Tobacco Companies Of The World Economics Essay
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Smoking has become the affliction of a large magnitude of people and others seem to be joining the smoke bandwagon at an alarming rate. Smoking has become a very common sight with one out of every fifth person being a smoker. The trend of smoking has become very common among teenagers also. The problems one gets due to smoking are many, but they do not seem to encourage people to stop smoking or deter people for starting to smoke. The hazardous effects of smoking are many, but people do not seem to be paying heed; the tobacco companies seem to be the only one is reaping the rewards out of smoking. Since tobacco was born, it has been a few companies dominate the tobacco industry. These companies control most of the production and distribution around the world. They are quick to adapt to their policies and tactics to conform to the regulations set by the government and cater to the needs of the ever-increasing number of smokers around the world.
TOBACCO COMPANIES OF THE WORLD:
A few companies hold the tobacco production and control of tobacco; the three largest Companies sell close to two thirds of the entire supply. The stagnation in demand has prompted them to explore new markets.
Since higher priced goods will be used less often. There is not much the government could do since tobacco is not yet a banned product.
The large companies also diversify their business to keep abreast in the market. They use various ways, the companies diversify by market segments. Products are usually divided into categories, from high priced premium cigarettes to low and middle class of cigarettes. Companies with big brand names sell premium high priced cigarettes but also expand in to lower class sales to protect them from susceptibility. A decline in sales of premium cigarettes will be ploughed back by the sales in the lower or middle brands of cigarettes.
By target group: Every cigarette has its target group. By creating a new target group, the company industry has long targeted young people with its advertising and promotional campaigns. One of the most memorable, "Joe Camel" campaign initiated by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, helped generate public outrage against tobacco company efforts to reach young audiences and it is no longer used. The reason is obvious, most people start smoking at an early age. Getting a hold on a new segment will increase its share in the market.
Women are also a segment that the industries try to win over. Cigarettes for women are put forward as a symbol of liberation and some even shown in the light of slimming products. Manufacturers produce (long, slim) cigarettes especially for women. Perfumed or scented cigarettes with exotic flavors are targeted at women. Cigarettes usually have the word "slim" or "lights" to attract women consumers. Minorities are also a target for the tobacco industry.
Diversification by tobacco products: cigarettes companies also try to branch out into other tobacco products. For example, Imperial tobacco has decided to branch out into the roll your own segment; it dominates both the tobacco and the paper for this segment. Diversification by non-tobacco products: food seems to be the favorite for companies seeking to diversify. R.J. Reynolds bought Nabisco (which, in turn, was later acquired by Kraft) owned by Philip Morris. Japan Tobacco derives a (small) part of its sales from food. Logistics and wholesaling are another favorite. Austria Tabak, wholesaling of tobacco and other products (and the operation of vending machines) makes up a large share of turnover. Over 20 per cent of Altadis' earnings originate in its logistics division. Skandinavisk Tobakskompagni owns the largest wholesaler of consumer goods in Denmark. BAT tried financial services (but, since 1998, is a pure Tobacco Company) Diversification into food and other activities makes the tobacco companies less dependent on (slow-growing) sales of tobacco products. However, the profit margins in these industry are usually well below those attained in tobacco processing. Producing and marketing cigarettes remain the more lucrative activity.
In case of diversification by geographical market, OECD-based tobacco companies are keen to reduce their dependence on their stagnant home markets and establish a presence in markets where growth is above average. After having started business in many markets in Latin
America, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Central Asian republics in the 1990s, their center of attention is shifting to the Far East. All the major tobacco companies now have a presence in Poland, Russia and the Central Asian republics. Austria Tabak, which gained a presence in Estonia when it acquired the cigarette activities of Swedish Match also has a 67 per cent market share in Guinea. The company was considering entering Asian markets when it was taken over by Gallaher in June 2001. Through this take-over and the acquisition in 2000 of Liggett-Ducat, the Moscow cigarette maker, Gallaher greatly reduced its dependence on the UK market. Similarly, Japan Tobacco became a world player when it acquired the international activities of R.J. Reynolds. Thanks to a relentless internationalization drive, Germany's Reemtsma now sells less than one-third of its total in its home market (compared to over 60 per cent in 1991) (see also figure 6). It is now on the go in several Central and Eastern European countries and, in 1999, it acquired Cambodia's Paradise Tobacco Company.
GOVERNMENT AND ITS ROLE:
A predicament is generally faced by the Governments all across the world. On the one hand, tobacco-growing and processing can makes a large contribution to employment, tax revenue and foreign exchange receipts. In many developing and formerly centrally planned economies, the tobacco companies have made sizeable and most welcome investments when other investors were disinclined to do so. On the other hand, governments have the responsibility to protect the population's health. Smoking is harmful to health and treating people for smoking-related illnesses is expensive. This can lead to heated debates within the same government as each sector defends the interests it believes it should represent.
The economic importance of tobacco growing and processing differs from country to country. At the national level, cigarette (sales and import) tax can be a main source of government revenue. In Russia, cigarette tax revenue contributes around 8 per cent to the financing of the state budget.
When the government owns the industry, it receives profits in addition to tax. That is why, in so many countries, State monopolies continue to control cigarette trade and production. In China, proceeds from state-owned CNTC amounted to the equivalent of US$11,000 million in 1999. CNTC has been the Chinese State's top revenue generator for years. Japan Tobacco earned more than US$400 million for the Japanese State in the fiscal year ending March 2000. The monopolies can also play a social function. In Italy, several of the state monopoly's factories are to be found in areas of high unemployment. Then there are balance of payments issues to mull over, many low-income countries rely on the export of cash crops such as tobacco to pay for the service of their foreign debt. Tobacco exports made up close to 10 per cent of Cuba's exports in 1997-98. In the case of Tanzania it was 15 per cent, In Zimbabwe over 25 per cent and in Malawi tobacco exports made up two-thirds of commodity exports.
But, if they smoke domestically produced cigarettes, using homegrown tobacco or use imported cigarettes and tobaccos can make a large difference when foreign exchange is scarce. That explains why so many countries try to restrict the imports of cigarettes and encourage domestic producers to use local tobaccos, for example, by providing a favorable tax treatment to companies that use a minimum percentage of homegrown tobaccos. The cigarette companies have also been a key source of investment in the formerly centrally planned countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. When others were disinclined to invest, those companies saw the possibilities offered by a blend of pent-up consumer demand, outdated production facilities and the association with independence and "western style" living that so appealed to the people in these countries after many years of central planning and little consumer choice. After having lobbied successfully for the reduction of restrictions of Asian markets such as Japan and the Republic of Korea, the large tobacco companies are eagerly waiting for the opening up of the other economies (notably China) that continue to restrict imports from and/or investments by foreign tobacco companies. Tobacco growing, processing and exports can thus make a significant involvement to national employment and national income. Yet, however important tobacco growing and processing may be at the national level, its full economic and social significance is best grasped at the micro or regional level. In some regions, tobacco is grown side by side with the crop, which is the main source of income; its contribution to overall income is modest. However, in many others, tobacco is a main source of income and employment.
Tobacco growing and tobacco processing may bring substantial economic and social benefits, but the treatment of smoking-related illness is costly. Cigarette smoking causes cancer. It is addictive. The WHO estimates that tobacco products cause around 3 million deaths per year. Cigarette smoking is the major cause of preventable mortality in developed countries. In the mid-1990s, about 25 per cent of all male deaths in developed countries were due to smoking. Among men aged 35-69 years, more than one-third of all deaths were caused by smoking. The costs of treating all these people are clearly enormous (WHO, 1997).
So far, smoking has not had the same impact on mortality among women and among people from developing countries. There is an approximate 30-40 year time lag between the onset of persistent smoking and deaths from smoking. The effects of the greater incidence of smoking between these two groups will thus be felt with a lag, but it seems reasonable to believe that its impact on them will not differ fundamentally from that on developed country males.
It may be argued that smokers willingly take a certain health risk when enjoying their smoke. They like the taste and all the other things that they associate with smoking. Nevertheless, this does not apply to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or "second-hand smoke".
Smoke gets in your eyes your clothes. Moreover, it gets in your lungs. Non-smokers cannot escape from smoke in badly ventilated areas. To be exposed to other people's tobacco smoke can be a nuisance in addition to being a health risk for non-smokers.
Governments and conflicting pressures: How do they get by?
In practice, governments have opted for several strategies (which are often followed simultaneously). A recent strategy consists of seeking compensation for the costs of treating smoking-related illnesses. It has been followed with success in the United States, as we saw in section 3.4. Governments also set rules regarding the maximum content of hazardous substances in cigarettes. Most of all, however, governments try to discourage demand for what is, as the industry does not tire of telling us, essentially a legal product.
This is done in a variety of ways, with some governments applying particular vigor and others taking a more relaxed approach. Overall, however, the trend is clear: governments' rules on smoking are becoming ever more restrictive. The use of tobacco products is being discouraged in several ways.
Limitation of the space where smoking is allowed. This is done above all to protect non-smokers from involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking is being prohibited in public places (particularly health care and educational facilities) and in mass transport. Legislation requires restaurants to reserve space for non-smokers.
Limitation by age group. It is prohibited to sell tobacco products to people under a certain age. Limitations on points of sale. The use of vending machines is being restricted because these cannot discriminate against sales to young people.
Health warnings stating that tobacco is harmful to health have become obligatory. The warnings must be placed on packets and in ads, with the authorities prescribing the text and the minimum space allotted to the warning in the ad or on the pack. Governments sponsor education and public information programs on smoking and health.
Advertising bans. Restrictions concern the location of ads, the media used (no billboards, no ads in the printed media or in cinemas), the images presented (no young people, no cigarette packets), and the time when broadcasting is allowed (not during hours when children watch television).
The manufacturers are unhappy with these restrictions, and in particular with the ban on advertising. In their view, it is not proved that such a ban discourages demand for cigarettes (as its proponents claim). They are concerned about its effect on the value of their prime asset, the brand name.
Worldwide, the tobacco-processing industry employs hundreds of thousands of people. However, due to a combination of slow demand growth, consolidation, and higher productivity, this number is unlikely to increase by much in the near future. Fewer people are needed per unit of production. The industry is becoming less intensive in the use of labor. Tobacco growing, in contrast, gives work to millions of people. It continues to be a highly labor-intensive activity. The scope for productivity increases in tobacco growing would appear to be more limited than those in tobacco processing.
Over a million people are employed in the world tobacco industry
However, of this number a high percentage is employed in just three countries: China, India and Indonesia. The large number employed in China comes as no surprise in view of the large number of cigarettes (one-third of the world total) produced there. Still, the productivity gap with the United States is striking. China produces roughly three times as many cigarettes as the US, but it needs over nine times as many people to produce them. In the other two countries, the scope for productivity improvements would appear to be even higher.
CHAPTER 2: GLOBAL SMOKING SCENARIO
MAJOR HIGHLIGHTS OF THE GLOBAL SMOKING SCENARIO:
About a third of the male adult global population smokes.
Smoking related-diseases kill one in 10 adults globally, or cause four million deaths. By 2030, if current trends continue, smoking will kill one in six people.
Every eight seconds, someone dies from tobacco use.
Smoking is on the rise in the developing world but falling in developed nations. Among Americans, smoking rates shrunk by nearly half in three decades (from the mid-1960s to mid-1990s), falling to 23% of adults by 1997. In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.
About 15 billion cigarettes are sold daily - or 10 million every minute.
About 12 times more British people have died from smoking than from World War II.
Cigarettes cause more than one in five American deaths.
Among WHO Regions, the Western Pacific Region - which covers East Asia and the Pacific - has the highest smoking rate, with nearly two-thirds of men smoking.
About one in three cigarettes are consumed in the Western Pacific Region.
The tobacco market is controlled by just a few corporations - namely American, British and Japanese multinational conglomerates.
Among young teens (aged 13 to 15), about one in five smokes worldwide.
Between 80,000 and 100,000 children worldwide start smoking every day - roughly half of whom live in Asia.
Evidence shows that around 50% of those who start smoking in adolescent years go on to smoke for 15 to 20 years.
Peer-reviewed studies show teenagers are heavily influenced by tobacco advertising.
About a quarter of youth alive in the Western Pacific Region will die from smoking.
· Half of long-term smokers will die from tobacco. Every cigarette smoked cuts at least five minutes of life on average - about the time taken to smoke it.
· Smoking is the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death. It is a prime factor in heart disease, stroke and chronic lung disease. It can cause cancer of the lungs, larynx, esophagus, mouth, and bladder, and contributes to cancer of the cervix, pancreas, and kidneys.
· More than 4,000 toxic or carcinogenic chemicals have been found in tobacco smoke.
· One British survey found that nearly 99% of women did not know of the link between smoking and cervical cancer.
· One survey found that 60% of Chinese adults did not know that smoking can cause lung cancer while 96% were unaware it can cause heart disease.
· At least a quarter of all deaths from heart diseases and about three-quarters of world's chronic bronchitis are related to smoking.
· Smoking-related diseases cost the United States more than $150 billion a year.
· US-based multinational Philip Morris - the world's biggest cigarette company - was the world's ninth largest advertiser in 1996, spending more than $3 billion.
· A survey a few years ago found that nearly 80% of American advertising executives from top agencies believed cigarette advertising does make smoking more appealing or socially acceptable to children. Through advertising, tobacco firms try to link smoking with athletic prowess, sexual attractiveness, success, adult sophistication, adventure and self-fulfillment.
· A survey in the UK found about half of smokers think that smoking "can't really be all that dangerous, or the Government wouldn't let cigarettes be advertised".
· A 1998 survey found that tobacco companies were among the top 10 advertisers in 18 out of 66 countries surveyed.
· In Asia, tobacco companies are among the top 10 advertisers in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and the Philippines.
· In Russia, according to press reports, foreign tobacco companies are the largest advertisers, accounting for as much as 40% of all TV and radio advertising.
· In 1997, the tobacco industry's spending on advertising in the United States was about $15 million a day ($5.7 billion for the year).
· The tobacco industry has changed the way it advertises in the last 30 years. Now, only 10% of advertising expenditure goes to print and outdoor advertisements, while more than half goes to promotional allowances and items, such as t-shirts for young people or lighters and key rings.
· After the entry of foreign multinational tobacco firms into Japan, the Republic of Korea and Thailand, youth and female smoking rose significantly.
*The 37 countries and areas comprising the WHO Western Pacific Region are: American Samoa, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong (China), Japan, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Macao (China), Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, and Wallis and Futuna.
Source: World Health Organization - Smoking Statistics
CHAPTER 3: THE INDIAN SMOKING SCENARIO
THE INDIAN SMOKING SCENARIO:
New research shows that by the year 2012 and beyond, around one million deaths per year in India will be attributable to smoking, and the majority of these will occur in middle-aged adults. This will represent 10% of all deaths in the country-one in five deaths in men and one in 20 in women, say Dr Prabhat Jha (Centre for Global Health Research, Toronto, ON) and his team from India, Canada, and the UK in their special article published online February 13, 2008 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Indian men aged 30-69: Number of deaths studied and smoker vs nonsmoker death rate ratio(RR)
Underlying fatal disease
Deaths studied, n
Smoker vs nonsmoker RRb
a. Vs 37.0% of 31 661 living men who had smoked
b. Risk ratio adjusted for age, alcohol use, and education
Source: Centre for Global Health Research
Chief executive of the UK Medical Research Council, Dr Leszel Borysiewicz, says: "This research confronts us with the scale of the problem. It shows that smoking kills in different ways in different areas. The results suggest an even higher risk of smoking-related cardiovascular disease among Indian populations than predicted."
Indian women aged 30-69: Number of deaths studied and smoker vs nonsmoker death rate ratio(RR)
Underlying fatal disease
Deaths studied, n
Smoker vs nonsmoker RRb
a. Vs 4.5% of 26 678 living women who had smoked
b. Risk ratio adjusted for age, alcohol use, and education
Source: Centre for Global Health Research
India's Health Minister, Dr Abumani Rammadoss, says: "We are going to take the results of this study very seriously. I am particularly concerned about protecting India's 600 million young people below the age of 30. These young people are our national assets, and they must be protected against smoking deaths. We plan to take comprehensive steps against tobacco and strengthen our Tobacco Regulatory Authority to enforce the laws."
Dr Poonam Singh (South East Asian Regional Office of the World Health Organization, New Delhi, India) said Asia has become the new battleground for global tobacco control. "India, Indonesia, and Bangladesh represent just a few of the countries that lie in the path of the tobacco tsunami. This study should sound the alarm that we desperately and quickly need action to curb this most avoidable of epidemics."
CHAPTER 4: SMOKING HARMS
Cigarettes contain more than 4000 chemical compounds and at least 400 toxic substances.
When you inhale, a cigarette burns at 700°C at the tip and around 60°C in the core. This heat breaks down the tobacco to produce various toxins.
As a cigarette burns, the residues are concentrated towards the butt.
The products that are most damaging are:
Tar, a carcinogen (substance that causes cancer)
Nicotine is addictive and increases cholesterol levels in your body
Carbon monoxide reduces oxygen in the body
Components of the gas and particulate phases cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).
The damage caused by smoking is influenced by:
The number of cigarettes smoked
Whether the cigarette has a filter
How the tobacco has been prepared.
On average, each cigarette shortens a smoker's life by around 11 minutes.
Of the 300 people who die every day in the UK as a result of smoking, many are comparatively young smokers.
The number of people under the age of 70 who die from smoking-related diseases exceeds the total figure for deaths caused by breast cancer, AIDS, traffic accidents and drug addiction.
Non-smokers and ex-smokers can also look forward to a healthier old age than smokers.
MAJOR DISEASES CAUSED BY SMOKING
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death due to smoking.
Hardening of the arteries is a process that develops over years, when cholesterol and other fats deposit in the arteries, leaving them narrow, blocked or rigid. When the arteries narrow (atherosclerosis), blood clots are likely to form. Smoking accelerates the hardening and narrowing process in your arteries: it starts earlier and blood clots are two to four times more likely. Cardiovascular disease can take many forms depending on which blood vessels are involved, and all of them are more common in people who smoke.
A fatal disease
Blood clots in the heart and brain are the most common causes of sudden death.
Coronary thrombosis: a blood clot in the arteries supplying the heart, which can lead to a heart attack. Around 30 per cent are caused by smoking.
Cerebral thrombosis: the vessels to the brain can become blocked, which can lead to collapse, stroke and paralysis. Damage to the brain's blood supply is also an important cause of dementia.
If the kidney arteries are affected, then high blood pressure or kidney failure results.
Blockage to the vascular supply to the legs may lead to gangrene and amputation.
Smokers tend to develop coronary thrombosis 10 years earlier than non-smokers, and make up 9 out of 10 heart bypass patients.
Smokers are more likely to get cancer than non-smokers. This is particularly true of lung cancer, throat cancer and mouth cancer, which hardly ever affect non-smokers.
The link between smoking and lung cancer is clear.
Ninety percent of lung cancer cases are due to smoking.
If no-one smoked, lung cancer would be a rare diagnosis - only 0.5 per cent of people who've never touched a cigarette develop lung cancer.
One in ten moderate smokers and almost one in five heavy smokers (more than 15 cigarettes a day) will die of lung cancer.
The more cigarettes you smoke in a day, and the longer you've smoked, the higher your risk of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk rises the deeper you inhale and the earlier in life you started smoking.
For ex-smokers, it takes approximately 15 years before the risk of lung cancer drops to the same as that of a non-smoker.
If you smoke, the risk of contracting mouth cancer is four times higher than for a non-smoker. Cancer can start in many areas of the mouth, with the most common being on or underneath the tongue, or on the lips.
Other types of cancer that are more common in smokers are:
cancer of the oesophagus
cancer of the kidneys
cancer of the pancreas
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a collective term for a group of conditions that block airflow and make breathing more difficult, such as:
emphysema - breathlessness caused by damage to the air sacs (alveoli)
chronic bronchitis - coughing with a lot of mucus that continues for at least three months.
Smoking is the most common cause of COPD and is responsible for 80 per cent of cases.
It's estimated that 94 per cent of 20-a-day smokers have some emphysema when the lungs are examined after death, while more than 90 per cent of non-smokers have little or none.
COPD typically starts between the ages of 35 and 45 when lung function starts to decline anyway. Lung damage from COPD is permanent, but giving up smoking at any stage reduces the rate of decline in lung capacity.
In smokers, the rate of decline in lung function can be three times the usual rate. As lung function declines, breathlessness begins. As the condition progresses, severe breathing problems can require hospital care. The final stage is death from slow and progressive breathlessness.
Other risks caused by smoking
A single cigarette can reduce the blood supply to your skin for over an hour.
Smoking raises blood pressure, which can cause hypertension (high blood pressure) - a risk factor for heart attacks and stroke.
Couples who smoke are more likely to have fertility problems than couples who are non-smokers.
Smoking worsens asthma and counteracts asthma medication by worsening the inflammation of the airways that the medicine tries to ease.
The blood vessels in the eye are sensitive and can be easily damaged by smoke, causing a bloodshot appearance and itchiness.
Heavy smokers are twice as likely to get macular degeneration, resulting in the gradual loss of eyesight.
Smokers run an increased risk of cataracts.
Smokers take 25 per cent more sick days year than non-smokers.
Smoking stains your teeth and gums.
Smoking increases your risk of periodontal disease, which causes swollen gums, bad breath and teeth to fall out.
Smoking causes an acid taste in the mouth and contributes to the development of ulcers.
Smoking also affects your looks: smokers have paler skin and more wrinkles. This is because smoking reduces the blood supply to the skin and lowers levels of vitamin A.
The 'side-stream' smoke that comes off a cigarette between puffs carries a higher risk than directly inhaled smoke.
Children who grow up in a home where one or both of their parents smoke have twice the risk of getting asthma and asthmatic bronchitis. They also have a higher risk of developing allergies. Infants under two years old are more prone to severe respiratory infections and cot death.
For adults, passive smoking seems to increase the risk of lung cancer, but the evidence for an increased risk of heart disease is not yet conclusive.
Smoking Effects on the Human Body
Smoking has become a global issue. The following statistics could provide a reference for the smokers considering quitting:
One cigarette shortens the life by 11 seconds
One pack of cigarettes shortens the life by 3.5 hours
Smoking for one week will shorten the life by 1 day
On average, non-smokers outlive smokers by 14 years
After quitting smoking, it would take at least 15 years to eliminate all the toxins in the body
Toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke travel throughout the body, causing damage in several different ways.
Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk.
Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen.
Cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them to grow abnormally or to reproduce too rapidly.
The carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene binds to cells in the airways and major organs of smokers.
Smoking affects the function of the immune system and may increase the risk for respiratory and other infections.
There are several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage. One is oxidative stress that mutates DNA, promotes atherosclerosis, and leads to chronic lung injury. Oxidative stress is thought to be the general mechanism behind the aging process, contributing to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.
The body produces antioxidants to help repair damaged cells. Smokers have lower levels of antioxidants in their blood than do nonsmokers.
Smoking is associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation, another damaging process that may result in oxidative stress.
10 GREAT SMOKING SUBSTITUTES:
To succeed at quitting smoking, you need to replace the habit with something else. You want to replace the cigarette habit with a healthier one. Here are ten good habits that you can substitute for the bad habit of smoking:
Working Out: If you find yourself feeling jittery or stressed as you quit smoking, you may want to give exercise a try. Not only is a workout such as jogging, tennis, or walking well for almost anybody, but it's also a great way to calm your nerves.
Taking extra leisure time: How much time did you spend each week getting and then smoking cigarettes? Take up a personal pursuit or hobby you have been putting off due to lack of time.
Drinking lots of fluids: Drinking lots of fluids actually promotes your attempt to quit. Increased amounts of fluids literally help wash out some of the toxins and pollutants that have accumulated in your body as a result of using tobacco.
Stock up on orange juice. Some evidence suggests that cigarettes burn up ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, in the body, so replenishing your body's stores of vitamin C either with citrus juices or with tablets (100 to 500 mg a day) is a good idea.
Meditating: Meditation is one of the most powerful and gratifying tools you have available to you. The beauty of meditation is that it's easy to learn and extremely portable. You can meditate anywhere and at almost any time.
Focusing your energy outward: Focusing your mental energy, your perceptions, and your immediate responses to the world outward is a great strategy for quitting success and for success in general.
Using nicotine replacement therapies: Tobacco substitutes, including the patch, nicotine gum, nicotine aerosol, inhaler, and Zyban, can help you free yourself from nicotine entirely, but giving you the nicotine your body craves without the accompanying toxins.
Falling for fruits and vegetables: Rethinking many of your tastes and preferences is a fundamental aspect of quitting smoking. You need to learn to appreciate and value totally different tastes and sensations. Think about celery ¯ the cleanness of it. Or spinach ¯ can you smell it? Can you taste the difference between romaine, Boston, and iceberg lettuce?
How do you feel about a cold, luscious peach on a hot summer day? Constant exposure to chemicals like nicotine dumps down your palate. You achieve the opposite result of refining and upgrading your taste buds when you stop tampering with the delicate symphony of taste and smell.
Visualizing health: The visualization thing is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it's important to appreciate the impact that seeing things the way you want them to be has on your life and feelings. On the other hand, it's also important not to blame yourself for the bad things that come your way.
Changing your priorities: As a smoker, your priorities include making sure that you always have enough cigarettes on hand. Smokers' priorities also include having that first cigarette of the day, as well as self-medicating throughout the day so that their nicotine levels (and thus their mood and energy level) never run too low. Rather than gratifying the cravings and needs of today, actively decide to live in and enjoy the body you were.
Redesigning your interior: When you think about it, though, the effort to make yourself over begins inside. It flows outward from the heart and mind and feelings. It is interior redesign.
CHAPTER 5: WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms & Recovery
The first few weeks after quitting smoking are usually the most difficult and it's safe to say that it normally takes at least 8-12 weeks before a person starts to feel comfortable with their new lifestyle change of being an ex-smoker. Withdrawal from nicotine, an addictive drug found in tobacco, is characterized by symptoms that include headache, anxiety, nausea and a craving for more tobacco. Nicotine creates a chemical dependency, so that the body develops a need for a certain level of nicotine at all times.
Unless that level is maintained, the body will begin to go through withdrawal. For tobacco users trying to quit, symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine are unpleasant and stressful, but only temporary. Most withdrawal symptoms peak 48 hours after you quit and are completely gone in six months.
Anger and Mood Swings
Anger is part of the quitting process. You don't have to have a reason to feel that way, you just do. Accept it, vent it safely. Deal with the irritating situation by dealing with your feelings rather than suppressing them. Say what's on your mind without blowing your stack. Anger openly expressed or kept inside creates tension which may create the need for a cigarette. Reducing the tension will reduce your desire for a cigarette. Discuss your anger with your buddy. Take a walk. Do deep breathing exercises.
Try new things. Keep your hands and mind busy (write a letter, do dishes, cook, paint, do carpentry, knit, garden, sew). Run some errands, get caught up on jobs you haven't had time to do, or go see a movie. If you have to stay in one place, have a book/crossword puzzles/deck of cards handy.
Constipation, gas, stomach pain
Constipation is caused by intestinal movement decreases for a brief period. It will normally last for several weeks. Drink plenty of liquids (6-8 glasses of water daily); add roughage to diet (fruits, vegetables, whole grain cereals, bran); go for walks.
Feeling cooped up
Feeling of being cooped up is normal. You miss your old friend your cigarettes who used to go everywhere you used to go. Go for a short walk, go swimming, bike riding. Keep yourself physically and mentally busy.
Cough, dry throat/mouth, nasal drip
This is caused from your body getting rid of mucous which has blocked airways and restricted breathing. Drink plenty of fluids; drink cold water, fruit juice, tea; use cough drops, gum or hard candy.
Craving for a cigarette
Withdrawal from nicotine, a strongly addictive drug. It is most frequent the first 2 or 3 days. Occasionally, it can occur for months or for years. Wait out the urge; they only last a few minutes. Wait until it passes (in general 3 to 5 minutes). Get busy. Start another activity. Think of something else. Focus on your work. Drink some water, chew some gum or eat sugarless candy. Eat something (e.g., some fruit). Breathe deeply several times. Do a relaxing exercise. Brush your teeth. Tell yourself the symptoms will disappear in a few days.
Depression & Despair
Find a substitute reward to smoking. Deal with your emotions. Call your support buddy. Use positive self-talk. Don't cut yourself down; build yourself up. Don't allow a self-defeatist attitude (I'm no good, I can't do this). This can lead to a decreased sense of control and a drop in self-esteem. Think of success, not failure! It's normal to feel sad, angry, or confused in the first few smoke-free weeks. These feelings will pass but If the depression does not appear to be going away, take it seriously and consult your doctor.
Your body is getting extra oxygen like it hasn't seen for a long time. Get fresh air, go for a walk, and change positions slowly. It will last several days and will go away.
Nicotine is a stimulant. 2 to 4 weeks. Get extra sleep and more exercise; take naps; don't push yourself. If you feel tired when you first wake up, do some moderate exercises and take a cool shower. Drink 6-8 glasses of water per day to speed up the healing process.
Take a walk. Do deep breathing exercises. Talk to your support buddy. Think of the positive reasons for quitting and the rewards you will be able to achieve. Take some time by yourself. Do a favorite hobby.
Take a warm bath or shower. Try relaxation or meditation techniques. Do more physical activities. Cut down on coffee and cola drinks.
Increase on Appetite
Craving for a cigarette can be confused with hunger pangs or a simple craving for oral stimulation. For years, your mouth was stimulated every time a cigarette landed between your lips. This has now been removed. Drink water or low-calorie liquids. Be prepared with low-calorie and low-fat snacks (celery, pretzels, carrots, popcorn, melba toast); chew a toothpick, chew gum, munch on raw vegetables.
Nicotine affects brain wave function. This can influence sleep patterns and dreams about smoking are common. 1 week Take a hot, relaxing bath; avoid caffeine (coffee, tea, pop) after 6:00pm Try relaxing at bedtime with a glass of warm milk, deep breathing and relaxation techniques. Work on a hobby.
Irritability, grouchy, tense
The body is craving for nicotine. Tobacco smokers are in a chronic state of nervous stimulation. Many of the symptoms quitters experience are the result of the nervous system returning to normal. It normally last for 1-2 weeks. Deep breathe, take walks, exercise, use relaxation techniques, chew nicotine gum, cut down on coffee and pop.
Lack of concentration
The body needs time to adjust to not having constant stimulation from nicotine. A few weeks Change activities, get some fresh air, exercise, deep breathe, listen to music, watch TV, do more physical activity, cut down on coffee and cola, plan workload accordingly, avoid situations that may trigger your desire to smoke.
Cigarettes are seen by many people as a close friend. Call a real friend. Go for a walk or a drive. Sing, pray.
Night Time awakenings
Cigarettes are seen by many people as a close friend. Call a real friend. Go for a walk or a drive. Sing, pray.
Exercise. Work on a hobby. Catch up on your chores. Do some extra jobs at work.
Tightness in the chest
It is probably due to tension created by the body's need for nicotine; may be caused by sore muscles from coughing. Part of the recovery process may be the lung's attempt to remove mucus and tar. The normal mucus transport system will start to reactivate itself, which can initially cause coughing. It will last a few days. Deep breathing and relaxation techniques. Be patient; wait it out! Your body wants to return to normal.
Weight gain from quitting smoking is very normal for most people and you can expect to put on 5-10 pounds over the period of several months.
Information Courtesy of: Lung Association of Saskatchewan
WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOM DURATION PROPORTION OF PEOPLE AFFECTED
Irritability/aggression Less than 4 weeks 50%
Depression Less than 4 weeks 60%
Restlessness Less than 4 weeks 60%
Poor concentration Less than 2 weeks 60%
Increased appetite More than 10 weeks 70%
Light-headedness Less than 48 hours 10%
Night-time awakenings Less than a week 25%
Craving More than 2 weeks 70%
Dizziness: Increased oxygen levels in blood and blood pressure lowering to normal Be careful, take precautions and don't work to hard.
1 - 5 days Coughing, nose running: The body's respiratory system begins to clean itself Drink lots of fluids.
1 - 5 days Sore throat: The clearing away of nicotine and tar and the growth of new tissue Suck sweets, eat honey or anything else that will soothe your throat.
1 - 5 days Tight chest: The coughing causes the chest muscles to get sore Try relaxation and deep breathing exercises.
1 - 2 weeks Flatulence and constipation: Temporary slowing of intestinal movement Eat lots of fiber and drink lots of fluids.
1 - 2 weeks Headaches: Increased blood flow (with more oxygen) to the back of the brain. Drink lots of fluids and do relaxation exercises
2 - 4 weeks Irritability: Your body is desperate for nicotine Relaxation exercises.
2 - 4 weeks Reduced concentration: Increased blood flow and oxygen to brain and lack of stimulation from nicotine Don't over exert yourself.
2 - 4 weeks Fatigue: Without nicotine your metabolic rate drops down to normal Don't over exert yourself. This feeling will go away in a few weeks
CHAPTER 6: Tobacco Company Profile
The tobacco industry is one of the most profitable industries in the world. Tobacco companies use their enormous wealth and influence both locally and globally to market their deadly products. Even as advocacy groups and policy makers work to combat the tobacco industry's influence, new and manipulative tactics are used by tobacco companies and their allies to circumvent tobacco control efforts. It is important for tobacco control advocates to know which companies are present in their country, how and where they operate, the types and quantity of products sold, and marketing tactics used to sell tobacco products. By being informed about all aspects of the tobacco industry within a country, advocates are better equipped to fight for effective tobacco control policies.
In India, the tobacco industry is divided into three distinct and powerful sectors: bidis (smoking products hand-rolled in tendu leaves), smokeless tobacco (mainly chewing tobacco) and cigarettes. Bidis are the most popular tobacco products consumed in India- 48% of the market. Smokeless tobacco makes up 38% and cigarettes only 14% of the market. Some aspect of the tobacco industry,whether it be tobacco farming, manufacturing, or distribution, is present in every Indian state, making tobacco control a truly national effort. This report, like the tobacco industry in India, has sections on each of the tobacco sectors as well as examples of tobacco promotion, sponsorship and corporate social responsibility efforts designed to increase consumption and industry profits.
The Bidi Industry
Bidis are slim hand-rolled, unfiltered cigarettes that are rolled in brown tendu or temburni leaves and held together by a string. The product is often flavored, and in general bidis are stronger tasting than regular cigarettes. Bidis are cheaper than cigarettes which makes them very popular in rural areas and among the poor. While bidis are the number one tobacco product used in India, very little is actually known about the organization of the bidi industry. Bidi production is fragmented and because most brands are hand-rolled in individual homes on a small scale, the bidi industry is considered to be a cottage industry.
In 1995 the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation estimated there were over 6,600 bidi manufacturers in India, compared to 40 cigarette factories and 55 smokeless tobacco factories. While recent numbers are not available, it is still clear that bidi manufacturers greatly outnumber other types of product manufacturers.
A woman sitting at home rolling 100 sticks a day qualifies as a bidi factory.
The bidi manufacturing industry is divided into two different sectors: organized and unorganized. The organized sector is factory based and production is increasingly mechanized; and the unorganized sector is made up of home- based production and small cooperatives. Most production and hand-rolling is done at home by women and children.
Tobacco industry analyst, Euromonitor International, estimates that 20% of bidis are produced in the organized sector and 80% in the unorganized sector.
Even organized factories tend to outsource production to individual homes.
Because the bidi industry is fragmented there are no specific figures on how many bidis are sold or produced. It is estimated that 750 billion to 1.2 trillion sticks are produced annually.
According to Euromonitor International, the bidi industry in India is worth Rs200 billion ($4.1 billion USD).
Bidis are much cheaper than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products due mainly to unequal levels of taxation on the different products. Bidis cost between Rs2.50-5.00 for 25 sticks (less than one Rs per stick) whereas the leading brand of gukta costs Rs3-4 per unit. The leading brand of cigarettes costs Rs 80-88 for 20 sticks (Rs4-4.4 per stick).
In 2009, Euromonitor reported that bidi volume sales were down 5% from the previous year because of a ban on smoking in public places.
Despite being fragmented, the bidi industry still has a powerful voice in Indian politics which keeps taxes on bidi products low and regulations lax. The major lobbying organization for bidis is the All India Bidi Federation which represents the entire bidi industry. Other organizations that lobby nationally and regionally for the bidi industry include:
All India Beedi, Cigar & Tobacco Workers Federation (New Delhi)
Karnataka State Beedi Workers' Federation
S.K.Beedi Workers Federation
Karnataka Beedi Industry Association
Mumbai Beedi Workers Union (Maharashtra)
All Bengali Beedi Workers' and Employees Federation (Calcutta)
According to Euromonitor International, no single bidi company or brand has more than a 5% market claim.
Large bidi producers have their own territory (state or district) where they dominate the market with little competition from other bidi companies.
There are a few regional players that sell their bidi brands in more than one state or district, including Ganesh Beedi Works, Kajah Beedi Co and Bharat Bidi Works.
There is no national bidi brand and at one time it was estimated that there were over 300 different brands across India. Some notable brands include:
502 Pataka produced by Pataka Biri Manufacturing
501 Ganesh produced by Magalore Ganesh Beedi Works
Top regional brands such as Dinesh in South India, Taj in North India, and Howrah in East and Northeast India.
While bidi production is concentrated in the west and south of India, it has also been estimated that each state has around 200 bidi manufactures.
Leading Bidi Companies and Brands
Production and Distribution
Popular Brand (s)
Bharath Beedi Works
â€¢ Produces 60 million bidis a day13
â€¢ Popular in North and West India
â€¢ Part of the Bharath Group
Thirty Brand Beedies
Kerala Dinesh Beedi Workers Cooperative
â€¢ Produces 30 million bidis a day6
â€¢ Produces 1.8 billion bidis annually14
â€¢ 18 different societies (companies)
â€¢ Market covers Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
Cooperative is sponsored by the Kerala government and includes bidi rolling, food processing, umbrella assembling, clothing and IT
Kerala Dinesh Beedi
Mangalore Ganesh Beedi Works
â€¢ Produces 20 billion bidis annually6, 15
â€¢ Claims to produces 30% of the bidis in the organized sector15
â€¢ Network of 30 branches
Pataka Biri Manufacturing Co Ltd
Produces 100 million bidis a day
Has 10 factories (2004)
502 Pataka Biri
Rajah Group (Kajah Beedi Group)
Cooperative of four different companies
The Smokeless Industry
Popular among rural and urban consumer, smokeless tobacco is also much more popular among woman than smoking. The smokeless industry in India is highly fragmented - some products are commercially manufactured but many are made in the home and sold locally. Smokeless tobacco products in India include khaini, gutka, mawa, gudhaku, and zarda.
Type of Smokeless Tobacco
Mixture of sun-dried tobacco and lime.
A dry mixture of crushed areca nut, tobacco, catechu (spices),
lime, aromas and flavourings as well as other additives.
General term for areca nut product. Does not usually contain
tobacco and is often confused with Gutka.
Uses shavings of areca nut, tobacco and lime.
A paste made of tobacco and molasses.
Raw tobacco that is scented using spices such as saffron.
Another product, pan masala, is often confused with gutka because it is packaged the same but it does not contain tobacco.
In a recent Global Adult Tobacco Survey, it was reported that khaini is the most commonly used tobacco product in India, followed by gutka. However, according to Euromonitor International, Gutka is the most popular form of chewing tobacco sold in India and is estimated to account for approximately 80% of chewing tobacco total volume sales. This discrepancy is mainly a difference between actual prevalence of use and what Euromonitor International is able to measure in terms of volume. More people in India report using khaini, but gutka companies such as Dharwal Industries are larger and more organized and therefore more likely to report product sales. In general, smokeless tobacco products are very cheap and are sold in single use packets for Rs1-3 (less than one cent US). Unbranded smokeless products, including unbranded khaini,, are common, keeping the products cheap and unregulated.
In India, retail volume sales of smokeless tobacco products increased by 82% between 1999 and 2009. After a 2008 smoking ban and tax increase on unfiltered cigarettes, chewing tobacco sales increased by 6.5% as low-income smokers switched to cheaper smokeless products.
Historic India Smokeless Tobacco Market Size - Retail Volume ('000- Tonnes)
©2010 Euromonitor International
Leading Companies and Popular Brands
The smokeless tobacco industry in India is controlled by a few large national companies and many different regional players. The top five companies account for 31% of sales, the rest is controlled by regional players that often only operate in one district in a state. In general, Indian smokeless tobacco users prefer to buy locally.
Smokeless Tobacco Company Shares â€ Retail Volume (%)
Dhariwal Industries Ltd (Manikchand Group)
Dharampal Satyapal Ltd (DS Group)
Som Sugandh Industries Ltd
Shree Meenakshi Food Products Pvt Ltd
Kothari Products Ltd
Market Share of Top India Smokeless Brands â€ Retail Volume (%)
Som Sugandh Industries
Shree Meenakshi Food Products
Most smokeless tobacco companies in India just produce one brand. Different flavor varieties and packaging sizes are sold under the one brand name. The brand name is also often used to sell a non -tobacco pan masala product. Uniting a tobacco product and non-tobacco product under one name is a clever marketing technique, as India has an advertising ban in place that prevents the direct advertising of tobacco products.
Market leading brand RMD (Right: Pan Masala; Left: Gutkha)
Hot Pan Masala and Khaini with the same packaging.
Dhariwal Industries- As one of the oldest smokeless tobacco companies in India, it is also currently the market leader. The company is part of the Manikchand Group which also has interests in packaging, bottled water, power and real estate among other things.
Dhariwal Industries manufactures its products in Vadodara, Pune and Bangalore.
Dhariwal Industries produces gutka under the brand name RMD which is the number one seller in India. The company also uses the RMD name for pan masala.
Dharampal Satyapal - The second largest smokeless tobacco company in India. Dharampal Satyapal is part of the DS Group which also has interests in food and beverages, packaging, hospitality and hospitality industries, among others.
The DS Group manufactures tobacco products in Agartala, Tripura.
Produces two smokeless tobacco brands- Tulsi (gutka) and Baba (zarda). Also produces pan masala under the Baba name.
Som Sugandh Industries- Also known as the Dilbagh group, the company is the third largest smokeless tobacco company in India.
The Dilbagh Group is based in New Delhi.
The company produces three smokeless tobacco products- the second most popular Dilbagh brand (gutka), Talab (gutka) and Hot (khaini). All three brands are also used to€ sell pan masala.
Talab Gutkha in particular is packaged "in attractive sachets" making it a "hot favourite among youth across all income groups."
The Cigarette Industry
Cigarette consumption makes up a small portion of the tobacco market in India, only 14% of tobacco products sold are cigarettes. Retail volume sales have decreased by 9% in the last ten years from 99.6 billion sticks in 1999 to 90.3 billion sticks in 2009. Recent declines in cigarette volumes are mainly due to a 2008 increase in the tax on unfiltered cigarettes. The tax increase has also led to many unfiltered brands being removed from the market. ITC Ltd stopped unfiltered cigarette production entirely and some companies have launched filter versions of their most popular unfiltered brands to maintain their customers.
Historic India Cigarette Market Size- Retail Volume (billion sticks)
Despite recent declines in sales, it is expected that cigarette use will increase overtime as disposable incomes increase in India. Euromonitor International predicted in 2008 that if the smokers who currently smoke bidis switched to factory made cigarettes, then India's cigarette consumption would increase to around 640 billion sticks. This increase would make India the second largest volume cigarette consumer in the world behind China.
Cigarette Company Shares â€ Retail Volume (%)
Godfrey Phillips India Ltd
VST Industries Ltd
Golden Tobacco Ltd*
GTC Industries Ltd
Japan Tobacco Inc
Gallaher Group Plc**
The cigarette market in India is controlled by four locally established companies, but most companies also have close ties to international tobacco companies. The leading transnational tobacco companies (TTC) have recently attempted to increase their shares of the Indian cigarette market but have had little success. The ability of TTCs to increase their presence in India has in part been limited because of restrictions on foreign direct investment (FDI) in cigarette manufacturing
ITC Group- ITC was established in 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India.
The company changed its name to ITC in 2001 to reflect its diverse interest in products outside of tobacco.
ITC is the leading cigarette manufacturer in India with 73% of the market in 2009. Since 2001, ITC has steadily increased its market share in India and has increased cigarette production by 15% from 57.1 billion sticks in 2001 to 65.8 billion sticks in 2009.
The TTC British American Tobacco (BAT) has also has a 32% share.
ITC generated RS 262.6 billion ($US 28.9 million) in revenue in 2009 through its interest in cigarettes, hotels, cosmetics and toiletries, packaged food, apparel, paperboards and packaging, and agriculture.
ITC's cigarette industry contributed to 66% of the company's total revenue for the fiscal year ending March 2010.
ITC has five cigarette factories in Bangalore, Kolkata, Munger, Ranjangaon, and Saharanpur.
In addition to its operations in India, ITC also has cigarette subsidiary Surya Nepal, which is a joint venture with British American Tobacco.
Godfrey Phillips India- Established in India in 1936 as an import company for Godfrey Phillips, UK. The company has since established itself as a major local manufacture of cigarettes in India.
Godfrey Phillips is the second largest cigarette company in India with 14% of the market. Since 2001, the company has seen continuous growth in market share and has increased its cigarette production by 43% from 8.7 billion sticks in 2001 to 12.5 billion sticks in 2009.
Godfrey Phillips India has two major stake holders - the KK Modi Group, an indu
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