The Impact Of Globalization For Children And Families Economics Essay
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Globalisation perks in the 1990s, in the research studies of Draxler (2006) reported that government of many countries, both developing and developed countries embraced changes towards one global market place (Michael et al., 2003). Though it opens up new revenue for trade, technology, information and knowledge transfer worldwide, globalization helps to aid this world to a more disintegrated sphere (Kolarova, 2006).
Rieger et al. (2003) questioned the consequences of cultural and social malfunction due to the influence of globalization. Spybey (1996) also mentioned in his findings that globalisation creates more conflicts in this rapid information networking, trading and technology freedom of this new shift of large-scale manufacturing and producing business establishments worldwide (Goldberg et al., 2007).
Researches and report findings by World Bank (2000-2002) found that as different countries step up to change their productive organization of work, it also changes countries social and human capital structures (Willams et al., 2005). The Organisation of Cooperation and Development (OECD) and International Labour Organisation (ILO) reported its finding of globalization leads to a sharp demand of highly educated and skilled labour in developed countries, ironically an upsurge of lowly skilled workers with poor wages, prejudicial social injustice and health care in poor developing countries (Lall, 2002).
Marshall (1962) stated 'the shift of the social relation changes patterns and lifestyle of time and space' of mankind. Hence, with the implication of globalization will it cause more poverty or affluence universally (Hartman,2002)?
Carnoy (1999) stated when nations open to trade and create more capital affluence and manufacturing goods for exports, there are manufacturing turnover and transferal of employment (Brady et al., 2005). Globalisation rises skills in developed countries however it reduces employment skills and talents in developing countries. For example, in Vietnam if an individual could not sustain himself/herself and his/her family in a small plot of land in hometown. He/she has to sell his/her labour to support his/her family in urbanized cities (Choi et al.,2001). Yet due to globalization he/she may be employed by a global company with highly technologized machinery which made him/her a low skilled worker (Freeman, 2001).
Kalarova (2006) claims that in some of developing countries, benefits and welfare for workforce are frequently mistreated by privatized global companies even if countries have employment policies for employees. The lack of social coherence, coordination, sustainability and long term protection policies due to the lack of funding for proper healthcare, eventually leads to a depressed moral opportunity and welfare, depletion of social protection and surge inequality of these low skilled worker in these manual work industries (Milanovic,2002).
Likewise, Spybey (1996) argues that in order to finance these worldwide investments in the global finance capital sector, globalisation affects a nation's social inequality when it comes to the funding distribution and assets for its education, healthcare and childcare policies and reforms for families and children, resulting to an exploitation of adults and children labour (Michael et al., 2003). Stokey (1991) agrees that in conservative and conventional countries like Thailand and Indonesia, though women rights aid and free women from poverty, exploitation and oppression, Horgar (2001) pointed the contradictory of global capitalism repeatedly decoy women and children to cheap labour with long working hours and poor welfare despite of their 'desires' to be independence from their husband or father at home and that conflicts against its social-cultural aspect of the nations (Edmonds et al.,2001).
Moreover, Horgar (2001) argues that as more women enter the global workforce, more children are often left at home alone with relatives or siblings, contributing to its nation increment of non-schooling and poor school attendance children, malnutrition and ill health of children due to the lack of quality care and child-rearing issues (Hatch & Grieshaber, 2002)..
On the other hand, in the developed countries, globalisation may cause relocation, migration of workers as technology and machinery replaced manual-skilled workers (Willams et al., 2005). Thus, many of these workers are forced to look for more job opportunities in other countries, likewise nations also prefer to send low skilled workers to be trained in well developed country, hoping to increase the country's technological knowledge and skills, and bringing about the increment of wages and remittance of money to support their families at homeland (Hartman, 2002).
Furthermore, as global capitalism took place, it often comes along with poverty and conflicts between its social-cultural backgrounds (Edmonds & Pavcnik, 2001). Edmonds et al. (2006) also state that globalization makes and pressures a nation not to be left out but it is important for its nation's ability to be part of the global mandate.
In 1990s, it is surveyed about 80 million labour forces and work migration from Middle Eastern and African countries to America (Goldberg, 2007). Due to the influx of immigration in America, the survey conducted by Hartman (2002) shows a significant increase of multi-cultural and multi-ethnical aspects in America. Correspondingly, change of family structures in Middle Eastern and African countries affect native families as they no longer could rely on their male breadwinner (Hartman, 2002).
The shift of native and immigrants' marital status where an individual choose to be lone mother/fatherhood, single or divorced, eventually, leads to decrease of birth rate due to different fertility patterns, notably by postponing birth/ no desire of having children (Horgan, 2001). These factors further afflict and add on to a nation's social-economic issue, especially when there is a high reallocation of old aged people in a society due to low birth rate (Freeman, 2001).
In addition to it, pressure for globalization also hustle the changes of the world's social and cultural aspects in peoples' lives (Penn, 2005). Statistics an d studies conducted by Waller (2009) show huge distinction and diversity differences as regards to the average of children, life expectancy, school expectancy, illiteracy rate, child labour and in industralised countries, give to the rise of the lack of overall human and children's rights implementation (Gregory, 1999) .
A survey conducted by Cigno et al. (2002) reports that parental decisions often affects children education rights and the national education policies structures, since parents consider the cost of children education, expected returns when they invest in their children's education and the state educational investment for their children (Roseberg & Puntch, 2003). A child's future is frequently contrary to the child's future earning return to the family (Cigno et al., 2002).
Thus, in developing countries children are used as domestic helper at home and expose to hard labour, children soldiers and even as prostitutions(Carnoy, 1999). Hence, to counteract these hindrance, a clear and direct government protection policies and subsidies for children education and regular school authority inspections to homes could help to support families on children's education, which eventually encourage the rise of high educated future population and increase highly skilled trained workers in its human capital investment(Cigno et al., 2002).
In the research studies of Timimi (2005) it shows a hugh mortality and morbidity of females and children in poor developing countries due to severe ill health and poor healthcare, where poor national economic has prolonged their poverty (Ravens et al.,2009). A qualitative study conducted by McMichael (2000) native government in developing countries lacks the resources and commitment to aid the problems especially in healthcare such as malnutrition and infectious diseases that come along with poverty.
Likewise, urbanized cities in developed countries do struggle with poverty but it is the poverty of health. As the cities open to industrialization and globalization, its residents often at risk with illness and sickness link with pollutions- water, air, chemical and toxic pollutions (Ravens et al., 2009).
However, if national policies and international organizations decide on how to implement reliable healthcare policies and improve financial incentives to address state's healthcare spending through the development of new medical technology internationally (Draxler, 2006).
The integrity of nations' policies and commitment to children's and families' welfare are often compromised, as these is no clear solution to the question to protect children and families (Draxler, 2006). Hence, Siraj and Woodhead (2009) sought that if the affluence of globalization recognizes the rights of children and families, countries policy makers have to gear themselves and strengthen their policies through clear, direct implementation and frequent reviews of its nation policies for protection and assurance of quality education, healthcare and welfare for children and families. Government has to step up and act in behalf of these children and ramify the issues of poverty, education, healthcare and stable families (Timimi, 2005).
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