NGOs In Poverty Alleviation In Africa
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Assessing NGOs' performance in poverty reduction is a difficult task. However, it is worth learning from other observations conducted on NGO performance in alleviating poverty.
NGOs have increased the scale on the type of roles they play. In this contemporary time, NGOs are helping government, institutions, and the rural poor in the fight against poverty in Sub-Saharan African.
The programmes of Non Governmental Organizations as development organizations represent a variety of poverty driven activities and orientations. As there are several issues associated with poverty and justified them means as causes of poverty, some NGOs deliver relief and welfare services to alleviate immediate suffering; during emergencies and provision of both food and non- food items and shelter quick medical facilities.
Many are seeing engaged in community development interventions to build capacity for self-help action. There are few NGOs, whose major aim is to bring change in the society. They seek to change specific institutions and policies in support of more just, sustainable and inclusive development outcomes. Other NGOs facilitate broadly-based people's movements by social vision.
Although NGOs are appraised for their tremendous work, other scholars have opined that they do not see their essence due to the fact that many have fallen below expectations. In this Chapter, researcher's task is to review the literature of other scholarly works relating to NGOs' roles in poverty alleviation.
Today, many NGOs are seen as lobbyist as well as advocators for many purposes all geared towards poverty alleviation. Many NGOs their government to respond to people's needs, challenging multilateral organizations like the Word Bank to operate more transparently and accountably, and demanding that some western based NGOs divest responsibilities to some locally Based NGOs, that already know the felt need of the people and resources that they have originally claimed in the name of Third World development, but seems to have been diverted into another use.
Desai (2005) mentioned that NGOs have an important role to play in supporting women, men and households, community groups, civil society groups and expected that they can meet the welfare.
She accounted some roles and functions for NGOs, such as counseling and supportive service, awareness raising and advocacy, legal aid and microfinance. These services help the people to obtain their ability, skill and knowledge, and take control over their own lives and finally become empowered and self-reliant. I agree with, because if a project like microfinance is enforced, the living standards of the people will be improved. This evidence will be seen in the next chapter.
Strom Quits (2002) has also noted three major functions for NGOs such as service delivery (e.g. relief, welfare, basic skills); educational provision (e.g. basic skills and often critical analysis of social environments); and public policy advocacy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baccaro (2001), in his writing depicted how particular NGOs with a definite mission statements can promote the organization and "empowerment" of the poor, particularly poor women, through a combination of micro-credit, awareness-raising, training for group members, which is capacity building, and other social services, with an aim to reduce poverty among societies.
NGOs' general aim is to alleviate poverty through activities that promote capacity building and self-reliance. Langran (2002) has mentioned that NGOs through capacity building help to sustain community development and assist government in the provision of basic social amenities. NGOs are often created in order to expand the capacities of people and government there by breaching the gap of poverty (Korten 1990).
NGOs are praised for promoting community self-reliance and empowerment through supporting community-based groups and relying on participatory processes (Korten 1990; Clark 1991; Friedmann 1992; Fowler 1993; Edwards and Hulme 1994; Salamon 1994).In Sub-Saharan Africa for instance where survival for daily bread is a major hurdle, NGOs have been seen as liberators of human sufferings. In Sierra Leone sixty percent of citizens' survival depends upon donors.
Sustainable development, on the other hand, has emerged over the past few decades as an important paradigm for poverty alleviation.
Bradshaw and Winn (2000) have noted, sustainability is rooted largely in an environmental approach, particularly in the industrialized countries. But, the goal of sustainable development is to find a balance between three pillars - society, economy and environment - of communities (Sneddon 2000).
Hibbard and Tang (2004) in their study in Vietnam have noted the importance of NGOs' roles in sustainable community development. One of the roles was that NGOs balance the social, economic and environmental factors in promoting sustainable development.
Another important role of NGOs that they discovered is decentralization of the central government which helps the local communities to acquire more power in order to make their own decisions. As in the case of Sierra Leone where civil society groups and other NGOs like MERLIN, Caritas and CRS, have succeeded in winning bills for decentralization in the Health Ministry. But, sometimes, the local communities lack specialists to do professional work and resources that are important for the particular projects. In this situation, NGOs assists local staff with drafting sustainable development plans that are functional under the umbrella of a central government policy.
Finally, they concluded that poverty alleviation is process-oriented, and it requires extensive community participation and relies on network to share resources, knowledge and expertise. From the literatures, it could be summarized that NGOs play an important function in fighting poverty via promoting sustainable community development.
NGOs to play a facilitatory role, for example by supporting the development of private sector retail outlets through training, identification of market needs, and promotion of links to manufacturers and wholesalers (Coote and Wandschneider, 2001). Again, this is an option that may only be feasible for larger (international) NGOs, which can afford the resources and skills for proper implementation and monitoring of such programmes.
In Sub Saharan Africa countries, availability of credit is often seen as the major constraint for production and marketing (Goodland 1999, Gordon, 2000). Given the range of additional constraints in operation, this view is certainly overstated or at best represents an over-simplification. In the case of agriculture, weaknesses in input delivery systems are an integral part of the equation. Lack of access to market information, weak transport systems, poor infrastructure and under-developed output marketing systems are other critical constraints (Goodland 1999, Gordon, 2000). Increasing credit supply in a context in which these structural problems are paramount may in most cases amount to a short-lived solution.
There is growing evidence that promotion of savings and institutional innovations in this field represents a much-needed development, especially for the poor and for disadvantaged regions (Gordon, 2000).
The NGOs are playing an increasingly effective role in extending social forestry activities in the country. There exists more than 100 NGOs that are very active in social forestry activities in Bangladesh (ADAB, 1992). The group approach is followed by most of the NGOs to provide their financial assistance and recovery for private forest management. Most of the NGOs are promoting afforestation as one of their many people oriented programs. This has resulted in substantial increase of private nurseries in the country. Some NGOs are emphasizing on homestead forestry in order to develop the socio-economic condition of landless farmers. The types of social forestry programs are being implemented by NGOs.
Some NGOs are emphasizing on homestead forestry in order to develop the socio-economic condition of landless farmers. Both local and national NGOs advanced much to implement agroforestry activities by the active participation of their organized group members generally in the forms of homestead agroforestry, strip plantation, block plantation, plantation on homestead area, marginal lands, forest land and on the fallow lands of the different institutions such as educational and religious institutions.
According N.G. Hegde (2001), has noted that the primary role of the voluntary organisation is to develop SHGs and village level farmers associations to have close interaction among themselves and plan for their future.
Identification of appropriate technologies for improving agricultural production, mobilizing resources for agricultural production and establishment of common facilities to provide necessary agricultural services to needy farmers can also be confidently handled by the local voluntary organizations.
Linkage of the local farmer's organizations with financial institutions, market outlets and technology centers is another important role of the voluntary organizations. NGOs can also support the SHGs to set up the grain banks and handle PDS and provide moral support to fight against the versed interests. They should initiate various activities related to food production, storage and distribution by involving the people's representatives' right from the initial stage of planning. This will help them to work independently without external support in the long run.
The NGOs can also identify the backward pockets where the poor families have been often threatened by food insecurity and starvation and initiate various development programmes, under food for work. Such development works aiming at conservation of natural resources and improved agricultural productivity can help the local community to gain confidence and manage their resources for sustainable livelihood.
NGOs have an important role to play in the development of group vision and favorable group dynamics, based on democratic principles and wide member participation (Coote and Wandschneider, 2001). They are also well positioned to develop a facilitatory role once group operations are established. They can provide longer-term institution-building components, deliver production and marketing extension, and act as honest brokers in the development of linkages with other service providers and the private sector. Skill development in areas such as bargaining capability, organisation of savings capacity, and production and business expertise will be essential (Coulter, 1999).
Through the functions of providing microfinance, transportation, Environmental Conservation and Development, Food Security, initiating capacity building and self -reliance, peace building projects, relief services during emergencies, NGOs could help narrow the gap of income in Sub-Saharan African. Below are the reviews of NGO's roles, functions and strategies they used to fight poverty.
2.2- NGO's Role in MICROFINANCE
Microfinance is an important area that NGOs have fully ultilised in reaching out to the poor. Their roles in this sector, has immensely contributed to alleviating poverty among the poor. Microfinance has a very important role to play in development according to proponents of microfinance.
In the 1990s, scholars have increasingly referred to microfinance as an effective means of poverty reduction (Rekha 1995; Cerven and Ghazanfar 1999; Pankhurst and Johnston 1999). The microfinance has long existed in Africa, but experienced a decline when government established banking institutions (Oxaal and Baden 1997). The World Bank found, in 1998, that the poorest 48% of Bangladeshi families with access to microcredit from Grameen Bank rose above the poverty line.
In People's Republic of China (PRC), for instance, microfinance programs have helped lift 150 million people out of poverty since 1990 (UNHDR, 2005). Similarly in, in Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Liberia, MkNelly and Dunford (1998) Mansaray (1998-99), found that microcredit beneficiaries increased their income by $36, compared with $18 for nonclients. Clients of microfinance generally shifted from irregular, low-paid daily jobs to more secured employment in India (Simanowitz, 2003) and Bangladesh (Zaman, 2000).
Von Pisschke (1919) recognized that, poverty is contextual that is not static and it is relative. Micro credit loan was introduced as a mechanism for the poor to pursue Poverty Reduction activities which were within means and capacities. The knowledge behind this is that, poverty situation can be improved and a way of doing this is through giving micro-credit loans to co-operative groups, women's Organization. Individuals, to actively engage in activities like small scale business, agricultural activities, which aid in the increase and improvement of diets as well as participating in the activities of their respective communities. This is evident in areas in which Local NGOs; International NGOs operate to reduce poverty in the society. A case study is the activities of Caritas and THP in rural areas and rural urban areas within the last twelve years.
A conceptual frame work is that, micro-credit or small loan recommended as a process for generating income through Agricultural activities. Literacy programmes, Skill training or through Small- scale business is widely a concept in the areas where NGOs and other societier Organisations operate. Caritas and THP will be the ones under investigation.
With regard to this issue, Khander and Kabeer (1998) discussed the idea that, NGOs and Donors were dictated on policies which specifically called for the increased in micro-credit loans to reach out to women and these micro-credit programmes did not limit their desire impact to poverty reduction only but extended it to achieve women's empowerment.
Otero (1999, p.10) also illustrated the various ways in which "microfinance, at its core combats poverty". She states that microfinance creates access to productive capital for the poor, which together with human capital, addressed through education and training, and social capital, enables people to move out of poverty (1999). With material capital provided to a poor person, their sense of dignity is strengthened and this can help to empower the person to participate in the economy and society (Otero, 1999).
The aim of microfinance according to Otero (1999) is to provide capital to the poor to combat poverty on an individual level; it also has a role at an institutional level. It seeks to create institutions that deliver financial services to the poor, who are continuously ignored by the formal banking sector.
Mayoux (2000) and Cheston and Khan (2002) have pointed out the importance of microfinance in empowerment, particularly women empowerment. Microfinance is defined as efforts to improve the access to loans and to saving services for poor people (Shreiner2001). UNCDF (2001) states that studies have shown that microfinance plays key roles in development.
It is currently being promoted as a key development strategy for promoting poverty eradication and economic empowerment. It has the potential to effectively address material poverty, the physical deprivation of goods and services and the income to attain them by granting financial services to households who are not supported by the formal banking sector (Sheraton 2004).
Microcredit programs provide small loans and savings opportunities to those who have traditionally been excluded from commercial financial services. As a development inclusion strategy adopted by NGOs through the provision of funds to both locally established groups and government and private institutions, microfinance programs emphasize women's economic contribution as a way to increase overall financial efficiency within national economies. For instance, in Sub-Saharan Africa, women are said to be bread winners and care takers of their families.
It should be noted that women are always at mercy regarding social misshapes. According to Cheston and Khan (2002), one of the most popular forms of economic empowerment for women is microfinance, which provides credit for poor women who are usually excluded from formal credit institutions. This issue of gender discrimination in the microfinance sector has been researched and debated by donor agencies, NGOs, feminists, and activists (Johnson and Rogaly 1997; Razavi 1997; Kabeer 1999; Mayoux 2001; Mahmud 2003).
However, underneath these shared concerns lie three fundamentally different approaches to microfinance: financial sustainability, feminist empowerment, and poverty alleviation. All three microfinance approaches have different goals coupled with varied perspectives on how to incorporate gender into microfinance policy and programs (Mayoux 2000).
The microfinance empowers women by putting capital in their hands and allowing them to earn an independent income and contribute financially to their households and communities.
This economic empowerment is expected to generate increased self-esteem, respect, and other forms of empowerment for women beneficiaries.
Some evidence show that microfinance would empower women in some domains such as increased participation in decision making, more equitable status of women in the family and community, increased political power and rights, and increased self-esteem (Cheston and Kuhn 2002).
However, other scholars are not enthusiastic about the role of microfinance in development. Hulme and Mosley (1996), while acknowledging the role microfinance can have in helping to reduce poverty, concluded from their research on microfinance that "most contemporary schemes are less effective than they might be" (1996, p.134). They state that microfinance is not a total solution for poverty-alleviation and that in some cases the poorest people have been made worse-off by microfinance.
Wright (2000,p.6) states that much of the skepticism of MFIs stems from the argument that microfinance projects "fail to reach the poorest, generally have a limited effect on incomeâ€¦drive women into greater dependence on their husbands and fail to provide additional services desperately needed by the poor". In addition, Wright says that many development practitioners not only find microfinance inadequate, but that it actually diverts funding from "more pressing or important interventions" such as health and education (2000, p.6). As argued by Navajas et al (2000), there is a danger that microfinance may siphon funds from other projects that might help the poor more.
They state that governments and donors should know whether the poor gain more from microfinance, than from more health care or food aid for example. Therefore, there is a need for all involved in microfinance and development to ascertain what exactly has been the impact of microfinance in combating poverty. Considerable debate remains about the effectiveness of microfinance as a tool for directly reducing poverty, and about the characteristics of the people it benefits (Chowdhury, Mosley and Simanowitz, 2004). Sinha (1998) argues that it is notoriously difficult to measure the impact of microfinance programmes on poverty.
The micro credit sector of recent is faced with greater challenges. The whole process involves given out of physical loans to the less privileged in society, who struggle for daily existence, they there is the micro credit as means of livelihood, of course this is the general focus of every micro credit projects.
2.2. NGOs' CAPACITY BUILDING ROLE A STRATEGY FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION
Capacity building is another NGO's strategy and role that helps to bridge a gap between the haves and have not in society. Capacity building is an approach to development that builds independence. It can be: A 'means to an end', where the purpose is for others to take on programs. Is a process, where the capacity building strategies are routinely incorporated as an important element of effective practice (NSW Health 2001).
Langran (2002) has defined capacity building as the ability of one group (NGOs) to strengthen the development abilities of another group (local communities) through education, skill training and organizational support.
Capacity building is a strategy used to develop not a set of pre-determined activities. There is no single way to the build capacity of an individual or groups of individuals. Although experience tells us that there is a need to work across the key action areas, practitioners approach each situation separately to identify pre-existing capacities and develop strategies particular to a program or organization, in its time and place.
Before beginning to build capacity within programs, practitioners need to identify pre-existing capacities such as skills, structures, partnerships and resources. Frankish (2003) has counted a number of dimensions for community capacity including financial capacity (resources, opportunities and knowledge), human resources (skills, motivations, confidence, and relational abilities and trust) and social resources (networks, participation structures, shared trust and bonding).
UNDP (1997-2009) has introduced capacity building as the process by which individuals, groups, and organizations increase their abilities to first, perform core functions, solve problems, define and achieve objectives; and second, understand and deal with their development needs in a broad context and in a sustainable manner.
NGOs, through the provision of education, skills and knowledge, develop the capacity of community towards achieving sustainable development. In fact, NGOs act as a capacity builder to help the communities to develop the resources, building awareness, motivating to participation in project and finally improving the quality of community's lives.
Inger Ulleberg (2009) has supported the view that NGO's play important role through the provision of skills for the rural poor. He has maintained that through capacity building, NGO's have been able to reach the poor, and has contributed to the development of the beneficiaries through skills training, the given of technical advice, exchange of experiences, research and policy advice which is key to today's development. Through the case study of Afghanistan NGO's, it suggested that these areas of interest have yielded fruit for the intended beneficiaries. The activities have usually strengthened the skills of individuals, as it was intended but have not always succeeded in improving the effectiveness of the ministries and other organizations where those individuals are working. This according to Kpaka (2007) considered it as a failure on the part of the implementers because of improper allocation of stratetigies and argues that they failed because of poor planning and poor implementation strategy.
2.3. NGO's ROLES in SELF-RELIANCE AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.
Self-reliance is another strategy that affects sustainable community development. Effective community development sits on the foundation of self-reliance. The concept of self-reliance is strategically situated within the essence of community development and is related to other concepts like mutual-help, self-help, participation of the indigenous people and rural progress. Self-reliance encourages the necessity for people to use local initiatives, their abilities and their own possessions to improve their condition. Fonchingong and Fonjong (2002) have pointed out that self-reliance is increasingly being adopted as modus operandi for community development.
Therefore, to attain self-reliance, NGOs and community groups must discover their own potential and look for ways to innovatively develop such discovered potential to use as sources of wealth for the development of the community (Ife and Tesoriero 2006). Motivating and mobilizing people to be self-reliant and to participate in development activities become an important objective of the NGOs.
According to Kelly (1992), self-reliance means that the people rely on their own resources and are independent of funds sourced outside the community. Self-reliant strategy relies on the willingness and ability of the local people to depend on their own available resources and technology which they can control and manage.
A self-reliant strategy requires the optional use of all available human, natural and technological resources (Agere 1982). Although dependence on the state may be desirable in the short term, it should not be a long term objective, because the aim of the community development must ultimately be self-reliant. Mansaray (1982) has maintained that reliance on external resources will lead to the loss of autonomy and independence of the community, therefore communities should be bound to carry out autonomous programmes. This according to him, autonomous communities can flourish only in the absence of such external dependency.
According to Korten (1990), the second strategy of the NGOs focuses on developing the capacities of the people to better meet their own needs through self-reliant local action. In the second generation strategy, Korten (1990) mentioned that the local inertia is the heart of problem in a village or community. There is a potential energy in a community but remains inactive because of the inertia of tradition, isolation and lack of education.
But this unwillingness on the part of the local beneficiaries can be broken through the intervention of an outside change agent, who supposedly is to be NGOs, whose role is to help the community realize its potentials through education, organization, consciousness raising, small loans and the introduction of simple new technologies. It is the stress on local self-reliance, with the intent that benefits will be sustained by community self-help action beyond the period of NGO assistance (Korten 1990). Therefore, NGOs, through the strategy of self-reliance, has facilitated sustainable development of the community through its participation in the community activities, project sponsorship, monitoring and evaluation processes.
2.4. NGO'S ROLE IN PEACE BUILDING.
NGO's roles are extended to peace building in Africa. The crucial role played by NGOs in the restoration of peace in war affected zones is very important. Many African countries have witnessed wars and are still suffering from trauma of wars. Countries like Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola, Somalia and many are witnesses of NGOs' intervention in peace building. From the evidence of the current conflict in Afghanistan, Richard Barajas, Rachel Howard, Andrew Miner Jeff Sartin, Karina Silver (2000), have maintained that NGOs can play peace building roles. The presence of NGOs in Afghanistan according to them has led to the restoration of fair peace as their propagation of the human rights law, and their involvement in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, is fostering cooperation among the warlords.
I am in total agreement with them. The role of Peace Wing in Sierra Leone, for instance, justifies the effectiveness of peace building NGOs through their organizational strategies which were able to bring the rebels out of the bush and negotiate a peace talk rather using guns and bullets to cease war.
2.5. Role of NGO's in Environmental Conservation and Development
NGOs are playing crucial role in Environmental Protection, conservation and development. Sundar Vadoan (2007). NGOs have, in particular, played an important role in raising environmental concerns, developing awareness of environmental issues and promoting sustainable development. The encouragement of public participation in environmental management through legislation in recent years has also enhanced the role and effectiveness of NGOs in the globalizing world and Sub-Saharan African as a whole. In Sub-Saharan Africa, many countries wholly and solely relied on environment for their sustenance. The 21st century has seen a great deal of environmental issues, and many issues have emerged as a major concern for the welfare of the people. Mahatma Gandhi once said "the earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not for every man's greed".
This saying implies that human survival dependent upon nature and all that encompasses in it. The role playing of NGOs in the conservation of our environment put more premiums on its usefulness to today's generation. For the conservation of environment, several NGOs have focused the plans and resources in that direction. Today, in Sierra Leone, for instance, has created series of national based NGOs as environmental watch. The Gola Forest Conservation Concession, Animals for Life is all institutions created in a bid of conserving our environment.
NGOs activities now include environmental monitoring; Promoting environmental education, training and Capacity-building; implementing demonstration projects; Conducting advocacy work in partnership with the government; and the promotion of regional and international cooperation on environment. Many also get involved in the practical management of conservation areas, and promote community or individual action and Campaign for greater accountability on the part of the government and corporate sector.
At the global level, international organizations have also created bodies for the conservation of environmental lives. In the United Nations, a general body has been set and all their activities are geared towards the conservation of environment.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is providing leadership and encourages partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life of future generations. UNEP's basic aim is to provide coherence and strengthen the varied environmental activities taking place throughout the world by the systematic functions of United Nations.
UNEP was conceived as a catalyzing agency for the entire United Nations family to help focus on environmental issues, monitor trends and facilitate coordinated international action to safeguard the environment. It has been described as the environmental conscience of the United Nations system given its mandate to motivate and inspire, raise environmental awareness and increase action, and to coordinate the environmental work of all the UN organizations and agencies, in collaboration with other national, local and international organisation; whose policies and activities merged with that of UNEP. To further strengthen their strives on environmental issues, and for countries to have a healthy and conserved environment, according to Sundar Vadoan " there is a crucial vehicle for cooperation with the United Nations family is the United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS). The UNEP has been encouraging in environmental issues while awarding with different outstanding names such as Sasakawa Environment Prize, The European Better Environment Award for Industry is a biennial award presented in 2000 by the International Chamber of Commerce, in 1987, Global 500 Roll of Honour to encourage individuals and community action in defense of the environment. Since its inception, 634 individuals and organizations worldwide have received the Global 500 award in the adult category".
Similarly in Sierra Leone, The Gola Forest Conservation Concession (GFCC), is a multi-national NGO, and is an independent, public interest organisation which aims to increase public awareness on science, technology, environment and development. The organisation was started in 1971. For more than three decades, GFCC has been working with community people and the bordering countries, Liberia and Guinea, for the conservation of the Gola Forest, creating awareness about the environmental challenges that these three countries will face if the Gola forest is not conserve. Searching for solutions that people and communities can implement themselves.
In their fight of the conservation of the forest, the organisation has been creating public environmental awareness, pushing the government to create frameworks for individual and community actions, and seeking balanced and informed analysis of the global politics of environment. More importantly, GFCC is working for clean air, and protecting the lives of the habitat of that forest.
2.6. NGO Role in Food Security
Chris Bailey (2007), accounted that NGOs have responded to food security issues by taking increasingly rights-based and participatory approaches. Michael Windfuhr of the Food First Information and Action Network has described how his organisation, other NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs) are focusing on ESC rights. This focus developed after the 1996 World Food Summit. NGOs now attempt to intervene to protect small farmers from eviction, indigenous people from losing traditional lands and fishing grounds, and segments of the population from discriminatory food supply schemes. They are developing the concept of nutritional rights, as opposed to the right to adequate food, to put pressure on governments to take responsibility for supplying funding for nutrition in national budgets. The rights-based approach also allows NGOs to pressure businesses and international organizations to help secure nutrition rights. Philippa Howell (1998) focuses on a participatory approach in an Ethiopian case study how one NGO, Action Aid, is promoting sustainable and community solutions to food production. In the town of Dalocha, the NGOs used local community groups to plan for famine relief. Fearful of people becoming dependent on handouts, particularly the poorest without livelihoods, the NGO instead organized loans to members of the community so they could obtain blankets and grain. The poorest relied on other members of the community to assist them. In the studied case, the villagers were able to increase food production and 70% of the loans had been repaid to the NGO, with those unable to pay given extensions.
2.7. NGOs roles in Marketing of Agricultural Products
NGOs play a significant role in the marketing of agricultural and non-agricultural products.
Transport, notably the road system, provides part of the enabling environment within which marketing takes place. NGOs can develop direct or indirect marketing interventions (Coote and Wandschneider, 2001). In the former case, they take on an active role within the marketing chain, being directly involved in input supply, trading, and storage and/or processing activities. When intervening indirectly, NGOs merely play a facilitatory and advisory role, which can include training delivery, provision of information, and promotion of market linkages between different sub-sector players.
While an indirect role may prove particularly appropriate in areas where markets are relatively more developed, the scope for such type of interventions in very remote areas may be constrained by poor trading activity and interest. Direct interventions are often tempting because of their potential to generate quicker and more tangible benefits to farmers, but they generally require greater resources and can be problematic from a sustainability viewpoint. As the NGO phases out its support, farmers may be left in a situation similar to the one they faced before the intervention.
NGOs' growing engagement in the commercial activity arena has implications regarding their technical and socio-economic capability needs, including those directly related to marketing (Morton et al, 2000; Coote and Wandschneider, 2001).
2.8. NGOS ROLE IN TANSPORTATION
Infrastructure is generally seen as an area for ongoing public sector provision and as an essential component of the enabling environment for production and marketing. The main road infrastructure in Sierra Leone is reasonably well developed, but there are evident weaknesses at local level, especially with respect to rural and feeder roads.
These difficulties are especially acute in remote areas, and indeed in part serves to define such areas.
Although these problems have been recongnised to a degree by government policy (GoU 2000)5, more may be needed to integrate road spending into the Ministry of Works, Housing and Communication (Kleih, 1999).
For example, feeder road development is a priority within the Poverty Eradication Action Plan
While the main road network is relatively good, the shear distances involved may in some instances limit access to domestic (urban) markets, particularly for the northernmost areas of Uganda. Equally, in areas closer to markets, limitations to the feeder road network effectively render many areas "remote" in terms of market access. Inadequate access to the actual means of transportation may mean that communities or groups lack access to the road network, and hence to markets.
Finally, poor and inefficiently managed transport infrastructure and services within the East African region, essentially through Kenya and the port of Mombassa, mean that Ugandan exports face significantly higher transport costs than those arising from location alone (Milner et al, 2000). These constraints are particularly significant in view of the opportunities provided by export markets. Although the state remains the key factor in transport infrastructure development and maintenance, there may be scope for local involvement in this sphere, including activity by NGOs and CBOs (Kleih, 1999). This may include higher-cost or more technically complex components (for example, bridges and culverts) as well as feeder road development. Small initiatives involving CBOs and NGOs may be the only feasible short to medium-term options for remote areas where specific resource allocation from central or local government is absent.
Scope for NGO and CBO interventions is particularly evident at a local level. There is a need to focus upon rudimentary but effective options through very basic feeder roads that nonetheless provide a substantial step change in access. Hine (1993)6 notes that conversion of a footpath into a vehicle track has a beneficial effect to the farmer over hundred times more than improving the same length of poor earth track into a good quality gravel road.
2.9. NGOs' ROLE IN HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE/RELIEF SERVICES.
NGOs have carried out humanitarian relief efforts in African countries sporadically for decades of years. Following World War 11, it saw the most outstanding nature of NGOs .These issue of humanitarian and relief service programmes grew more systematic and continuous, and during the 90s, in Liberia and Sierra Leone , for example, at the outbreak of their civil wars, they became provision of humanitarian aid on a very large-scale media, logistics, and field operations and the supplying of non-food items, in which both Local national and International NGOs and United Nations system representatives were all seeing working courageously in very difficult circumstances to help relieve desperate human suffering. Both groups have made determined recent efforts to make their operations more efficient and responsive, and to work more effectively together Kpaka (2007).
The provision of food and non-food items during emergency periods, war time and other disasters periods, is one of important NGOs' functions. The provision of these items is a short run activity but very of significance in alleviating poverty. According to Kpaka (2007), humanitarian assistance is the fastest means to fight poverty and ensure sustainability in today's society. During emergency period, governments are often unable to settle their displaced and refugee population because of inadequacies of resources.
As a result of the shortcoming of the government, the issue of NGOs' influx into a country becomes unquestionable (Kpaka, 2007). Conflicts and other disasters that occurred always left a strong poverty bench mark. During these conflicting periods, lives, properties, and physical infrastructures, diseases, and other hazardous issues are left as strong legacy in our society. To deal with these legacies, Humanitarian NGOs have different strategies to implement their relief programmes.
Generally, the roles of NGO's are still debatable as many see their roles positive and others see these roles as not proper. It has been noted that NGO contributions in poverty reduction are limited. Edwards & Hulme (1995:6) stated that it is difficult to find general evidence that NGOs are close to the poor. There is growing evidence that in terms of poverty reduction, NGOs do not perform as effectively as had been usually assumed by many agencies.
More specific evidence is provided by Riddell and Robinson (1995) who conducted case study on sixteen NGOs in four countries in Asia and Africa. They found that while NGO projects reach the poor people, they tend not to reach down to the very poorest. NGO projects also tend to be small scale. The total numbers assisted are also small. Furthermore, it is also rare for NGO projects to be financially self sufficient. Finally, although NGOs execute a number of very imaginative projects, many of them appear to be unwilling to innovate in certain areas or activities. Therefore, because of these limitations, the roles of NGOs in alleviating poverty cannot be exaggerated.
The above mentioned literature discussed the important roles played by NGOs in the fight against poverty through micro-finance, capacity building, self-reliance, peace building, sustainable community development, and empowerment especially women's empowerment.
NGOs through the micro-finance NGOs help members of community to access jobs, income-generation and to improve economic situation of the poor. And then they would become empowered economically. NGOs developed the capacities of community such as skills, abilities, knowledge, assets and motivated the community to participate in the project to improve the quality of their lives. NGOs act as capacity builders that help the community to achieve the empowerment particularly individual empowerment.
In order to make community development independent from any outside agents, the community must rely on their own resources. NGO's do assist the community to discover their potentials and also mobilize community to be self-reliant. Therefore, the final outcome of community development is the independence of the community from external agents in formulating its agenda and managing its affairs. This process involves capacity building, so people get involved in human capital training, transferring of authority from donor to recipient and receive supports from stakeholders (World Bank group 1999). When people become fully empowered, they are able to contribute toward sustainable development (Lyons et al. 2001).
Therefore, NGOs through some programs and functions, such as microfinance, capacity building and self-reliance help community to be empowered, and finally contribute towards sustainable community development.
Though some people don't see a need for NGOs to play roles in poverty alleviation in Sub-Saharan Africa, I strongly believe that the important roles played by NGOs should not be neglected.
Having reviewing literature NGOs' role, in the next chapter, I will carry out case study showing the strategies and roles of some NGOs in the fight against poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, a case of Sierra Leone.
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