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Analysis of Training Methods

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Mon, 11 Dec 2017

TRAINING METHODS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report studies the various training methods and their importance in the success of a training program.

The different types of training methods – on the job training, off the job training and technology based training are discussed in this report, with their advantages and disadvantages.

Training can no longer be viewed as a support system, like a good benefits program or a leading-edge technical infrastructure. In the skilled workforce of the 21st century, training is essential. It is the core engine of a company, because it supports the entire skilled workforce. And, frankly, there is no other way – whatsoever – for a company to comply with this paradigm shift than to understand that training is important. Or rather, that it’s essential. (www.adrianmiller.com)

As, ineffective training methods and failing to link training with organizational strategies and day-to-day management behaviour are the two main reasons behind the wastage of training dollars. In this report various methods are studied with their advantages, disadvantages, as this is essential to understand to match each method with goals of training program. This report includes the training methods which a trainer can choose either single method or may choose to combine two or more methods to fulfil the objectives of training method.

INTRODUCTION

Training is not a choice it is necessarily for success of an organization. The elements needed for successful training includes the proper research; preparation, execution and evaluation of training, with the direction of that training being “to get the message across”. As few people are born trainers, and generally of those who wish to be trainers need training. Even those few who are born trainers are gain from training, and their efficiency is improved as a result.

One of the biggest causes of wasted training dollars is ineffective methods. Naturalist William Henry Hudson once observed: “You cannot fly like an eagle with the wings of a wren.” Most training efforts never get off the ground because the methods don’t change behaviour or the training is poorly delivered and integrated by the organization. (www.managerwise.com)

With analysing various training methods and their benefits, this report would provide with an insight of best suited methods and when they should be used. As for trainers to understand the pros and cons of each method is very essential before giving training. The report concludes how to choose training methods and the main factors to consider.

TRAINING METHODS

Off the job training methods:

  • Lecture method
  • Discussion method
  • Audio Visual method
  • Case study method
  • Case incident method
  • Behaviour modeling
  • Role play
  • Games
  • Simulations
  • Action learning
  • Blended training

On the job training methods:

  • Job instruction training
  • Job Rotation
  • Apprenticeship
  • Coaching
  • Mentoring

Technology Based Training:

  • v Computer Based training
  • v Self directed learning
  • v Asynchronous and Synchronous training
  • v Electronic Performance Support Systems
  • v Video and Web conferencing

OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS

A wide variety of methods are available for training employees at all the levels. The most common method used for training non managerial employees is on the job training (OJT). OJT has the advantage of providing hands on experience under normal working conditions and an opportunity for the trainer to build good relationships with new employees. The methods which are used more frequently are discussed below:

-Lecture method

In this training method trainer organizes the content to be learned and presents it orally with little trainee involvement. There is not much interaction between trainer and trainees in this process. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. (www.trainingand development.naukrihub.com)

-Discussion method

This method allows two way communications between the trainer and trainees as well as among trainees. Discussions facilitate the exchange of ideas and are good ways developing critical thinking skills.

In discussion groups size is also important, groups should be assigned a well defined, easily understood task that one is doable within the allotted (Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun, 2010)

-Audio Visual method

Various forms of media that are used to illustrate key points or demonstrate certain actions or behaviours, videos, DVDs are often used by trainers to supplement lectures and discussions. Trainers should assure that the slides should not overwhelm trainees with information and they should be easy to read and follow. (Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun, 2010)

-Case incident method

In this training method trainees discuss, analyse and solve problems based on a real situation. This method teaches trainees to think for themselves and develop problem solving skills while the trainer functions as a catalyst for learning. (Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun, 2010)

Even when case studies can be appropriate they can be mismanaged. As with any other development technique implementation is crucial for effectiveness.

-Behaviour modeling

An approach that demonstrates desired behaviour and gives trainees the chance to practice and role play those behaviours and receive feedback. Behaviour modeling involves four basic components – learning points, modeling, practice and role play and feedback and reinforcement.

-Management Games

Training experiences have been brought to light and made more interesting through the development of management games, in which players are faced with the task of making a series of decisions affecting a hypothetical organisation.

Although trainees seem to enjoy games and respond enthusiastically to them there is not much evidence on how effective they are for improving skills and on the job performance. (Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun, 2010)

-Role-playing

Role-playing consists of assuming that attitudes and behaviours – i.e. playing the roles – of others, often a supervisor and a subordinate who are involved in a particular problem. Role playing is a versatile teaching method applicable to a variety of training experiences.

Planned and implemented correctly, role play can bring realism and insight into problems and experiences that otherwise might not be shared. It is really essential in this method to complete the three phases – development, enactment and debriefing along with continuous communication with employees otherwise the wanted results would not be achieved by the trainers in this process.

ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS:

Some skills and knowledge can be acquired by listening and observing or by reading but others must be acquired through actual practice and experience. However, just as on the job training for first level employees can be problematic if not well planned; on the job management development should be well organised, supervised and challenging to the participants.

-Job instruction training

This is a formalised, structured and systematic approach to OJT that consists of four steps preparation, instruction, and performance and follow up. To some extent this incorporates the principle of behaviour modeling. With job instruction training the trainer demonstrates task performance on the job and then provides the trainee with opportunities to practice while the trainer provides feedback and reinforcement. (Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun, 2010)

-Job Rotation

Job rotation provides, through a variety of work experiences, the broadened knowledge and understanding required to manage more efficiently. This is an effective method of training employees who need to learn a variety of skills.

It is important that job rotation be carefully planned and structured so that trainees receive sufficient exposure and experience on each assignment otherwise it might result in superficial knowledge of a job and may in turn cause frustration to a trainee.

-Apprenticeship

This training method incorporates for skilled trade worker that combines on the job training and classroom instruction.

The practical makes up eighty percent of training and is used to teach required skills of a particular trade or occupation. Classroom instruction focuses on technical training and makes up twenty percent of training. This method is regulated through a partnership among government, labour and industry.

-Mentoring

Mentoring refers to situation in which a senior member of an organisation takes a personal interest in the career of a junior employee. They provide career support and psychological support to a trainee. This is popular in organizations today and is also an expensive investment.

TECHNOLOGY BASED TRAINING:

TBL can be self-paced and matched to the learner’s needs, and, building on pedagogy that emphasizes the merits of discovery learning, it offers the prospect of promoting greater comprehension and retention, particularly for complex materials, because of its clear opportunities for the hands-on manipulation of course materials and the use of simulations and game-playing. (doleta.gov)

Technology based training refers to training that involves:

  • * CD-ROM, DVD, and Interactive Video systems
  • * Web-based training
  • * Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) and intelligent tutoring systems

· Distributed interactive simulation (DIS), game-based training environments, and distributed mission training (DMT)

The various methods used in technology based training are:

-Computer based training

Computer based training can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media, including videos or animations, can easily be embedded to enhance the learning. Another advantage to CBTs is that they can be easily distributed to a wide audience at a relatively low cost once the initial development is completed (www.wikipedia.org)

-Asynchronous and Synchronous training

Asynchronous training is the one that is pre-recorded and available to employees at any time and from any location. While synchronous training is the one that is live and requires trainees to be at their computer at a specific time. (Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun, 2010)

Synchronous and Asynchronous TBL Delivery Methods

Asynchronous

Synchronous

E-Mail

Teleconferencing

List Servers

Conference Calls

Threaded Discussions

Web Conferencing

Blogs

Chat

Simulations

TRAINING METHODS

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

OFF THE JOB TRAINING

Trainer can use wide variety of instructional training methods.

Expensive than On the job training method as requires use of training facilities, cost of travel , accommodation, employee time off during training etc.

Trainer can choose combination of methods that will be most effective given goals of training program.

Transfer of training is more difficult with off the training methods.

Trainers have much more control on training environment; selection of training site, free from directions.

Large number of trainees can be trained at one time. For example in lecture method

ON THE JOB TRAINING

On the job training is much less costlier than off the job training as it eliminate expenses such as cost of travel , facilities, accommodation etc.

Work environment is full of distractions that may interrupt training.

As training takes place in trainees actual work area, the application of training is much more direct and in some cases immediate.

As trainees get to work on actual machines there is always a potential for damage to expensive equipment.

Disruption of service and slowdown in production that occurs during training. Thus on the job training can result in a reduction in productivity, quality, and service.

Safety issues are associated with use of equipment or dangerous chemicals. Extra care and precaution is needed in on the job training when working with equipment or dangerous chemicals.

Computer Based Training

This method is flexible as trainees are not required to attend classes, or leave work to attend training, or to accommodate their schedules.

For trainees there is less interpersonal contact and interaction with other trainees.

This method provides learner control (trainee control over the content, sequence & pace of training) and self pacing (trainees can work as quickly or as slowly they want).

Trainers who are not computer literate might also resist and fear that the change of technology

With online training trainees who are shy in class room can be benefited as this enhance their satisfaction with training as well as learning.

Some employees might resist training and will be uncomfortable with computers.

This is ‘just in time’ training as trainees doesn’t have to sign up or wait for course time available.

Large number of employees can be trained within a short period of time.

Best method when tracking of training program is important for legal compliance.

CONCLUSION

The advantages and disadvantages of various training methods have been studied in this report, as their understanding is helpful when choosing a training method. The most important is mixing and combining methods to best suit a particular training need and objective. The issues impacting the selection of training method includes; cost of training, practically and feasibility, size of organization. As training and development is an important investment for organization it should be carried diligently and carefully to save organization’s money and to meet the training objective in the most effective method.

REFERENCES:

Alan M. Saks and Robert R.Haccoun. (2010). Managing Performance through Training and Development, fifth edition. Nelson Publishers

Retrieved 4 2010, from www.fao.org: http://www.fao.org/docrep/W8088E/w8088e03.htm#TopOfPage

Retrieved 4 2010, from www.adrianmiller.com

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:glIfeL0qf6oJ:www.adrianmiller.com/articles/Training_is_not_an_Option.doc+why+training+and+development+is+important+in+an+organization&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca

Retrieved 2010, from www.managerwise.com: http://www.managerwise.com/article.phtml?id=79

(n.d.). Retrieved from www.trainingand development.naukrihub.com

http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/methods-of-training/lectures.html

Retrieved from www.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-learning

Retrieved from doleta.gov: http://www.doleta.gov/reports/papers/TBL_Paper_FINAL.pdf

APPENDIX:

EVALUATION FORM TRAINER SHOULD USE TO FIND OUT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING METHOD USE

Topic discussed: _____________________

I. Content

1. Relevance of the topic to your job

Not relevant

Relevant

1

2

3

4

5

2. Clarity of the module’s objectives

Not clear

Very clear

1

2

3

4

5

3. Level of instruction

Too basic

Too advanced

1

2

3

4

5

4. Lecture coverage

Inadequate

Very comprehensive

1

2

3

4

5

5. Time allotment

Too short

Too long

1

2

3

4

5

6. Emphasis on details

Too brief

Too detailed

1

2

3

4

5

7. Organization and direction

Disorganized

Well organized

1

2

3

4

5

8. Treatment of the topic

Abstract

Practical

1

2

3

4

5

9. Additional comments you may have on these or other aspects of the content of this training module/session

__________________________________
__________________________________

II. Training aids and handouts

1. Effectiveness of teaching aids

Not effective

Very effective

1

2

3

4

5

2. Readability of

Not readable

Very readable

____________________*

1

2

3

4

5

3. Clarity of message of

Not clear

Very clear

____________________*

1

2

3

4

5

4. Appeal of

Not appealing

Very appealing

____________________*

1

2

3

4

5

5. Usefulness of

Not useful

Useful

____________________*

1

2

3

4

5

* Here you would insert the names of instructional aides used: handouts, slides, videos, overhead transparencies, etc.

6. Additional remarks you may have on these or other aspects of the teaching methods, aids, and handouts used in the training session

_________________________
_________________________

Instructor effectiveness

1. Mastery of the subject

Not knowledgeable

Knowledgeable

1

2

3

4

5

2. Ability to transfer/communicate information and knowledge effectively

Very poor

Excellent

1

2

3

4

5

3. Ability to arouse and sustain interest

Very poor

Excellent

1

2

3

4

5

4. Openness to ideas of trainees

Not receptive

Receptive

1

2

3

4

5

5. Encouragement of trainee participation

Did not encourage

Encouraged

1

2

3

4

5

6. Time management

Very poor

Excellent

1

2

3

4

5

7. Speed in talking

Too slow

Too fast

1

2

3

4

5

8. Clarity of speech

Not clear

Clear

1

2

3

4

5

9. Additional remarks on these or other aspects of the instructor’s effectiveness

_________________________
_________________________

IV. General

1. Please state the three most important ideas or concepts that you have learned from this session

_________________________
_________________________

2. Suggestion(s) to improve the session

_________________________
_________________________

V. Training logistics/administration

1. Quality of the meals

Very poor

Very good

1

2

3

4

5

2. Quality of accommodation

Very poor

Very good

1

2

3

4

5

3. Quality of transportation

Very poor

Very good

1

2

3

4

5

4. Contact with staff members

Very poor

Very good

1

2

3

4

5

5. Quality of training facilities

Very poor

Very good

1

2

3

4

5

6. Please use the space below to indicate any suggestions you might have that will help us to improve the facilities and administration

_________________________
_________________________ (www.fao.org)


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