Social Aspects Of Malaysia Economics Essay
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As a part of course curriculum of Masters of business administration we were asked to compile a report on the Social aspect of the country Malaysia, under the main head of the Global Country Report. We have put our sincere efforts to accomplish our objectives within the stipulated time. Despite all limitations, obstructs, hurdles and hindrances, we have toiled and worked to our optimum potential to achieve desired goals. The information to be search was of a different country. Thus search for a detailed and authentic content was a main challenge.
Also with the kind of help and genuine interest and the guidance of our supervisor. We are presenting this hand carved effort. we tried our level best to conduct a research to gain a thorough knowledge about the project on country report on Malaysia we put the best of our efforts and have also tried to be justice with available. If anywhere something is found unacceptable or unnecessary to the theme. You are welcomed with your valuable suggestions
Acknowledging the debt is not easy to me as so many people. We will take this opportunity in expressing the fact that this project report is the result of an unbelievable amount of encouragement, cooperation, willing to help and moral support that we have received from others.
We are thankful to Prof. Sharif Memon, Prof. Gurmeet Singh and Prof. Megha Shah Faculty Guides for enlightening me on this subject with her valuable guidance from time to time in completing this project.
I also express my gratitude to our director Mr. Hitesh Ruperal for giving us a peaceful and clam atmosphere to study.
I am also thankful to that entire staff that helped me directly or indirectly in this project. We express our gratitude's towards our parents for their encouraging support, incandescent sprit and endurance towards the making of this project.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SOCIAL ASPECTS OF MALAYSIA
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF MALAYSIA
TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MALAYSIA
LEGAL ASPECTS AND AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY OF MALAYSIA
SWOT AND TRANSPORTATION ASPECTS IN MALAYSIA
POLITICAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF MALAYSIA
EXIOM POLICY AND HOSPITALITY OF MALAYSIA
ECONOMICAL FACTORS OF MALAYSIA
ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AND AVITION INDUSTRY OF MALAYSIA
NATURAL RESORSES IN MALAYSIA
CHAPTER 1: SOCIAL ASPECTS OF MALAYSIA
The Malaysian culture is made up of varied cultures of the different groups. The first people to live here were original tribal that still remain; and they were followed by the Malays, who moved there from mainland Asia in early times. The Indians and the Chinese cultural spread when trade began with those countries, and increased with migration to Malaysia. Other cultures that deeply affected that of Malaysia include Persian, Arabic and British. The many diverse ethnicities that now exist in Malaysia have their own exclusive and typical cultural identities, with some intersect.
Arts and music have a long convention in Malaysia, with Malay skill dating back to the Malay sultanates. Customary art was centered on fields such as carving, silver smiting, and weaving. Islamic inviolable controlled artwork depicting humans until the mid-20th century. Performing arts and shadow puppet shows are popular, and frequently show Indian influence. A range of influences is seen in architecture, since individual civilization in Malaysia and from other countries. Large contemporary structures have been built, one of them being the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas twin towers. Malaysian music has a range of genesis, and is principally based around beating instruments. Much early Malaysian literature was based on Indian epics, which remained unaffected even as Malays converted to Islam; this has extended in recent decades. English literature remained limited to the higher class until the arrival of the printing press. The local Chinese and Indian literature appeared in the 19th century.
Cuisine is often at odds along cultural lines, but some dishes exist which have mixed foods from different ethnicities. Each major religious group has its chief holy days declared as official holidays. Official holidays contrast by state; the most widespread one is Hari Merdeka which celebrates the independence of Malaya. Even if festivals regularly stem from a precise cultural backdrop, they are celebrated by all people in Malaysia. Conventional sports are admired in Malaysia, while it has become a source of power in international sports such as badminton.
Thus below given is a brief foreword to all the social aspects of Malaysia which will help to know its social environment better and more closely.
The nationalized symbols of Malaysia aim to unite people by forming illustration, vocal, or iconic representations of the national citizens, there ethics, goals, and history.
National symbols of Malaysia consist of the following :-
The Malaysian Flag
â€¢ It was made on 40th indepence day in 1997. The name of National flag is "Jalur Gemilang".
â€¢ The National anthem of Malaysia was adopted in 1963 and it is based on old Malayan folk tune.
â€¢ "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu" is the national emblem of Malaysia and it's the traditional symbol of Islam.
â€¢ "Tiger" is the national animal of Malaysia. It is also the national animal of our country. It is commonly seeing animal in Malayan Forest.
5. National Flower
â€¢ "Bunga Raya" is the national flower of Malaysia. It is also known as "Hibiscus". It is abundantly found in Malaysia.
6. The National Mosque
â€¢ It is supervised by Fedral Public Works Department and it includes a hall, a mausoleum, a library, offices, an open courtyard and a minaret.
7. The National Monument
â€¢ This Malaysian symbol has been dedicated to those who have died in the cause of peace and freedom for the country. Positioned on a powerful site at the Lake Gardens in Kuala Lumpur, the total region has been set aside for the national monument
8. The National Language
â€¢ Bahasa Melayu is the national language of Malaysia. As the national language, it must be used for official purposes which includes its use by a federal and state administration, and as distinct by the legitimate alteration of 1971 by all authorities (including local authorities) and statutory bodies.
9. The National Car
â€¢ Proton Saga This Malaysian national symbol symbolizes the determination of the nation as a producer of primary commodities and to emerge as a member of the community of industrialized nations. This project became a reality in September 1985 after its announcement in 1982.
The civilization of Malaysia has been described as "Asia in miniature". The unique culture of the area stemmed from its original tribes, along with the Malays from the ancient times. The Malays, which form over half of the population, play a dominant role politically and are a part of group called Bhumiputra .
The Orang Asal, the initial residents of Malaya, formed only 0.5 percent of the total population in Malaysia in 2000, but represented a mass in East Malaysia. In Sarawak, most of the non-Muslim local groups are identified as Dayaks, and they constitute about 40 percent of the population in the state. The 140,000 Orand Asli, comprise a number of different ethnic communities living in peninsular Malaysia. The Chinese have been settling in Malaysia for many centuries, and shape the second-largest ethnic crowd. These people intermarried with the Malaysian community and thus emerged a new group, the Peranakan ("Straits Chinese").
The Indian population in Malaysia is the smallest of the three main cultural groups, accounting for about 10 percent of the country's population. Tamil, Malayalees and Telugu cover over 85 percent of the people of Indian origin in the country. Some Eurasians of mixed European and Malay descent live in Malaysia. Malacca are descendants of former Portuguese colonists who married Malay women. Also some of the tribal communities which live in Malaysia are Murut, Baju, Kadazan Dusun, Sabah and Bidayuh.
Malaysia contains speakers of 137 living languages, 41 of which are spoken at Peninsula Malaysia. The government provides education in each of the three major languages i.e. Malay, Chinese, and Tamil. Malay is an Austronesia language spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand. The total number of speaker of ordinary Malay is about 18 million. There are also 170 million people who verbalize Indonesian, which is a form of Malay. The national language in Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia. English, Tamil, Chinese (in various parlance- Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan and Foochow), Telugu, Malayalam and Punjabi are the other languages spoken by different groups. In addition, in East Malaysia several native lingoes are spoken, the main ones being Iban and Kadazan. English is extensively verbal by the business community. Mandarin and Tamil are taught concurrently with Bahasa Malaysia and English in schools
English may take precedence over Malay in certain official perspective as provided for by the National Language Act, mainly in the states of Sabah and Sarawak, where it may be the official operational language. Creoles, Terengganu, Kedah Malay are some of the authentic tribal languages spoken by the native tribes.
Malaysia is multicultural and a generous mix of many religion groups. The dominant religion in Malaysia is Islam, whose followers make up 61 per cent of the population. The code of Islam enforced is Sunni. Islam was introduced by merchant, becoming definitely recognized in the 15th century. Other religions, such as the Baha'i Faith and Sikhism also have devotees in Malaysia. Christianity has established itself in some communities, especially in East Malaysia
The large Chinese population in Malaysia practices a mix of beliefs, with influences from customary Chinese religions such as Buddhism and Daoism. Hinduism is practiced by the majority of Malaysian Indians Also a small group of Jewish community has been found in Malaysia.
Baju is the term for clothing in the Malay language. Since Malaysia comprises three major cultures: Malay, Chinese and Indian their clothing pattern is adapted in their original attire. Traditional Malay attire is the "baju melayu", a loose tunic which is worn over trousers and usually accompanied with a "sampin", which is a sarong which is wrapped around a man's hips. It is also frequently accompanied with a songkok or cap, on their head. Traditional garments for men in Malaysia consists of a silk or cotton skirt and shirt with a scarf like piece of cloth joined around his waist. This scarf is sewn together at the ends and is conventionally called a sarong or a kain. Most of the attire is made up of bright and bold colors. The male also wears a religious hat. Malay women wear the baju kurung, a knee-length shirt worn over a long skirt. Usually a scarf or shawl is worn with this. Prior to the wide embrace of Islam, Malay women wore "kemban", which were sarongs which were tied just above the chest. Also clothes like kurta, saris and Chinese and iban outfits are seen.
Marriages in Malaysia are usually a family function right from searching the partner to selecting them. It is important in Malaysia that the marriages are done between people of the same class, status, origin and religion for similarities of thoughts and customs. The marriageable age for men there is between 25 and 30 years, and between 23 and 27 years old for females. The traditional wedding ritual is in two parts. The first component is the akad nikah (marriage contract), which is the legal and religious part of the wedding. The second part is the bersanding (enthronement), which is a family merriment.
When it is time for a man to get married, his family identifies a number of probable brides. Once a particular woman is selected, the merisik, or investigation process is done.In this ceremony one or more representatives (wakil) of the man visits to the family of the woman i.e potential bride. The visit is purely for the purpose of further inquiry, and it gives the guests the chance to see the woman. A hint will be given to her parents regarding the reason of the visit, and their response will be assessed. The woman's parents may also give the guests some idea as to whether or not their daughter would be interested in the match. If no progress takes place they may look ahead for spate partners
Once the wish of the man is know, an engagement date will be set when families of the couple meet to discuss the wedding plans. The adat bertunang (engagement custom) is usually held at the bride's home.
A Malay wedding proper begins with the akad nikah (marriage contract) ceremony. The groom cipher the marriage contract and agrees to provide the bride with a mas kahwin (literally 'marriage gold' in form of money or goods or anything as requested by the bride). This is in contrast to dowry, as the mas khawin is paid by the groom to the bride. The mas khawin is a sign to show that the men is ready and are set to build a family with the lady he chose. The contract signing is done in front of the religious official and is accompanied by prayer.
The actual wedding day is the bersanding (enthronement). This means the "sitting together of the bride and bridegroom on the bridal divan". Known as the pelamin, this couch is the attraction of the whole ceremony, and two pelamin are required - one in the bride's house and the other in the bridegroom's. As the bersanding ceremony usually takes place in the afternoon, the bridegroom amuses the visitors at his own house in the morning. Each visitor receives a bunga telur (egg flower), a bejeweled egg with a cloth flower, as a symbol of fertility. The couples are considered royals for the day, and so various royal customs are presented for them, including band playing court music and 'bodyguards' performing a display of Silat (traditional Malay martial arts).
After the bersanding ceremony, the wedded couple and their guests attend a celebratory feast called the makan beradab (formal meal). This consists of the bride and groom feeding each other sweetened rice. The celebrations are concluded by posturing for family photographs.
To the Malays, children are the most important possessions to the family. The more children a family has, the more they are treasured for, as children are "gifts" from God. A family with many children is a "prosperous" family, though poor economically. Thus, family unit planning practices and the use of contraceptives which is widespread in the world is less practiced by the Malays.
Malay parents rely on other family mem¬bers in rising up their own children. Normally, the children are looked after by grandparents or by unmarried aunts when their own parents are out working. In the Malay socialization also includes the teaching of basic practical skills to prepare the children to take over adult male and female roles. The transi¬tion of women to maturity involves a similar transmission of responsibility from the mother. She also steadily teaches her daugh¬ter to toil in the fields, doing the lighter errands. But most importantly, she educates her daughter how to be a excellent homemaker who would be able to take up the tasks of a wife and a mother when she later marries. While agreeing to the fact that formal secular education is an effective means to socio-economic mobility, as it would help sheltered external jobs for their children, some of the Malay parents feel that sons should be better educated than daughters
POSITION OF WOMEN
The Malays look upon the wife as "ibu rumah" or the center of the family. The nickname of "orang rumah" or the one who administer the house given by the husband to his wife plainly explains the predictable role place a woman should carry out when she gets married.
Malay parents also give the nickname of "orang dapur", or the one who runs the kitchen to their newly born baby girl, as divergent to the nickname of "orang balai", or the one who sits in the hallway, given to their new-born baby boy.
Though the Malays generally recognize the women's position in the family, believe that a woman should not take over the role as the family head from her husband. With a social system inclined towards the patriarchal type, the Malay society shows the central position of the husband. A hen-pecked husband is detested by the society, as much as the society despises a woman who takes the role of a matriarch in the family.
Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today Oral literature encompasses a variety of genres of Malay folklore, such as myths, legends, folk tales, romance, epics, poetry, proverbs, origin stories and oral histories
The Arabic Jawa Script arrived with the coming of Islam in the late 15th century. The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone made in 1303. The first printed books in Malay were produced by European missionaries in the 17th century. One of the more famous Malay works is the Sulalatus al- salatin, also known as the Sejarah Melayu (meaning "The Malay Annals"). It was originally recorded in the 15th century, although it has since been edited; the known version is from the 16th century. The Hikaya Rajit Pasai, written in the 15th century, is another significant literary work. The Hikayat Hang Tuah, or story of Hang tuah, tells the story of Hang Tuah and his devotion to his Sultan. This is the most famous Hikayat; it drew from the Sejarah Melayu. Both have been chosen as world heritage items under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 'Memory of the World' programme. Folktales such as the Hikayat Sang Kancil, about a intelligent mouse deer, are popular, as are adventures like Ramayana, modified from Indian epics. Munshi Abdullah (Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir), who breathed from 1797-1854, is looked upon as the father of Malay writing. Hikayat Abdullah, his life story, is about everyday life at the time when British influence was spreading. In 1920s that Malayan authors began to write modern novels and short stories. Among them the best known writers are Ahmad bin Mohd. Rashid Talu, Ishak Hj. Muhammad and Harun. Malaya Female authors began to attain respect in the 1950s.
The first of Malaysia's 'modern' authors was the 19th century writer Munshi Abdullah - who has lent his name to a few streets around the country. His best known work was his autobiography, Hikayat Abdullah. In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of diverse lingo. Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of Malaysia", literature in other bumiputra languages was called "regional literature", while literature in other languages was called "sectional literature". Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. Malaysian literature is typically written in any of the country's four main languages: Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil. Early on Malay literature was subjective by Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.
These works lay the fundamentals for an expansion of Malaysian literature from the 1950s and today there is a prodigious Malay-language publishing industry.
Each ethnic group has dissimilar performing arts; with little have common characteristics connecting them. Malay art demonstrate some North Indian influence. A form of art called Makyong, including dance and drama, subsist in the Kelantan state. Conversely, older Malayan-Thai performing arts like makyong have been less popular throughout the country due to their Hindu-Buddhist origin. Since the Islam period, the arts and tourism ministry have focused on newer dances of Mughal, Portuguese or Middle Eastern origin. Malay customary dance comprise jogetmelayu and Zapin.
In recent years, dikribarat has been popular, and it is promoted by state governments as a cultural symbol. Silat is an additional admired Malay martial art and dance form. This form helps to increase a person's spiritual power.
Wayangkuliy (shadow puppet theatre) has been popular in Malaysia.. The puppets are made with cow and buffalo skin, and are carved and dyed by hand. Plays done with shadow puppets are based on customary stories, e.g. the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Traditionally, theatrical music is performed only by men. The Javanese immigrants brought kuda kepang to Johor, which is a form of dance where dancers sit on mock horses and tells the tales of Islamic wars. The Chinese communities brought conventional lion dance and dragon dance with them, while Indians brought dance forms such as bharatnatyam and bhangra. Colonialism also brought other art types, like the Portuguese Faraperia and branyo. There are a range of habitual dances, which have very strong religious meaning. Diverse tribes from west and east Malaysia have different dances.
ARTIFACTS AND HANDICRAFT
Malaysian artifacts mainly consist of carving, weaving, silver smiting, handwoven baskets and ornaments. The silver smiting includes ornamental beetle nut set and kris. Lavish textiles known as Songket are made, as well as conventional decorative batik fabrics Other Textiles like puakumbu and tekat are used for decorations, embellished with a painting or pattern. . Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks.
Also Earthenware is one of the famous art crafts there. Labysayong is a gourd-shaped clay jar that holds water. Perak also used to store water is the angular Terenang. The Belanga , which is a kind of a clay bowl is used to cook and its wide base allows heat to stretch easily. Carved timber is used as ornamentation for many items, such as doors and window panels
Following is the summery of Public or National Holidays in Malaysia:
Prophet Muhammad's Birthday
â€¢ According to most muslims he is the last Prophet sent by God for Mankind. So, every year in Malaysia this day is celebrated as his birthday.
2. Chinese New Year
â€¢ It is the first day of Chinese calendar. Chinese New Year is celebrated in countries and territories with significant Chinese populations. Chinese New Year is considered a major holiday for the Malaysia also.
3. Labour Day
â€¢ 1st of May of every year is declared as a Labour Day in all over world. So, this day also celebrated as Labour Day in Malaysia also.
4. Wesak Day
â€¢ The exact date of VesÄkha varies according to the various lunar calendars used in diverse customs. In Theravada countries subsequent the Buddhist calendar, it falls on a full moon Uposatha day, classically in the 5th or 6th lunar month.
5. Malaysia King Birthday
â€¢ Every year 1st June is celebrated as King's Birthday and the current king of Malaysia is Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah.
6. Hari Raya Puasa
â€¢ Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is observed on the initial of the month of Shawwal at the end of the holy month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting.
7. Merdeka Day
â€¢ Merdeka day is basically Independence Day of Malaysia. On 31st August, 1963 Malaysia got freedom and the day was celebrated as Merdeka day every year.
8. Malaysia Day
â€¢The Malaysian federation was established on 16th September, 1963. So, this day is celebrated as Malaysia Day every year.
9. Hari Raya Qurban
â€¢ This is celebrated as a Sacrifice Day because on this day Phrophet Abraham sacrificed his first son Ishmael.
10. First Day of Muhharam
â€¢ Muhharam is the first month of Muslim calendar. The word is derived from the word haraam, meaning "sinful".
11. Christmas Day
â€¢ This day is famous as Birthday of Jesus Christ in Malaysia.
Malaysia's multiculturalism means an abundance of cultural and religious festivals throughout the year. Certainly, those who come here are often amazed at the utter number of public holidays that the country has. Some are federal public celebration, meaning the whole of Malaysia will get the leave while others are only public holidays in certain states. Good Friday as an example is not a central holiday but is instead a state holiday for Sarawak. The country celebrates its National Day on August 31st, that symbolizes the sovereignty from the then Federation of Malay from British colonial rule. Nevertheless, in Sabah it is renowned on the 16th of September to honor the date in 1963 when Sabah and Sarawak joined the federation.
Of all the festivals in Malaysia, the debatable three major celebrations are the Hari Raya Puasa (also known as Hari Raya Aidilfitri), Chinese New Year and Deepavali, symbolic of the three largest ethnic crowds in Malaysia. For Muslims, the most illustrious holiday is the Hari Raya Puasa, which marks the end of the Ramadan fasting month. For this the country has two days given as public holiday though many often take leave for the entire week as they return to their hometowns for celebrations. Hari Raya Puasa is the Malay equivalent of Eid Ul-Fitr and is celebrated along with the rest of the Muslim world. Likewise, Chinese New Year in Malaysia is celebrated in a similar fashion. While really lasting 15 days, the countrywide public holiday is only for the first two days of the Chinese New Year, although like Hari Raya Puasa, several will come back home for celebrations with family. As the name propose, the celebrations mark the new year in the Chinese lunar calendar and is very much a family oriented celebration.
The largest Hindu celebration in Malaysia would be Deepavali or Diwali, popularly known as the 'festival of lights', a celebration to honor the victory of good over evil. During the festival, oil lamps are lighted at nighttime and revels resemble traditions followed in the Indian subcontinent.
Other notable celebrations would include Thaipusam (a unique Tamil festival that entails rituals such as going into a trance-like state and piercing the body with hooks), Qing Ming Festival or Tomb Sweeping Day for the Chinese, the Buddist Wesak Day, Awal Muharram (the Islamic New Year) and the Prophet Muhammad's Birthday. Not to be remiss, Christmas is also a notable celebration in Malaysia and recognized as a national holiday.
Traditional Malay music and performing arts have originated in the Kelantan Pattani region with some influences from India, China, Thailand, and Indonesia. The music is based around striking instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of customary drums. Other instruments are the rebab (a bowed string instrument), the serunai (a double-reed oboe-like instrument), the seruling (flute), and the trumpets. Music is used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and at annual events such as the harvest. The East Malaysia gongs such as Agung and Kulintang are used in ritual such as funerals and weddings. These are common in the southern Philippines , Kalimantan in Indonesia, and in Brunei. Chinese, Indian, the native tribes of Peninsula and East Malaysia have their own forms of music and unique musical instruments
The largest performing arts venue in Malyasia is the Petronas Philharmonic Hall. The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philarmonic Orchestra..Malay popular music is a combination of styles from all ethnicities in the country.The Malaysian government has taken steps to control what music is available in Malaysia; rap music has been criticised heavy metal has been limited and foreign bands must submit a recording of a recent concert before playing in Malaysia. It is believed that this music is a bad influence on youth.
Different cultures from Malaysia and the neighboring areas have influenced Malaysian cuisine, with strong influence from Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cuisines. This is mainly because Malaysia was a part of ancient Spice route. The different states of Malaysia have diverse dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes. Nesi Lemak is the national dish of malaysia
Although many Malaysian dishes originate from another culture, they have their own identities. Often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes for example, Chinese food is often sweeter in Malaysian versions than the original. The Peranakans Chinese who moved to Malaysia centuries ago, have their own exclusive cuisine with the Malaysian ingredients.At dinner food is not served in courses, but all at once. Rice is popular in Malaysian dishes. Chilli is found in Malaysian dishes, although they are not spicy. Noodles here are common. Pork is seldom used in Malaysia, because of the large Muslim people.
There are five stages to the cinema of Malaysia. The first stage was in 1933 with the production of a narrative film, laila majnun by a company operating outside Singapore. The second stage involved the movies mostly from Indian and Philippines directors during the world war ll. The first locally directed film, Permata di- Perlembaham, was produced in 1952.
The third stage was when Singapore-based studios began to produce films in the 1950s, but the industry was consequently dented due to sovereignty of Singapore and thus the loss of studios there. Indonesian films gained fame at this time, although a small group of filmmakers continued to produce in Malaysia, forming the fourth stage. In the 1980s the local industry recovered, which lead to the fiffth stage, which covered more. This was also the first time non-Malay films began to have a significant presence.
The government start to support films in 1975, creating the National Film Development Corporation in 1981.thus it offered loans to filmmaker's who want to make films, however the criteria for obtaining funds has been criticised as promoting only commercial films. Thus as government support was less, a strong independent film movement has developed. There has been a increase in short films, which in the past two decades have begun to gain status in international film festivals. Independent documentaries often cover areas which would normally be censored by the government, such as sex and sexuality, as well as racial inequality and tension
MEDICINE AND HEALTH
Malaysia has fame for medical-related concerns like cardiology, dentistry, gastroenterology, screenings, general surgery, orthopedics, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. It not only has the latest medical equipments providing optimum performance but also medical practitioners who have earned their degrees in various medical schools and top universities in schools in the US.
Malaysia includes popular sports like squash, badminton, football, field hockey, and bowling It also has small traditional sports. Wau is a conventional form of kite-flying involving kites formed with elaborate designs. These kites can reach heights of nearly 500 metres (1,640 ft), and the bamboo attachments create a humming sound when flown. Sepak takraw is a game in which a rattan ball is kept in the air without using hands. A traditional game played during the rice harvest season was throwing gasing, which large tops are weighing around 5 kilograms (11 lb, thrown by unfurling a rope and scooped off the ground while revolving. They are known to spin for over an hour. Other sports are dragon dancing and dragon - boat racing. Malaysia has a coastline that is popular for scuba diving, sailing, and other water sports and activities. Whitewater rafting and trekking are also played. Badminton matches in Malaysia attract thousands of spectators, and Malaysia, along with Indonesia and China, has consistently held the Thomas cup since 1949. Malaysia has its own formula one track, the Sepang. Malaysian athletes have won a total of four Olympic medals, all of which are in badminton. Malaysia has competed at the Common wealth games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia. It has been leading in badminton, and hosted the games in Kuala Lumpur in 1998. The 1998 Commonwealth Games were the first time the torch relay went through more nations than just England and the host country.
Thus the above given are the social aspects of Malaysia that has helped Malaysia to be one of the most diverse as well as united country in the world. As we have seen Malaysia, from sports and music to clothing and literature has developed it and strived for being one of the most multicultural country.
CHAPTER 2: FINANCIAL ANAYLSIS OF MALAYSIA
Malaysia, a Country with thirteen States along with three Federal territories in Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur being the capital of Malaysia while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, Malaysia is having A Total Landmass of 329,847 Square Kilometers which is Separated by the South China Sea into Two Equally Sized Regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo.The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. The theme followed by the Malaysia is that similar to the British Empire. The government system of Malaysia is like the parliamentary system of Westminster, while its legal system is using English Common Law as its basis. With a population of 28,334,135, Malaysia is the world's 43rd most populous country and the country is one of Asia's most developed countries by infrastructure. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while protecting freedom of religion.Malaysia contains the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai. Located in the tropics, it is a mega diverse country, with large numbers of endemic flora and fauna.
Financial System Structure in Malaysia
The financial system of Malaysia is structured into two major categories, namely Financial Institutions and Financial Market. The Financial Institutions comprise Banking System and Non-bank Financial Intermediaries. The Financial Market in Malaysia comprises four major markets namely: Money & Foreign Exchange Market, Capital Market, Derivatives Market, and Offshore Market.
The banking system consists of Bank Negara Malaysia (Central Bank of Malaysia), banking institutions (commercial banks, finance companies, merchant banks and Islamic banks) and a miscellaneous group (discount houses and representative offices of foreign banks). The banking system accounting for about 67% of the total assets of the financial system is the largest component of the financial system.
The summary background information and functions of the institutions mentioned above are set out as follows:-
Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)
Merchant Banks (also known as Investment Banks)
Representative Offices of Foreign Banks in Malaysia
Non-Bank Financial Intermediaries
Non-Bank Financial Intermediaries mainly consist of Insurance Companies, Provident and Pension Funds and Development Finance Institutions. Summary background information and functions of these institutions are appended below: -
Provident and Pension Funds
Development Financial Institutions
Government policy goals for planned, shared and cost-effective development.
The following are the main DFIs in Malaysia:-
Bank Pertanian Malaysia
Bank Industri & Technologi Malaysia
Bank Pembangunan & Infrastruktur Malaysia Berhad
Malaysian Industrial Development Finance (MIDF)
As per the current data the total number of licensees under the Insurance Act 1996 stands at 141, out of which there are 64 insurers, 36 brokers and 41 adjusters.
The 64 insurers that were licensed under the Act is categorized into the following groups:
â€¢ 10 life and general insurance companies (include Motor Insurance)
â€¢ 7 life insurance companies
â€¢ 36 general insurance companies (include Motor Insurance)
â€¢ 1 life reinsurance company
â€¢ 9 general reinsurance companies (include Motor Insurance)
â€¢ 1 composite reinsurance company
i) Life Insurance Industry
The life insurance industry is classified into four main categories: Whole Life; Endowment; Temporary; and "Others" category.
ii) General Insurance Industry
General insurance covers motor, marine, aviation & transit insurance (MAT), fire insurance and miscellaneous insurance.
A substantial amount of the insurance premiums collected used to flow overseas through international re-insurance.
iv) Insurance Intermediaries
Besides companies that are involved in life insurance, general insurance and reinsurance businesses, there are 37 insurance brokers and 42 insurance adjusters licensed to operate in the Malaysian insurance market.
a) Insurance Broker
b) Insurance Adjuster
v) Takaful (Islamic Insurance)
Takaful may be defined as a pact to guarantee and assist one another. In commerce, Takaful may operate within the Mudharabah (Sharing) and Tabarru (Donation) concept.
Among the main regulations and guidelines issued by the authorities to govern the financial system in Malaysia are:-
Banking and Financial Institutions Act, 1989 (BAFIA)
BAFIA 1989 is divided into 16 parts and covers a wide spectrum of subject matters related to the banking industry in Malaysia. The Act provides a framework that enables BNM to supervise and regulate three broad groups of financial institutions:
Control of establishment or acquisition of subsidiaries or opening of offices in Malaysia by a local or foreign licensed institutions
Maintenance of reserve fund, capital, networking funds, liquid assets by the financial institutions
Appointment of auditors, submission of financial statement, exhibition of financial statements, submission of statistics to BNM.
Insurance Act 1996
Under the Insurance Act 1996, BNM retains a substantial degree of regulatory control over the management, control of licensees and the critical aspects of their operations. Among the areas subject to BNM's approval under the Insurance Act 1996 are:
â€¢ The appointment of directors and chief executive officers;
â€¢ The acquisition or disposal of substantial interests in shares of a licensee;
â€¢ The establishment of offices and subsidiaries;
â€¢ Appointment of auditors and actuaries; and
â€¢ Outsourcing of core insurance activities.
The Insurance Act 1996 which became of use on 1 January 1997, has integrated amendments made to the Insurance Act 1963.
It integrated changes needed to address deficiency in the previous legislation. The secondary legislation, the Insurance Regulations 1996 (Regulations) saw quite a few changes in 1999 in respect of bare minimum capital requirement as follows:-
â€¢ The least amount paid-up capital prescribed for a licensed local insurer underwriting direct insurance business, or surplus of assets over liabilities in the case of a licensed foreign insurer is set at RM50 million from 31 December 2000; and
â€¢ The total minimum margin of solvency (before taking into account insurance fund liabilities) for each class of insurance business of direct and local professional reinsurers is set at RM 60 million from 1 January 2001."
Anti-Money Laundering Act 2001
The Anti-Money Laundering Act 2001 (AMLA) was gazetted on 5 July 2001. AMLA was formed for establishing wide-range of new laws for the prevention, detection and trial of money laundering, the forfeiture of property resultant from, or involvement in money laundering and the requirements for record keeping and reporting of suspicious transactions for reporting institutions.
AMLA addresses the following broad issues:-
â€¢ Money laundering offences
â€¢ Financial Intelligence Unit
â€¢ Reporting obligations
â€¢ Powers of investigation, search and seizure
â€¢ Powers of freezing, seizure and forfeiture of property
The main objectives follow by the exchange control policy in Malaysia are for ensuring that the export proceeds are received promptly in Malaysia. Moreover it was form for assisting Bank Negara Malaysia in monitoring the settlement of payments and receipts in international transactions and also for encouraging the use of the nation's financial resources for creative purposes. For monitoring and compilation of balance of payments statistics, residents are required to complete statistical forms, Form P and Form R, for each payment or receipt of more than RM10,000 vis-a-vis non-residents.BNM has issued 16 Exchange Control Notices to-date.
The Establishment of Danaharta, Danamodal and Corporate Debt Restructuring Committee
Pengurusan Danaharta Nasional Berhad (Danaharta), Danamodal Nasional Berhad (Danamodal) and Corporate Debt Restructuring Committee (CDRC) was establish in 1996 by the Malaysian Government during the Asian Financial Crisis. The aim is to further strengthen the flexibility of the banking system during the crisis.
Danaharta is a special purpose limited liability company, established on 20 June 1998, which facilitates the:
â€¢ Transfer of problem assets from commercial banks in exchange for consideration;
â€¢ Financing and resolution of problem loans and assets;
â€¢ Expert management of problem loans through reconstruction and rehabilitation;
â€¢ Specialist management of loan security (real estate, shares, infrastructure, etc.);
â€¢ Expert and focused management of the process to maximize net returns (i.e. After costs) over a reasonable timeframe.
The objectives of Danamodal are to :
i) re-capitalize and strengthen the banking industry; and
ii) To help facilitate the consolidation and rationalization of the banking system to support the next phase of economic development.
The Financial Market mainly comprises:-
i) The Money and Foreign Exchange markets, and
ii) The Capital and Derivatives Markets
Apart from BNM, following are the statutory bodies established by Malaysian Government in regulating and supporting the above mentioned markets:-
The Securities Commission (SC) is a statutory body entrusted with the responsibility of regulating and thoroughly developing Malaysia's capital markets. It has direct responsibility in supervising and monitoring the activities of market institutions and regulating all persons licensed under the Securities Industry Act, 1983 and Futures Industry Act, 1993. Its two main roles under the Securities Commission Act 1993 are:
â€¢ To act as a single regulatory body to promote the development of capital markets;
â€¢ To take responsibility for reform the regulations of the securities market, and for speeding up the processing and approval of corporate transactions.
Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange
KLSE is the first stock exchange in Malaysia, governed by the Security Industry Act 1983 and governed by the Security Commission (SC). It initiated public trading of shares on 9 May 1960. The KLSE is the legal and prescribed institution for securities trading in Malaysia. Like any other stock exchange, the KLSE provides and maintains a central market-place or facility for buyers and sellers to carry out business in the shares, bonds and different types of securities of companies which are listed on the exchange.
Securities Commission Malaysia
The regulation and development of capital markets in Malaysia is been regulated by The Securities Commission Malaysia (SC) which was established on 1 March 1993 under the Securities Commission Act 1993, it is a self-funding statutory body with investigative and enforcement powers. Its function is to report the Minister of Finance and its accounts are tabled in Parliament annually. The SC's many regulatory functions includes:
Supervising exchanges, clearing houses and central depositories;
Registering authority for prospectuses of corporation other than unlisted recreational dubs;
Approving authority for corporate bond issues;
Malaysia is having Bursa Malaysia as an approved exchange holding company established under Section 15 of the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007. Bursa Malaysia is a public company which is limited by shares under the Companies Act 1965; Bursa Malaysia operates a fully-integrated exchange, offering equities, derivatives, offshore, bonds as well as Islamic products, and also provides a diversify range of investment choices including global securities.
The exchange places great emphasis in ensuring a fair and orderly market at all times, with high priority on investor protection.
1) Stock brokers
2) Trading Participants
3) Investor Protection
4) Risk Management protectors
Malaysia's one of the strongest point is its infrastructure. A constant drive is made for developing and upgrading its infrastructure which has resulted in one of the most well-developed and strong infrastructure among the newly industrializing countries of the continent.
Malaysia's constant drive to develop and upgrade its infrastructure had turned to be the greatest and important factor in development of manufactures present over there.
The latest infrastructure development made by Malaysia is the development of KL Central, which is being term as a futuristic and self-contained city, providing perfect lives, along with work and play environment. Today, Malaysia can boast of having one of the well-developed infrastructure among the newly industrializing countries of continent.
Some of the major contributions and part of Infrastructure in Malaysia includes:-
1) Network highways
2) Industrial parks
3) Efficient seaports
4) International Airports
5) Specialized parks
6) Hi-Tech Communications
Money, Tax, Investment:-
1) Property and Investments
2) Housing and Land
3) Banking and Saving Schemes
4) Local Banks
5) International Banks
An overview on Central bank of Malaysia
On 26 January 1959, under the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958 (CBA 1958) the central bank was established. It is a constitutional body which is wholly owned and controlled by the Government of Malaysia with the paid-up capital which is increased slowly, but surely. Currently the paid up capital is RM120 million. The Bank reports to the Minister of Finance of Malaysia and keeps the Minister informed about the matters relating to monetary and financial sector policies.
Roles and Functions
Economics & Monetary Policy
Investment and Operations
Greater engagement with the public
Integrated Contract Center (ICC)
Integrated Contact Centre (ICC) was formed, where customer administration and case administration is put under one roof. The ICC comprises the following:
BNMLINK, a face-to-face customer service, to facilitate rapid and effective responses on financial matters for the public. To develop the outreach to provide for outstation customers, BNM MINILINK was established at BNM branches in Johor Bahru, Pulau Pinang, Kuala Terengganu, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching.
BNM TELELINK which complements the services of BNMLINK by attending to enquiries made via SMS, telephone calls, facsimiles, letters and electronic mails; and
Complaint management and Advisory, which among others, facilitates decree of the public, including SMEs, complaints against institutions under the purview of the Bank.
Mission Statement of the bank:-
The Central Bank, Bank Negara Malaysia, is dedicated for providing excellency in promoting monetary and financial system stability and also for development of a sound and progressive financial sector
This will be achieved through:
promoting a work culture which emphasize the highest standards of professionalism and veracity, cautiousness, teamwork and modernization;
developing and maintaining a committed workforce which is highly competent and upbeat, perceptive to the changing needs of the industry;
adopting policies and practices to enhance the competitiveness of local financial institutions to face international competition; and
To have the essential financial funds and financial instruments to efficiently manage financial stability.
Financial system of Malaysia
Malaysia is having a balanced economy and thus Malaysia is bestow with progressive and sustainable financial system. The minister of finance is Y.A.B Dato' Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Abdul Razak. The central bank of Malaysia is "Bank Negara Malaysia". The bank is formed with the core objective to promote monetary stability and financial sustainability for checking growth of the Malaysian economy. The primary functions are set out in the newly enacted Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009 are to:
Formulate and conduct monetary policy in Malaysia;
Issue currency in Malaysia;
Regulate and supervise financial institutions which are subject to the laws enforced by the Bank;
Provide oversight over money and foreign exchange markets;
Exercise oversight over payment systems;
Promote a sound, progressive and inclusive financial system;
Hold and manage the foreign reserves of Malaysia;
Promote an exchange rate regime consistent with the fundamentals of the economy; and
Act as financial adviser, banker and financial agent of the Government
Financial Institutions as at end February 2012
The banking system not only includes commercial banks, Islamic banks & investment banks. But also includes the non-bank financial institution which harmonizes insurance companies & Takaful operators which conducts institutions in organizing savings & undertaking the financial needs of the country.
The insurance & reinsurance companies deal in business of life & general insurance and in the same way takaful & retakaful operators deal with general and family takaful business.
Islamic Financial Industry
Islamic finance in Malaysia continues to demonstrate dynamic growth with a full Islamic financial system that is supported by healthy dogmatic, legal and Shariah supremacy frameworks, the many players as well as the very important talent and adeptness.
The Malaysian capital market has also recorded total astonishing Sukuk amounting to RM220 billion as at September 2011, surpassing the exceptional predictable bond with 55% of market share.
CHAPTER 3: TECHNOLOGY IN MALAYSIA
Malaysia is centrally located in south East Asia and it is been divided into two parts by the South China Sea.
The two parts of Malaysia are Malaysian peninsula and the states of sabah and sarak. There are 13 states in Malaysia and has 3 territories. It has a total land mass of 330000 sq km. the fourth fifth part of it is tropical rain forest area. it got independence in 1957.
It follows the parliamentary democracy system which is been rotated at every five years .In Malaysia various cultures are followed and it has a multilingual society with 28.66mn people. In Malaysia there are 57.1% malay people, 24.6 % Chinese people , 7.3% Indians and 11% other people.
There is a freedom of religion in Malaysia although major part of the people follow islam.61.3% people follow islam 19.8% follow Buddhism ,9.2% follow Christianity ,6.3 follow Hinduism and 2.6% practices other religion.
The economy of malaysia was not that good previously as it was a middle income country.But it has developed its country in every sector but mostly the focus is on high technology and capital intensive industries.
It is also focusing on the automobile industry in Malaysia. As it is continuously developing their economic performance has also improved which has also improved their ranking 7th place out of 59th economies.
It is among the 20 trading nations.it is ranked among the top 5 competitive competitive nations. It is also 21st exporter among the worldwide nations.
Malaysia is also a location which provides low cost competition for investors who wants to manufacture advanced technological product. the economy of Malaysia is also supported by the Malaysian government policy.
It has also launced economic transformation program which identifies 12 natioanl key economic areas which contribute to the grouth of Malaysia . â€•Vision 2020 is to transform Malaysia into a â€•high income country and for which Malaysia requires annual growth rate GNI of 6%.
Due to the weaker domestic demand GDP growth lower to 4.0 percent year -on- year and further implementation of ETP project will boost domestic demand, but unlikely to
offset underperformance in net exports.
Germany has good trade relations with Malaysia and germany also invest good amount of money in Malaysia .malaysia also holds the second position when it comes to usinf of german products.
As we know that germany is the largest exportor of automobile parts,so Malaysia also imports large amount of automotive parts in germany.
As Malaysia is the huge market for automotive industry several german manufacturers have entered into the Malaysia .they all work only for the automotive industry.we can take the example of several companies such as BMW Benz,Mercedes Benz.
The distribution of the product is carried out by the brand owner or the company itself such as BMW Benz, Mercedes Benz.
The Malaysian government also had developed several policy to develop the automotive industry of Malaysia and strengthen the position of the industry ao that they can reduce their dependability on agriculture. They are focusing on automotive industry mainly so that they can reach the position of a developed nation by 2020.
The most important thing for Malaysia is their seaborne trade. They have seven international ports which has helped them to increase their trade with other countries. Port klana and the port of Tansung have been ranked in top 120 ports in the world.
When it comes to business the most important thing is that we have to keep in mind business meeting schedule. They should not be scheduled on the prayer time. When we are doing the business with muslims as the country is dominated by muslims.
When a company is doing business with Malaysian government than it should be done in their language of bhara. Other business with Malaysian companies are done in English.
In their culture they give more importance to their designations and also what are think that is to be done in the job. There are some etiquettes that are to be followed with Malaysian companies. The currency of Malaysia is 1 rinngit and the GDP growth rate is 5%.
The inflation rate is 3.3% - 3.5% in Malaysia. They export many commodities like electronic, petroleum products, rubber products etc. The rate of unemployment is 3.0%.
In the automotive industry after the formation of the policy two projects were there which dominated the market. They are proton and perodua Whereas proton brought a huge change in the industry.
Previously they were doing the work of assembly line and they moved from it and started producing vehicles due to which the business reduced because people preferred to buy their own country brand.
Malaysia hold the 3rd position in the car market. In 2012 budget, the government has provided some benefits for the development of domestic automobile industry.
As there are many foreign competitors present in the Malaysian market the government of Malaysia is trying to protect their technology industry from the competitors and therefore just to protect their industry they have made certain policies
So that they can protet teir domestic companies from their competitors and that the country can develop rather than being depeendant on any other investors. They have introduced certain policies and tariffs. Therefore just to protect their industry they are imposing certain restrictions on foreign competitors.
They are taking high excise duties from their foreign competitors so that they can advantage of these companies and at the same time it does nat harm their own domestic market.
They are imposing import duties .according to the MTI the foreign companies have to work cooperatively with the local partners.The duties that are imposed on the vehicles depend upon the type of the vehicles.
Information technology is playing an crucial role in the professional and personal lives of any individual. The constituents of the technology are Computers, communications, digital information, and softwares.
Also, those who search aggressively for opportunities to learn more about technology and those who choose not to learn anything at all about technology, there are many things to recognize the potential value of technology for their day to day lives and also those who realize that a better understanding of technology will be helpful to them. This realization have some several factors:
Technology has entered in one's lives over a relatively brief period of time with little warning and essentially no formal educational preparation among the fewer people
Current use of technology have a limited understanding of the tools that are been used and a belief that they are underutilizing them.
Few people do not feel confident or in control when they are confronted by technology, and they would like to be more certain.
Also, there have been impressive claims for the potential benefits of technology, and many would like to realize those benefits.
There is an concern on the part of some individuals that changes implied by technology which leads to potential risks to social values, freedoms or economic interests, etc., obligating them to become informed.
Modern information technologies are a rapidly advancing field that can facilitate new effective means for retailers to reach consumers. Methods profiled below include the use of the Internet as a provider of static information and facilitator of traceability schemes, in-store interactive screens and information kiosks, personal shopping assistants, television monitors, mobile technologies and customer club cards. 'Smart ads', interactive window-shopping and holographic imaging as emerging technologies are also profiled.
A second application of technology includes traceability schemes, which go beyond providing static information to enable consumers to trace supply chains of individual products. Today's emerging application offers retailers an opportunity to increase consumer trusts in both the retailer and the products on.
Also, when tracing products through the supply chain, consumers can feel more that they are part of the chain, which helps in increasing the likelihood of environmental and social externalities being considered in purchasing decisions. With increased knowledge of supply chain issues gained by compiling traceability of information that offers tangible benefits to retailers such as quality tracking.
Technologies also offer another opportunity to provide sustainability information to consumers. Quick Response (QR) have been used in malaysia to transfer product information in-store to the consumer. Through QR code readers are mainly available through a technology called i-mode a Japanese mobile communications company. QR codes which are readable by a mobile phone camera are affixed onto a product or package and direct consumers to online product information via wireless internet i.e mobile phones.
The Malaysian technology report presents the technology requirements resulting from the activities of the process design teams, that describes the of target technological environment that is required to support the activities. and also provides estimation of the costs associated with the deployment of the environment. Also provides the description of the assumptions made by the team during the project, and an illustration of the data model used during the estimating process. The technology project results in a number of significant changes to the existing application environment:
â€¢New applications are visioned for Service sectors. These systems are supported by the use of imaging technology.
â€¢The Service systems will be augmented to provide Private Agents with a user-friendly interface, and will also employ imaging technology.
â€¢The Service system will be provided with the consistent user interface. There is not a requirement for imaging services within this application
Science and Technology in Malaysia
In Malaysia science policy is regulated by ministry of science, technology and innovation, ministry of agriculture and the ministry of health. In 1998 high- tech exports made 54% Malaysian export. And in 1987 to 1997 research and development used 0.24% GNP.
Malaysian national space agency in 2002 formed which deals with Malaysian space activities, space education and space experiments.
"RazakSAT" satellite is a remote sensing satellite with the CCD camera. Angkasawan space flight program helpful for the Malaysia to transport one Malaysian to the space station.
Malaysian privatized part of its military in 1970's to support national development and by this Malaysian defense industry council formed. And government also making efforts for the competitiveness and development of the sector. The Malaysian armed force uses weapons and hi-tech weapons and military imported from foreign countries.
The Malaysian Antratic Research Program and national antratic research center were established to became partly to the antratic treaty.
Biomass Energy Technology
In the 9th Malaysian plan biomass energy has given more importance. Many incentives were provided for the promotion of biomass energy. It is used for the palm oil, rubber and bri
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