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1. What Is Social Exclusion?
The concept of social exclusion is used to describe a group, or groups, of people who are excluded from the normal activities of their society, in multiple ways.
“Social exclusion is the process through which individuals or groups are wholly or partially excluded from full participation in the society in which they live” (de Haan and Maxwell, 1998)
a process whereby certain individuals/group/s are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and life long learning opportunities, or as a result of discrimination.
Social Exclusion refers “ to process of social disintegration”
2. Who Are The Socially Excluded?
Elements of Social Exclusion (UN):
Lack of: recognition of basic rights; access to the political and legal systems;
Key of Activities: Consumption, Production, Political Engagement and Social Interaction.
Low incomes; Unemployed; Disability; Non citizens; ethnicity minorities; immigrants; Homeless and those in poor housing; The young, the old, children, and a people affected with HIV.
3. What Does The Social Exclusion Approach Add To The Debates On Poverty, Deprivation And Human Development?
Social exclusion includes considerations of features often associated with poverty, such as a lack of power within a community and being held in low regard by others;
Social exclusion is multidimensional and wider than the traditional concept of poverty;
it is about processes that lead to non-participation in societies' activities;
one does not have to be poor to be socially excluded;
non participation in societies' activities is as critical as poverty.
Social exclusion tends to be a feature of groups, rather than individuals.
SE refers to circumstances of deprivation an disadvantage and extends beyond purely material.
4. Adds Values To Thinking About Poverty!
Depend upon the definition/ way of poverty used;
Argue I :
n Adds nothing of poverty and deprivation as it only being unable to afford enough food to survive (material core, not consider the other resources).
n SE is similar to broad views of poverty and the two are closely linked, there is overlap of the factors they consider.
n Many factors interdependent: Political rights if you are homeless
n SE may just shift in terminology to the language of poverty.
n Adds significant value by providing a useful way of looking at the issue of poverty; POLICY AREAS [Long term]
n Valuable by a multidimensional approach to the problem, more effective solutions to poverty, deprivation, and human development issues.
n Providing a way of looking at poverty; emphasises the breadth of factors, which need to be considered in order to successfully tackle poverty HD
n SE: giving the individual the means by which to fully integrate themselves within society.
n SE: results more sustainable way of overcoming poverty:
n Changing employment structure, anti poverty policies will create long term solutions which give individuals the opportunity to help themselves out of poverty.
n SE adds to poverty thought about in a narrow sense concerns relational aspects of poverty, which are not considered by absolute definitions. Using the concept of SE adds value by taking account of the wider range of factors which put an individual in a situation of poverty within their society. Taking these factors into account leads to the notion that poverty is relative.
Broader notions of poverty incorporate considerations of the violations of basic rights and human dignity. Thus they take into account more than simple material shortcomings when thinking about poverty.
“Poverty means going short materially, socially and emotionally”.
Poverty may lead to SE. People who are in poverty are often cut off from the labour market and this leads to a tendency not to take part in dominant behavioural and cultural patterns and to lose social contacts, resulting in social exclusion.
“SE can cause poverty” Sen
5. Affirmative Actions:
Promoting social inclusion: Creating legal, regulatory and policy, basic human rights;
Allocating jobs and resources to members of excluded groups (quotas);
Equal Employment Opportunities;
Ensuring that excluded groups benefit from public expenditure as much as other groups;
Improving economic opportunities and access to services for excluded groups;
Promoting their political participation in society, and their capacity to organise and mobilise themselves
Reducing poverty by tackling social exclusion.