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Introduction To American Politics Economics Essay

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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016

The policy which covers poverty, women’s health, women’s rights, immigration, education, and health care is domestic policy. However, the Social Policy is:

The policy regarding social services, health, social work, education, income maintenance, and housing.

The policy regarding requirements and matter of family policy, poverty, health, usage of services, old age and disability.

The policy regarding delivery of welfare.

3. What are social insurance programs and public-assistance programs?

The program through which risks are shifted to and shared by an organization (most of the time government) and has to provide certain benefits is called social insurance program. In United States this includes Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) program, Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance sponsored by state, and the railroad retirement program.

The programs administered by the state Department of Public Health and Human Services aimed at helping low income people and helping them to come out of poverty. This includes the following programs:

Child Care Assistance

Health Montana Kids

Energy Assistance

Medicaid

Special Supplemental Nutrition for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

4. What is the U.S. Federal Budget? What are its revenues sources? How is it spent?

The U.S. Federal Budget is used to provide funds for the government run operations for the fiscal year. The Federal Budget of U.S for year 2011 was approximately $3.82 trillion. The sources of revenue for U.S. are individual income taxes and payroll taxes, corporate income taxes, excise taxes, estate and gift taxes, customs duties and miscellaneous receipts (earnings of Federal Reserve System and various fees).

The major portion of the total revenue is being spent when govt. pay against tax returns. Other major areas where U.S. budget is being spent are National defense (i.e. Operation and maintenance, Military personnel, and Procurements), Medicare, Health, Net interest, Education, Social security, Income security and miscellaneous.

5. Why do we need Social Security Reform?

There is dire need of social security reforms because in the initial the social security system was very fine and was running in its best capacity. Although, most of the members of boards of governance are satisfied with the increasing earning of the program but they are worried about the increasing rate of depletion of the revenue. Moreover, most of the people are facing problem while clamming benefits against the social securities. By giving new reforms this system can be improved.

6. What is Medicare? What is Medicaid?

Medicare is the social security program which provides health related facilities for the people of the age of 65 or above and also covers the children with disabilities. Medicaid is the health system which provides health related services to the low income people and this program is being funded by the states and federal government combined but runs under the supervision of the states.

7. What is the purpose of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program?

This program provides stipend to the people of the age of 65 or above, blind or having any other major disability. It provides money for basic necessities like food, clothing and shelter. The Treasury Department provides funding for this program. This program does not receive any fund from social security trust and runs under the supervision of Social Security Administration.

8. Discuss the 1996 Welfare Reform Act and TANF.

The 1996 Welfare Reform Act covers the fundamental shift in method and goals of federal cash assistance which was developed for the assistance of the poor people so that they can meet their basic necessities. This bill covers the promoting the employment and encouraging the poor peoples to get job and earning money in order to meet their basic necessities. TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) was the program which starts its work in July 1, 1997 and was given in place of Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program. This program provides temporary assistance and promotes the self-sufficiency and self-responsibility. The people who fall in the criteria for such assistance are to apply through the respective agency who is responsible for administrating the program as Federal government cannot provide assistance to the people who apply directly.

9. What is Earned-Income Tax Credit (EITC) program?

Earned-Income Tax Credit is also known as Earned Income Credit and it the tax credit for those people, who have low wages against their work. This works in such a way that more money will remain in the pocket of the earner. So many countries are offering such type of facilities like United Kingdom, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Austria, Belgium, etc.

10. What is Economic policy?

This is the policy which is related to the economic field. It covers the systems concerning with the interest rates, budgets, tax structures, labor market, and national owner ship and other areas through which government can intervene the economic activities. The Fiscal and Monetary policies are the part of this economic policy.

11. What is monetary policy? What is the Federal Reserve System?

This is the policy which controls the money supply and demand in the market and influences the economic activities. The major tool being used in this policy is determining the interest rate. Central bank of the country is responsible to announce the monetary policy of that country.

The Federal Reserve System is the central banking system in U.S. and there is 12 Federal Reserve Systems under the central bank of the America and are responsible for the operations of the money market of the U.S.

12. Who is current Chair of Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve? What is Fiscal policy?

Ben Shalom Bernanke is the current Chair of Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve. The Fiscal policy is the policy regarding the government expenditures and taxes. This affects the economic activities of the country.

13. How does the Fed manipulate rising inflation?

Fed can manipulate the inflation by raising or lowering the interest rate. If Fed will reduce the interest rate it will increase the money supply and inflation will rise and by raising the interest rate the money supply will reduce and inflation will go down. More over other tools like interbank rate or reserve rate are also used by Fed in order to control the inflation.

14. What is Keynesian economics? How does its theory affect the American economy?

John Maynard Keynes presented macroeconomic theory in which he says that the actions of individuals affect the general market and by using monetary and fiscal policy the economy can be stabilized. America uses Fiscal and Monetary policy to keep its economic activities stable and under control.

15. What is the U.S. Public Debt? What is Deficit? What is Gross Domestic Product?

The Public Debt of U.S. is the combination of the securities held by individuals, companies or institutions outside the U.S. and OASI Trust fund which is administrated by the Social Security Administration. Deficit is the difference between revenue and expenditures. If expenditures are more than revenue it shows deficit. Gross Domestic Product generally known as GDP is the total output produced by the people of the countries by utilizing its natural resources through land, labor and capital. GDP does not include any earning from abroad.

16. What is the Multiplier Effect?

Multiplier effect is the expansion of the country’s money supply that results due to the policy regarding the percentage of the money required to hold as reserve. It is due to the lending capacity of the commercial banks.

17. What is Foreign policy?

It is the policy developed and announced by the country through which that country achieves its goals and establishes the relationships with other countries. This policy is used to achieve the self-interests of the countries by obeying the international rules and regulations.

18. Discuss Department of State, Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency.

The Department of State is responsible for devising foreign policy. This department also issues passport, visas and other documents to travel to any other country or entering from other countries. Department of Defense is responsible for the safety of the people of the U.S. This department safeguards the national sovereignty and resources against any aerial attach or attach from sea or from international borders. Central intelligence agency (CIA) is responsible for collecting secret information which can damage the image of the U.S.

19. Who are current Secretaries of Department of State, Department of Defense Secretary and Central Intelligence Agency?

Leon Panetta is the head of the CIA. Robert Gates is the head of the Department of the Defense Secretary. Hillary Rodham Clinton is the head of the Department of the State.

20. The Joint Chiefs of Staff include which official offices of the armed forces?

The Joint Chiefs of Staff include:

General Earle Wheeler, USA

Admiral Arthur W. Radford, USN

Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, USN

Admiral William J. Crowe, USN

General Colin Powell, USA

General Hugh Shelton, USA

General Richard Myers, USAF

General David C. Jones, USAF

General of the Army Omar Bradley, USA

General George S. Brown, USAF

General John Shalikashvili, USA

Admiral Michael Mullen, USN

General John W. Vessey, Jr., USA

General Nathan F. Twining, USAF

General Lyman Lemnitzer, USA

General Peter Pace, USMC

General Maxwell D. Taylor, USA

21. What is the Monroe Doctrine?

It is a policy designed and approved by Monroe Doctrine of the United States and was given on December 2, 1823 which states that in case of any intervention by any of the country in the matters of U.S. or colonize land of the U.S. will be viewed as acts of aggression against U.S. which requires the intervention by U.S.

22. What is Isolationism, Interventionism and Deterrence?

‘Isolationism’ is the technical term used for the foreign policy if the country has the policy of not entering in any of the alliances, trade or economic commitment with any other country. ‘Interventionism’ is the influence of the country in the matters of the other country as U.S. is interventionist power of the world and interventions through military, political and economic pressures, diplomatic pressures, media manipulation, trade sanctions and covert operations. ‘Deterrence’ of the country includes the key important defense related equipment and weapons which includes high tech aero planes, atomic bombs and other defense related equipment.

23. What is the ‘Iron Curtain?”

Iron Curtain is the physical, economic and political barriers between the countries as Iron Curtain developed by USSR between the countries of the Europe by dividing them into two main parts. The example of it is the division between NATO countries and USSR.

24. What is Containment?

This is the policy by using which U.S. trying to spread communism in the other countries by influence of the military, economy and diplomatic strategies and ensuring the safety of its goals and boundaries.

25. What is Marshall Plan?

Marshal plan is the other name of the European Recovery Program (ERP) which was developed and announced to provide economic assistance to the European countries so that communism can develop in these countries. This is also considered as the compensation against their losses in wars against non-communism forces.

26. What is NATO?

It is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which is consisting of 28 independent member countries. The main purpose for NATO is to ensure security for the member countries. Each country has its own foreign, economic and political policy but this treaty ensures that the resources of these countries will be available which will be used to safeguard the national boundaries of each of the country.

27. What is Cold War? What is Communism?

This was a tie between America and USSR from about 1947 to 1991 which includes political conflicts, military tension, and economic competition. In this war each country made alliances with other country and improved its strength against other as Soviet Union included Eastern Bloc of the Europe and America made alliances with the Western Bloc and announced marshal plan for the European countries. Communism is the concept regarding common ownership of the all of the resources of the country and works on the bases of the classes and stateless society.

28. What is the Cuban Missile Crisis? What is the Bay of Pigs?

The Cuban Missile Crisis originated in 1962 when American planes took snaps of the Russian bases which were under construction in Cuba and Russia installed more than 100 atomic and non-atomic missiles in Cuba near the American boundaries which can hit most of the parts of the U.S. The Bay of Pigs is basically the unsuccessful actions by the CIA agents in Cuba. The main purpose for such action was to overthrow the Cuban government which was running under the well control of the Fidel Castro. Cuban government with the help of Eastern European countries controlled whole of the situation with in three day.

29. What is the “Bush Doctrine?”

The Bush Doctrine includes so many phrases which were described and approved by George W. Bush. The most famous phrase is the related the right of the U.S. to send its forces against any of the country or group all over the world which country is providing resources to the terrorist working against U.S.

30. Define WMDs, Weapons of Mass Destruction?

The term weapon of mass destruction is used when talking about the weapon which can destroy masses. Atomic bomb is the very common term being used while talking about weapons of mass destruction. Other explosive carrying missiles or bombs also comes under the weapons of mass destruction which are chemical or hydrogen bomb.

31. What three countries Bush addressed in 2002 as “axis of evil?”

President Bush declared three countries Iran, Iraq and North Korea as axis of evil in his speech on January 29, 2002. He repeated these words throughout his stay in Presidency.

32. What is the US vital interest? What is the US vital interest in Iraq?

The vital interests of U.S. are to ensure the availability of resources and security for the public. The vital role of U.S. in Iraq will be to have control on the oil fields of the Iraq. The oil fields of the Iraq are the 2nd largest oil fields of the world. U.S. have very less oil resources it is therefore, U.S. decided to attach Iraq and have control on the oil fields of the Iraq so that this important commodity can be ability to its people for the long run.

33. Discuss the population, religious and ethnic demographics of Iraq?

The 98 percent population of Iraq is Muslim which is sub-divided into shia and sunni sects. Only 2 percent of the population is Christian or any other religion. The language of Iraq was Arabic. The people were of light color skin. 75-80 percent of the total population is Arab, 15-20 person are Kurd and remaining 5% are Turkoman, Assyrian or any other.

34. Discuss Iraq’s transitional democracy. Who is the current Iraqi Prime Minister?

Iraq was ruled by presidentSadamHussain who was military man and took control of the country by using forces and violated the international human rights. Iraq is now considered as a democratic country and Nouri al-Maliki is the Prime Minister of the Iraq.

35. In the November 2005 National Security Council report, ‘National Strategies for Victory in Iraqi, what does Bush define as the goals of ‘the enemy’ who are combination of rejectionists, Saddamists, and terrorists affiliated with or inspired by Al Qaida ?

According to the report Iraq was having mass destructive weapon under the supervision of the Saddam Husain and can use these weapons against any of the country. Iraq was also working for having nuclear weapons which can cause destructions for the masses. As President Saddam Husain used chemical weapons and other high profile weapons against large number of people and killed them brutally.

36. Which branch of State government is most likely to propose state constitutional amendments?

The citizens of Nevada are having the authority to propose legislations through initiative process which is included in the legislations of the Nevada. As per constitution this initiative stage is the first stage of the legislation process.

37. What are Nevada’s three processes of direct democracy?

As Nevada is a highly a state which is highly individualistic and libertarian, there are three process of direct democracy which are initiative, referendum and recall.

38. What are initiative, referendum, and recall?

‘Initiative’ is a political term; it is a process which authorizes the general public to bypass the existing legislations or making changes in the constitution. There are two; direct and indirect initiatives. In Nevada state indirect initiative is being used.

‘Referendum’ is a device which gives authority to the public for accepting or rejecting the specific law by casting in favor of the legislation or repelling the legislation.

‘Recall’ is the way to remove any office bearer from his post. It is the way citizens of that state can remove any of the people having public office.

39. How does the increased population of Nevada effect revenue for goods and services?

Due to rise in population the revenue of the state will rise. As rise in population will increase the demand for goods and services on which Nevada levied taxes.

40. What is general fund or general revenue?

General revenue or general fund is the revenue that government earned through taxes and is not collected for specific use. Such types of revenues are being allocated for different purposes and do not earmarked automatically.

41. What are Nevada’s five main sources of revenue?

Nevada’s five sources of revenue are Gaming taxes, Sales tax, gasoline tax, auto insurance and property tax.

42. Which revenue source(s) is the largest source of revenue for Nevada’s general fund?

The revenue generated from gaming tax is the largest revenue for Nevada general fund.

43. Which Nevada gaming tax earmarks 80% of its revenue for education?

The 80% of the tax collected from slot machine is earmarked for education in Nevada.

44. What is general sales tax, property tax, personal income tax, corporate net income?

General sales tax (GST) is the tax which is placed on retailed items and varies from state to state. Property tax is levied on the value of the property by the municipalities. Personal income tax is the tax on the earned income of the individuals and after paying income tax the disposable income left behind. The corporate tax is the tax levied on the income of the business organizations. It is the tax which business organizations have to pay while earning profits in that country.

45. What are the three restriction areas in the Nevada Constitution which prohibits taxes?

Nevada constitution prohibits taxes on Lotteries, Inheritance and Personal Income.

46. How is the Nevada revenue appropriated? What are the top three areas that receive appropriation?

Nevada revenue appropriated through gaming tax, sales tax, gasoline tax, auto insurance, property tax, fees, franchise revenue, service revenue and others. The three top areas of tax receiving are gaming tax, sales tax and gasoline tax.

47. How many school districts are in Nevada?

There are 17 school districts in Nevada. These school districts are Carson City, Churchill, Clark, Douglas, Elko, Esmeralda, Eureka, Humboldt, Lander, Lincoln, Lyon, Mineral, Nye, Pershing, Storey, Washoe and White Pine.

48. How is Nevada Board of Regents hired? How many members are there currently on the board?

The Nevada board of regents comprises of 13 members who are elected for six-year term. The Chair and Vice Chair who are considered as leaders of the board are elected by the board members and the tenure to serve is one year (July 1 – June 30).

49. What is the Nevada State Gaming Control Board and the Gaming Commission?

Nevada’s Gaming Control Board is established to provide healthy activities with full capacity and create competitive environment for the participants. It works under the governor and consists of three-member body who are appointed by the governor. The offices of the board are in Carson City, Elko, Las Vegas, Laughlin and Reno.

50. How many counties and townships are there in the state of Nevada?

Nevada has 16 counties and has no township and most of the counties are sub divided for police control and court procedures.

51. What is the role of Nevada Board of County Commissioners, City Councils and Mayors?

The Nevada Board of County Commissioners play administrative role in the United States of America. Nevada Board has to supervise many activities relating to the tax which includes deciding about tax rate, dealing with the appeals concerning to taxes and so on. City council is legislative body which governs a city, town, municipality or local government area. Mayor is the voting member and supervises the city council.

Work Cited

Davis, William Eric. The Battle Born Silver State. Las Vegas, 2009. NV: The College of

Southern Nevada.

Coleman, Goldstein, and Howell. Understanding American Politics and Government,

Pearson Longman, 2009. Chap 17-29


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