 12,000 km, which is merely 4% of the overall road network but takes 80% of Pakistan's commercial traffic.
In Pakistan NHA has completed 12 projects of flyovers, bridges, interchanges and road up gradation during the last one year at a cost of Rs. 19.6 billion.
At present, 46 development projects having length of 2,985 km are ongoing at a cost Rs. 245 billion in different sections/packages.
All the 46 development projects include construction of roads, river Bridger, tunnels, flyovers, interchanges.
In Pakistan during the current financial year, NHA has launched/awarded 16 new development projects covering a length of above 500 km inclusive construction of a number of bridges, flyovers and interchanges costing Rs. 70,951 million.
NHA is simultaneously constructing 12 Bridges across the rivers. These are; on rivers Chenab 4, on rivers Sutlej 2, on river swan 1 and 5 on river Indus.
Heavy rains and floods severely damaged the transport and communication system during last 2 years and preliminary estimates indicate that road approximately 8,385 km and 190 km railway lines were damaged including bridges and allied structures.
In Pakistan Telecommunication infrastructure includes damages to cellular sites, exchange centres, equipment, power system and supporting civil works is amounting to $1.9 million.
Ministry of Railways has also adopted a "Track Access Policy" for private sector participation to operate freight and passenger trains on Pakistan infrastructure and they also created a "Real Estate Development and Marketing Company" as subsidiary of Ministry of Railways.
There are six factories including Locomotive Factory Risalpur, Carriage Factory Islamabad, and four concrete Sleeper Factories in Kohat, khanewal, sukkur, are Kotri, are being corporatized for eventual privatization subject to approval of the government.
Pakistan cabinet committee of restructuring has approved a restructuring framework for their Railways and also during the last financial year, 16 kms of track was rehabilitated on Pakistan Railways network besides doubling more than 15 kms of track.
There are 52 new design passenger coaches were imported from China at a cost of Rs. 4.1 billion. Remaining 150 passengers' coaches will be manufactured at Pakistan railways carriage factory Islamabad by June 30, 2013.
22 passengers' coaches have been rehabilitated at Pakistan Railway Carriage Factory Islamabad during last year.
There is a new dry port was set up at Prem Nagar near Raiwind industrial area, Lahore through public private partnership at a cost of Rs. 494.0 million.
International Airlines Corporation of Pakistan earned increased revenue amounting to Rs. 116.02 billion in year 2011 as compared to 107 billion last year. A purchase agreement of 5 Boeings 777 has been signed.
In Pakistan two new destinations have been introduced during the year 2011: Karachi - Madina and Quetta - Zahedan and also there are three new routes were introduced during the year 2011: Peshawar - Kaula Lumpur, Sialkot-Riyadh and Sialkot-Dammam.
In Pakistan Karachi port trust handled cargo 27.8 million tonnes during the first 9 months current fiscal year.
In Pakistan consolidated revenues of PNSC group during July-March 2011-12 were Rs. 6,640 million as compared to Rs. 6772 million last year and also the corporation intends to acquire four vessels through commercial loan/joint venture basis.
In Pakistan acquisition of two vessels in process, while two more vessels will be acquired in next financial year.
In Pakistan the Total cargo handled on Gawadar port up till now is 4.1 million tones while Gawadar Portearned total revenue since its start of operation amounting to Rs. 53.4 million and also in the Port Qasim Authority handled a cargo volume 19.7 million tones during July-March 2011-12.
The volume of cargo importduring July-March 2011-12 stood at 14.7 million tones, and alsoexports handled 4.9 million tones during July-March 2011-12.
Pakistan Ministry of Communications has prepared a draft National Transport Policy which coversall modes of transport sectors i.e. (i) Roads, (ii) Railways, (iii) Ports & Shipping and this policy also includes the National Transport Corridor Improvement Program(NTCIP). This programme has been launched in the country to revamp the whole transportsector including ports, roads, railway etc. and provides a frame work to developand improve the North South corridor.
In Pakistan mobile penetration rose 64.9percent in 2011-12 against 60.4percent in 2010-11 whichshows an improvement of 4.3 percentage points in total teledensity.
So due to mobile substitution in pakistan, Fixed Local Loop teledensity has been declining over the yearsand it stands now at 1.93 percent compared to 2.1 percent last year showing a decrease of 0.17%.
There is the total mobile subscribers reached 118.3 million by the end of March 2012 as compared to 108.9 million last year in pakistan and subscribers of Local Loop (FLL + WLL) reached at 5.93 million, out of which 3.10 million belong to FLL and 2.83 million belong to WLLin these nation.
The broadband subscribers reached 1.9 million at the end of February 2012 in pakistan because of that the revenues of the telecom sector during the 2011-12, standing at Rs. 363 billion compared to the last year 344.2 billion show an increase of 5.4 percent.
In the last year 2011, telecom sector invested US$ 495.8 million with cellular mobile sector being the major contributor.and also telecom sector attracted over US$ 79 million Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the country which is about 5 percent of the total FDI landed in Pakistan in 2011.
In pakistan the Auction of 3G licenses is expected which will bring more FDI in the country.
Telecommunication Authority and the State Bank of Pakistan have signed a memorandum of Understanding (MoU) both the institutions have shown their interest and commitment in stimulating mobile banking services in the country.
In pakistan cumulative investment of approximately US $ 2.5 billion in the electronic media industry.
Because of cumulative invesment new jobs to more than 200,000 people of diversified skills and qualifications have been provided. In addition, over seven million people have been accommodated through indirect employment.
In pakistan with the current growth rate of more than seven percent per annum, it is estimated that the cumulative investment in the electronicmedia industry will reach above $ 3.0 billion by the end of the current financial year.
There is also a PBC External Services, broadcast programmes for 08 hrs daily in 11 foreign languagescovering Afghanistan, Iran, China, India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka in pakistan.
The total Central Production Units (CPU) produce music, drama, features, documentaries and programmes for special occasions. CPU has over 2 million minutes recording in itsarchives which are being digitized in the country.
In these country the PBC News is putting on air 117 News bulletins daily.it includes National, Regional, External and Local News bulletins besides resume of National Assembly and Senate.
These PBC news launched broadcast FATA News, special news bulletins from PBC Hyderabad onrain/ flood situation and ongoing rescue and relief activities in Urdu and Sindhi languages.
These country's Post provides services through a network of 12,035 (1,797 urban and 10,238 rural)post offices across the country.
The total money orders of Benazir Income Support Programme amounting to Rs.16,642.0 millionhave been paid within prescribed period of time.
There is also 55 Small and Smart Express Centres have been set up in the urban areas.
In Pakistan during the period July-March 2011-12 an amount of Rs. 160,266.9 million has been Collected through National Savings Schemes and earned commission amounting to Rs. 801.3 million During this period.
In these country of pakistan the primary energy supply during current year is 64.52 million TOE compared to 63.09 million TOE last year thus showing an increase of 2.3 percent. The availability of energy per capita in 2011 remained 0.372 Tone Oil Equivalent TOE compared to 0.371 Tone Oil Equivalent (TOE) in 2010 posting a positive growth rate of 0.16%.
In Pakistan the average crude oil production during July-March 2011-12 remained 66,032 barrels per day as against 65997 barrels per day during the corresponding period of last year, showing an increase of 0.05%.
In Pakistan the industrial sector had shown positive growth of 24.2% in the consumption of petroleum products during July-March 2011-12 when compared with last year.
The Transport sector in this country surprisingly showed a relative small growth of 3.5 percent in the consumption of petroleum products as consumption of petroleum product in transport sector remained 6,832.9 million tones during July-March 2011-12 compared to 6,599.1 million tones during corresponding period last year in Pakistan.
The total consumption of petroleum products in the power sector was 8,139 million tons compared to 8,814 million tones last year which hampered the growth in this sector, thus posting negative growth of 5.2 percent in this sector in this country.
In the gas sector of Pakistan supply increased by 4.9 percent in July-March 2011-12 as the average production of natural gas was 4236.06 million cubic feet per day during this period while it was 4,050.83 million cubic feet per day in corresponding period last year.
In Pakistan the natural gas in the form of CNG posted a positive growth 10.8% during July-March 2011-12.
There is a total contribution of Hydel in electricity generation increased to 33.6% in 2010-11 in this country.
In Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) remained the main contributor to electricity generation with 48.7% coming from this source.
Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation (KESC), Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Kot Addu Power Company (KAPCO) and the Hub Power Company (HUBCO) have 8.3, 3.6, 6.2 and 9.1%, respectively.
In Pakistan the Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have contributed almost 25%.
Water and Power Development Authority is executing, on priority basis, the projects such as 969 MW-Neelum Jhelum, 1410 MW-Tarbela 4th Extension, 7100 MW-Bunji, 4320 MW-Dasu, 740-MW Munda Dam and most mentionable 4500 MW-Diamer Bhasha Dam projects, to cope with the increasing demand of power in this country.
There is almost 96% work on the main dam at Mangla, spillway and allied facilities had been completed and resettlement work is in progress. Likewise 99.7 percent work on Satpara and 72.1% on Gomal Zam dam has been completed.
In this country there is one of the beneficiaries of Tetra-partner power import project under the head of Central Asia-South Asia (CASA-1000) electricity trade.
In Pakistan the household sector consumed 44% of the total electricity generated followed by industrial (26%), government (12.3%), agriculture (10.4%) and commercial (6.8%) during July-March 2011-12.
In Pakistan the major users of coal are the cement sector and brick kilns; about 60% of total coal is consumed by cement while 39 percent is consumed by the brick kiln industry during current year as compared to 62% consumption of coal in cement industry and 37% in brick kiln industry last year.
In Pakistan Health situations at household level has registered an improvement, in terms of 66% of population using flush toilets compared to 63% in 2008-09, because of that it creates a good and healthy environment.
In this country Benazir Income Support Program launched by the government with the primary objective of providing immediate relief to poor people.
Benazir Income Support Program has made remarkable progress by providing much needed relief to over 4 million recipients including Internally Displaced Persons and bomb blast victims all over Pakistan.
In this country Rs. 122 billion up to March, 2012 have been disbursed to its beneficiaries. Benazir Income Support Program has an allocation of Rs 50 billion for the financial year 2011-12.
Benazir Income Support Program recipients are expected to be increased to 7 million once the on-going processing of data collection during the "nation-wide poverty scorecard targeting survey" is finished.
Benazir Income Support Program has launched a number of programs of society safety including (i) Payment to Recipients, (ii) Graduation Initiatives, (iii) Waseela-e-Haq, (iv) Waseela-e-Rozgar, (v) Waseela-e-Sehat and (vi) Waseela-e-Taleem.
This country's poverty Alleviation Fund is dedicated for micro credit, enterprise growth, community based infrastructure and energy projects, maintenance enhancement and protection, social mobilization, and capacity building. The overall disbursements for core operations during the period of July- December 2012 are Rs. 8,490 million.
Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal is making a important contribution in poverty decrease by providing support to destitute, Widows, Orphans, and other needy. Rs. 1777.50 million has been utilized up to Feb. 2012 on many schemes.
Zakat funds have been utilized for assistance to the needy, indigent, poor, orphans, widows and handicapped. Up to March, 2012 Rs. 7800.27 million have been spread in bulk amongst the provinces.
In this country Peoples Works program (PWP) I & II are providing electricity, gas, farm to market roads and other services to the rural poor. PWP-I & II incurred expenditures of Rs. 5 billion and Rs 21.30 billion during 2010-11 respectively whereas Rs 2.20 billion expenses have been incurred between July-December 2011-12 on Peoples Works program -I and Rs 2.90 billion expenditures on Peoples Works program -II.
In Pakistan Employees Old Age Benefits Institution provided profits to the old age workers through Old Age Pension, Inaccuracy Pension, Stayers Pension and Old Age Grants and Rs. 7961.20 million has been developed during July- March 2011-12.
In this country Workers Welfare Fund utilized Rs. 2539 million during July-March 2011-12 for housing services and Marriage Grant, Death Grant and Scholarships etc. for the industrial workers.
In Pakistan Government has also taken various micro-finance initiatives in collaboration with all stakeholders to create employment occasions and to eliminate poverty.
In Pakistan a number of projects have been funded by the government to deal with growing environmental degradation and also there are number of projects funded by the donors in which the government is a partner. All these projects are being currently implemented to develop overall atmosphere in the country.
In Pakistan climate change is a zone that has become progressively important in recent years. In this regard, the National Climate Change Policy 2011 provides a outline for addressing the issues that Pakistan faces or will face in future due to the changing climate.
The goal of the National Climate Change Policy is to ensure that climate change is mainstreamed in the economically and socially helpless sectors of the economy and to steer Pakistan towards climate resilient development.
In Pakistan Urban air pollution remains one of the most important environmental problems, facing the cities.
In Pakistan extensive body of research exhibits that high attentions of suspended particulate matter adversely affect human health; prolong a wide range of respiratory infections and increased the probability of heart diseases.
In this country the higher attention of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the air is a major issue.
In Pakistan the main sources of suspended particulate matter are vehicular emission, industrial emissions, burning of Solid waste, pollens and natural dust. Motorcycles and rickshaws, due to their two stroke (2-strokes) engines, are the most ineffective in burning fuel and contribute most to productions.
In this country the situation of access to drinking water is quite extraordinary.
In this country according to Pakistan Bureau of Statistics report (PBS) Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2010-11, access to drinking water to urban and rural population of Pakistan is 94 and 84%, with an average of 87 % in 2011.
In Pakistan hygiene facilities are improving. However, much improvement is needed for rural areas hygiene facilities.
According to Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey 2007-08,the garbage collection facilities to the population is only 14% done through municipalities, 7% through confidentially managed and remaining 79% have no system.
In Pakistan according to a report released by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) 2012, 92% people had enlarged access to drinking water by 2010 while this ratio was 85% and 89% in 1990 and 2000 respectively.
In Pakistan the MDG aim is to achieve the ratio of 93% by 2015. Moreover, 48% people have been using better sanitation by 2010 while this ratio was 27% and 37% in 1990 and 2000 respectively and also the MDG target for access to sanitation is 90% by 2015.
In Pakistan damage and need assessment report jointly prepared by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank regarding overflows 2011, it has been pointed out that in addition to beginning loss of life, movement of millions, and huge losses to the economy, the floods in 2011 have also resulted in environmental harms, heightened environmental health risks and affected forests, swamps and other natural systems.
In this country the Environmental damage caused by floods has been estimated at Rs. 2763 million (US $ 31.8 million) and Green reconstruction needs has been estimated at Rs. 2874 million (US $ 33.02 million).
Flood Impact Assessment
In this nation Simple monsoon rains triggered floods in Southern Pakistan at an extraordinary scale, both in terms of size and strength, swamping all 23 districts of Sindh Province and connecting areas of northern Baluchistan Province.
In Pakistan Approximately, 9.6 million people were affected in Sindh and Baluchistan as a result of the floods; 520 people died and more than 1180 people were injured and also according to World Bank and Asian Development Bank report, 27,000 sq. km. area damaged in Sindh province out of the total 27,370 sq. km.
There is also the flood caused total or partial damages to an estimated 998,376 housing units in Sindh and Baluchistan so that it causes the overall economy of the country.
In Pakistan the highest cause occurred in the agriculture, livestock and fisheries sector, has been estimated at Rs.160 billion because of the flood and also the total damage caused by 2011 floods has been expected amounting to Rs.324.50 billion.
In Pakistan the total cost of recovery and re-establishment needs has been estimated at Rs.239 billion.
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