Infrastructure Constraints And Development In Vietnam Economics Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
The past twenty years has seen Vietnam make strong economic progress. A critical part of this success has been a high level of investment in infrastructure as there is a strong correlation between the growth of a country’s economy and the investment in infrastructure development.
Growth of Vietnam’s GDP and Infrastructure Investment
The Government of Viet Nam’s 2006-2010 Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP) established the overarching goal of reducing poverty incidence by 10%-11% by 2010. The government has made substantial progress in this area, bringing down the share of the population below the poverty line from 58% in 1993 to 15% in 2008. Despite the global economic crisis, the country boasted an average annual growth rate of 6.6% during 2007- 2010.
1. Infrastructure Constraints and Development in Vietnam
Understanding the importance of infrastructure development, over the years, Vietnam government has spent large amounts of capital investment in this area. In the period 2001-2010, the proportion of social capital for nearly 40% of GDP. Although being prioritized for funding, but the mechanism of fiscal policy in developing infrastructure remains inadequate. The state budget was scattered and ineffective; no mechanism to encourage private sector investment. This is the difficulty that many countries, including Vietnam, have resolved to work towards building a synchronous infrastructure system modernization.
Vietnam government’s current major economic policy challenge is containing inflation and stabilizing the exchange rate while promoting economic growth. In terms of fiscal policy, the budget deficit (9% of GDP in 2009) is expected to remain relatively high for 2010-2011 as the government continues to spend heavily on infrastructure and social welfare programs. In January 2010, the government raised $1 billion through an international sovereign bond issue (10-year tenor) with a spread of 333 basis points over the 10 – year benchmark United States Treasury. This was the first overseas bond since 2005. Meanwhile, the government continues to seek substantial concessional financing from international donors. Viet Nam received $2.7 billion in official development assistance (ODA) in 2008 and an estimated total of $3.3 billion in 2009. Projected ODA levels for 2010 and 2011 are estimated at $3.2 billion for each year.
Theo Diá»…n Ä‘àn kinh táº¿ tháº¿ giá»›i, Viá»‡t Nam hiá»‡n xáº¿p háº¡ng cuá»‘i cùng trong chá»‰ sá»‘ nÄƒng lá»±c cáº¡nh tranh vá» cháº¥t lÆ°á»£ng cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ háº¡ táºng so vá»›i các nÆ°á»›c lân cáºn. Theo tính toán, chi phí váºn chuyá»ƒn, háºu cáºn liên quan Ä‘áº¿n sá» dá»¥ng cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ háº¡ táºng chiáº¿m 9,5% GDP á»Ÿ Má»¹, 11% á»Ÿ Nháºt, 21% á»Ÿ Trung Quá»‘c và tá»›i 25% á»Ÿ Viá»‡t Nam. Äá»“ng thá»i do thiáº¿u cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ háº¡ táºng, báº¿n cáº£ng phù há»£p mà má»-i nÄƒm Viá»‡tNam còn pháº£i tiêu tá»‘n thêm khoáº£ng 1,7 tá»· USD chi phí háºu cáºn do các công ty trong nÆ°á»›c pháº£i trung chuyá»ƒn hàng hóa qua Há»“ng Kông và Singapore.
Nhu cáºu cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ háº¡ táºng Viá»‡t Nam là ráº¥t lá»›n; trong Ä‘ó nhu cáºu vá» Ä‘iá»‡n nÄƒng tiáº¿p tá»¥c tÄƒng trên 15% má»™t nÄƒm và sáº½ cáºn khoáº£ng 60 tá»· USD vào nÄƒm 2025. Nhu cáºu Ä‘áºu tÆ° vá» viá»…n thông, báº¿n cáº£ng, sân bay, Ä‘Æ°á»ng bá»™, Ä‘Æ°á»ng sáº¯t và váºn táº£i Ä‘Æ°á»ng không cÅ©ng ráº¥t lá»›n. Bá»™ KH&ÄT dá»± tính Viá»‡t Nam cáºn 139 tá»· USD trong vòng 5 nÄƒm tá»›i Ä‘á»ƒ Ä‘áºu tÆ° vào nhá»¯ng lÄ©nh vá»±c này. Yêu cáºu nhanh chóng cáº£i thiá»‡n cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ háº¡ táºng cá»a Viá»‡t Nam Ä‘ã thúc Ä‘áº©y ná»- lá»±c chung trong áp dá»¥ng cÆ¡ cháº¿ há»£p tác nhà nÆ°á»›c – tÆ° nhân. Má»›i Ä‘ây, má»™t sá»‘ dá»± tháº£o quy cháº¿ vá» thí Ä‘iá»ƒm há»£p tác nhà nÆ°á»›c – tÆ° nhân Ä‘ã Ä‘Æ°á»£c xây dá»±ng và gá»i Ä‘i Ä‘á»ƒ láº¥y ý kiáº¿n. Theo Bá»™ Káº¿ hoáº¡ch và Äáºu tÆ°, các quy Ä‘á»‹nh này sáº½ sá»›m Ä‘Æ°á»£c ban hàng. Vá»›i nhá»¯ng nhà Ä‘áºu tÆ° Ä‘ang tìm kiáº¿m phÆ°Æ¡ng thá»©c phù há»£p Ä‘á»ƒ gia nháºp các thá»‹ trÆ°á»ng má»›i, há»£p tác nhà nÆ°á»›c – tÆ° nhân sáº½ là má»™t phÆ°Æ¡ng án háº¥p dáº«n.
Infrastructure development investment in Vietnam 1990-2010
-Transport infrastructure: in 10 years, the development of the highway network is more interested in development. The connection route between seaports, airports with national road network has been invested. Roadway density increased significantly from 0.66 km/km2 in 2000 to 0.77 km/km2 in 2010.
Vietnam Railways to improve the quality and organization of transport. National railway network has a total route length of 2654 km are 3 types of gauge: 1,000 mm size is 85%, 1435 mm gauge and integrated 6% and inner road 9%.
Vietnam’s seaport system has 49 ports distributed throughout the length of coastal. The total amount of goods through the port increased rapidly over the past 10 years from 82.4 million tons in 2000 to 254.9 million tons in 2010, average annual growth rate of 11.2% / year.
Inland waterways have been managed and exploited on the total length of 15,436 km river, the channel can be exploited is 41.900km. Inland waterway transport has been successful in keeping and maintaining market share at 22% to 17% on goods and passengers.
Aviation infrastructure: Currently there are 22 airports operating. For over 10 years, many airports have been invested in renovating, upgrading and conversion purposes from military airfields to civil operators. Total air transport capacity increased from 6.8 million passengers and 119.6 thousand tons of cargo in 2000 to 31.4 million passengers and 590 thousand tons of cargo in 2010.
– Energy Infrastructure: Primary energy consumption increased from about 32 million tons of oil equivalent in 2000 to over 53 million tons in 2008. Energy System developed under the direction of diversification of supply, from place depends heavily on hydro power, coal power to new structure includes diverse energy resources of coal, petroleum, hydropower, and other forms of energy. The investment in the exploitation, transport and processing of oil, gas has significantly reduced its dependence on imported energy and accelerate the diversification of energy supplies. In 10 years, new investment and put into operation more than 13.361MW power capacity, about 86 thousand km of lines and 63,500 MVA of substation capacity transmission grids and high-voltage distribution center, bringing total installed capacity up to 21.500MW, capacity availability and the total length reached 19.713MW transmission grids and distribution of electricity to 377 thousand km. Total electricity production increased from 26.6 billion kWh in 2000 to 100 billion kWh in 2010 increased 3.76 times, ensure supply meets electricity load demand increased rapidly with an average rate of 14.5% / year.
– Telecom Infrastructure:Information Technology and Communication Infrastructure systems is built wide and modern. National information network developed rapidly, with modern coverage throughout the country, connected with broad bandwidth to countries in the region and the world.
– Water and sewerage infrastructure:
The total capacity of the irrigation infrastructure has secured directly irrigated 3.45 million hectares, creating a potential for 1.13 million ha, targets 1.4 million hectares, 0.87 million hectares of salt water prevention and rehabilitation sour alum 1.6 million hectares, water supply levels and create 5-6 billion m3 per year for living, industry, tourism, services. The irrigation has contributed to improving acidity, aluminum, salt, environmental improvement and development of specialized areas, rapid and stable development of the cultivated area, yield, production of rice and facilitate sustainable development of aquaculture. Every year the irrigation to ensure water supply 5-6 billion m3 of daily life, industry, services and other economic sectors. To date approximately 70-75% of the rural population has been granted hygienic water supply at 60 liters / day. Sea dike system in the Northern and North Central can prevent salinity and tidal frequency of 10% storms at level 9.
– Urban infrastructure:
Urban water supply in 2010 coverage rate to 70% service; all cities and towns all have investment projects in construction, renovation and expansion of water supply systems: 45% towns with centralized water supply systems scale from 500-5000 m3/day; the industrial zones has been supplied to meet daily needs and business. The amount of water for daily water about 60-70%, demand for industrial production from 20-30% and for other services about 10-15% of water production.
Urban drainage system: Length of sewer rate per capita in large urban areas reached 0.2 to 0.25 m / person, other small towns only from 0.05 to 0.08 m / person. In the industrial parks and urban areas, new drainage and wastewater treatment system were buildt. From 2010, there were 68% of operating industrial parks have wastewater treatment systems.
Daily Water supply: By the end of 2010 there were 85% of rural population use hygienic water, 50% is standard water; all kindergartens, schools, clinics and other rural public buildings have enough clean water and sanitation; minimize environmental pollution in craft villages.
The number of kindergartens, early childhood has increased 1.5 times after 10 years, In 2010 the number of national standard preschool is 15.8%, primary 36.6%, secondary 17.7% and high schools is 9.5%.The network of universities and colleges have been expanded, including many non-public schools was established and put into operation, to March 2011 there were 414 universities and colleges, up 261 schools compared to 2000.
Network of clinics from healthcare facilities to the Central Government, both public and non-public be expanded and strengthened. Health networks, although not many in number basis, but there has been a clear improvement in the size of the premises. In 10 years the total number of medical facilities rose by 300 establishments, including hospitals increase of 210 hospitals. Total number of beds increased by 54.4 thousand beds, mainly increased the number of hospital beds. By 2010 the number of beds in an extra 20.4 thousand people, higher than the average low-income countries (12 beds) and middle-income (16 beds). Network hospitals are evenly distributed throughout the country but most large hospitals, specialized hospitals focus is deep in some provinces and cities including Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang.
Urban transport infrastructure has been improved, the grade III or higher have built, the main roads are relatively uniform with drainage systems, pavement, lighting and trees. The big cities like Hanoi, Ho. Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Can Tho has many projects to upgrade and build new outbound transport systems, gates, ring road to ensure traffic urban areas. Public transport, which have been formed and developed, many public transport lines are formed. In Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh was developed on mass transportation such as subways, bus rapid transit (BRT).
Clean Water supply: The total design capacity is 6.2 million m3/day, threefold increase in 1998 (2.1 million.m3/day), the rate of urban population with clean water supply reached 76% the ratio of loss is about 30%, the usage of clean water in urban area is 90 liters/day for one person. The rate of urban water supply reached 88.5% in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City reached 87%. So far, all the provincial city has an investment project with the renovation, upgrade and expand water supply systems.
Drainage: to date there are eight urban wastewater treatment plants with total capacity reached about 315,000 m3/day/night, more than 30 cities are building or preparing to build wastewater treatment plant.
Electricity supply infrastructure, telecom infrastructure: The cable system transmission and distribution, information networks has been underground, significant improvement in the urban cities such as Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City.
The infrastructure requirements for sustainable development in Vietnam are seriously lacking and that means that the country’s infrastructure stock needs to be upgraded. The inadequate and poorly performing infrastructure is a major challenge to Vientma’s economic development and growth, and constitutes a major impediment to the achievement of the country’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The country’s infrastructure needs are broad based and current infrastructure investment levels are far below those required.
Infrastructure shortages are proving a key constraint in sustaining and expanding Vietnam’s economic growth and ensuring that all Vietnamese are able to share in its benefits. To meet this challenge, Vietnam Government is committed to raising investment in infrastructure.
2. PPPs Infrastructure National level actions:
Traditionaly, the provision of public infrastructure has been the responsibility of the state and has been financed through taxes and loans via the budget allocation.
Economic Policy and Business climate Context for Public Private Partnership
Vietnam has made huge strides in the last 15 years in terms of GDP growth. Indeed, the World Bank Group (WBG) reported that annual per capita GDP growth has averaged around 6% for over a decade. Further, WBG highlight that since 1990, poverty measured at the US$1 per day threshold hasfallen from 51% of Vietnam’s 89 million population to around 8%. It is not surprising that during the same period, the vietnam government has invested heavily in economy building infrastructure such as power generation, transport system, telecoms and waste,water. The state’s burget and Official Development Assistance (ODA) will not be able to keep up with the pace at which Vietnam’s economy is growing. Being aware of this, Vietnam has an objective the use of the PPP programme to be implemented under the PPP Regulations to attract private sector investment to deliver public infrastructure which together with the private projects which are the focus of the existing BOT regime to sustain the nation’s economic development.
According to research by the United Nations development program (UNDP), the investment rate in the infrastructure in developed countries is about 3-5% GDP while the total investment rare for Vietnam’s infrastructurein recent years remains at 10%, much higher than the international standard and the countries in the region. Specifically, the proportion of which in China is only about 3%, Indian 9%, Malaysia approximately 5%, Lao 4.7%, Philippines 3.6%, Cambodia 2.3%.
Computing the Investment-demand in infrastructure system of Vietnam in next 10 years to 2020 is about 150 – 180 billion USD; including electricity needs $ 40 billion, transport need $ 53 billion (3 billion for railways and subways, seaports need $ 25 billion). On average, each year the amount of capital is 15 – 16 $ billion
According to the calculations of the Ministry of Planning and Investment, with the ability to raise capital as at present (2011), the state-funded sources such as state budget, SOEs, ODA, government bonds would only meet 50% of demand for investment. This means 50% of the investment capital must be raised from other economic sectors, including domestic and foreign source.
Acorrding to Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Asia-Pacific
The 2011 Infrascope which was written by the Economist Intelligence Unit and commissioned by Asian Development Bank, with a score below 30 in the 100-point scale to assess the environment for Public-Private partnership in the Asia Pacific region in 2011, Vietnam, Mongolia and Papua New Ginea located in the nascent group. This ranking results was implemented by Economist Intelligence unit (EIU) for Asian Development Bank. The report also pointed out that Vietnam government shows strong interest in developing PPP projects, as evidenced by a new pilot decree and there is a general lack of experience as regards PPPs, and an underdeveloped regulatory and institutional framework.
Category score: VIETNAM
– Legal & regulatory framework (weighted 25%): rank 15 – point 18.8
– Institutional framework (weighted 20%): rank 16 – point 16.7
– Operational maturity (weighted 15%): rank 13 – point 25.5
– Investment climate (weighted15%): rank 12 – point 46.4
– Financial facilities (weighted15%): rank 13 – point 33.3
– Sub-national adjustment (weighted 10%): rank 12 – point 25.5
Regulatory reform has swept across the region in recent years, with several countries instituting new acts, updating frameworks, or currently considering amendments. Vietnam have recently instituted new PPP regulations in 2011.
Legal and regulatory framework
PPPs development strategy for infrastructure in Vietnam
With the aim to improve the efficiency of infrastructure investment and reduce the inefficient investment projects, Vietnam understand that the involvement of private sector is essential. The private enterprises will promote more efficient use of capital, creativity, risk-sharing, as well as the effectiveness of the project management activities, construction works.
Therefore, Vietnam government has policies to encourage other economic sectors, such as private sector participation in the form of public private partnership. The central government began to take actions in favour of Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects in the late 1990s and has enacted numerous laws and regulationsto promote private sector participation in infrastructure investment. The concept of public private partnership model in Vietnam is usually associated with BOT (build – operate – transfer) or BT (build – transfer), BTO (Build-Transfer – operation), BOO (build-own-operate), in fact there are many forms of public private partnership projects with many different levels of shared responsibility and risk such as service contracts, management contract, lease, franchise.
Vietnam is currently taking steps in the development of PPP infrastructure investment. PPP investment market in Vietnam is more promising for investors, private investment funds around the world. Measures to promote public-private partnerships have been taking in Vietnam. These have included the development of PPP legislation and regulations, issuance of guidelines on PPP policy and procedures, establishment of PPP units or cells, development of model concession agreements, that more adequately match the needs of the infrastructure sectors.
With the policy framework to the study of international practice, and meet the criteria of transparency, equality between investors, the Vietnamese government set expectations for the successful implementation of investment policy model”public private Partnership”, thereby attracting private sector as a reference not only capital but also the level of technology and management experience of the region to contribute to the development of infrastructureand public services. The role of the private sector in public private partnership is not just a matter of providing funds for the public sector, no less important contribution of the private sector belong to the initiative to solve the problem of the project as well as the strength of technology, engineering, and the ability to manage and operate the project to achieve the goal of improving operational efficiency and increase service quality. What about the role of government is to build a framework of transparency, clarity and fairness, besides ensuring a consistent process is long-term commitment to the PPP also increase interest leads to the private sector.
Government issued PPP regulation Decision 71/2010/QD-TTg with effect from 15/01/2011, which allows the pilot to investors in the form of public private partnership (PPP).
In the PPP Regulations, investment in the ‘public-private partnership’ form is defined as “the State and investor jointly implement projects on development of infrastructure or provision of public services on the basis of project contracts”. Such ‘project contracts’ being defined as “a contract signed between a competent state agency and an investor under which the State franchises investment in and operation of a work or provision of a public service to the investor within a specified period of time. Based on the characteristics of each project, a project contract stipulates commitments on the responsibilities, obligations and powers”.
Under the PPP Regulations, the Ministry of Planning & Investment (MPI) has a central co-ordinating role to implement the programme and has established a PPP Task Force to facilitate this. The VG have referred to a “learn by doing” approach for MPI who have the output of preparing and delivering a framework for the PPP programme. The PPP Regulations expressly refer to the well-known EU principles of “competitiveness, fairness, transparency, economic efficiency and conformity with Vietnamese law and international practices”. However, there is no mention of implementing regulations or guidance.
The VG has received financial support for feasibility and other studies from the World Bank and has retained JICA and other consultant advisers to advise it on the structural building blocks for the PPP programme
“Sáº½ hoàn thiá»‡n cÆ¡ cháº¿ há»£p tác công- tÆ°”
Ngày 9/11/2010, TTCP Ä‘ã ban hành Quyáº¿t Ä‘á»‹nh sá»‘ 71/2010/QÄ-TTg vè viá»‡c ban hành Quy ché thí Ä‘iá»ƒm ÄT theo hình thá»©c PPP. Iá»‡c lá»±a chá»n NÄT thá»±c há»‹n dá»± án sáº½ Ä‘Æ°á»£c thá»±c hiá»‡n thông qua Ä‘áº¥u tháºu cáº¡nh tranh nháº±m tá»‘i Ä‘a hóa lá»£i ích và táº¡ cÆ¡ há»™i công báº±ng cho cáº£ NÄT trong nÆ°á»›c và NÄT nÆ°á»›c ngoài tham dá»±. Äây là thông lá»‡ phá» iáº¿n trên thé giá»›i và Ä‘Æ°á»£c cá»™ng Ä‘á»“ng DN và nhiá»u NÄT quan tâm.
Trong thá»i gian tá»›i, khung chính sách PPP sáº½ dáºn Ä‘Æ°á»£c hoàn thiá»‡n theo thông lá»‡ quá»‘c té, Ä‘áp á»©ng các tiêu chí vè hiá»‡u quáº£ kinh táº¿, minh báº¡ch, tá»‘i Ä‘a hóa lá»£i ích, cáº¡nh tranh bình Ä‘áº³ng giá»¯a các NÄT, phân Ä‘á»‹nh và quáº£n lý tá»‘t rá»i ro, vì lá»£i ích cá»™ng Ä‘á»“ngâ€¦
Äiá»ƒm quan trá»ng trong khung chính sách PPP là xác Ä‘á»‹nh Ä‘áºy Ä‘á» hÆ¡n các hình thá»©c và cÆ¡ cháº¿ nhà nÆ°á»›c ham gia trong các dá»± án PPP nháº±m tÄƒng tính háº£ thi và hiá»‡u quáº£ kinh táº¿ cho các dá»± án. Tren cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ Ä‘ó khuýn khích NÄT tham gia ÄT.
Chính sách này nháº±m má»¥c tiêu huy Ä‘á»™ng và Ä‘á»‹nh hÆ°á»›ng khu vá»±c tÆ° nhân sá» dá»¥ng nguá»“n vá»‘n thÆ°Æ¡ng máº¡i và các nguofn vá»‘n khác do NÄT huy Ä‘á»™ng cho các dá»± án PPP; qua Ä‘ó nâng cao hiá»‡u quáº£ ÄT, kiá»ƒm soát ná»£ công trong háº¡n má»©c an toàn và má»Ÿ rá»™ng mô hình há»£p tác PPP sang nhiá»u dá»± án và lÄ©nh vá»±c khác cá»a ná»n kinh táº¿.
Theo quy cháº¿ thí Ä‘iá»ƒm, Bá»™ KH&ÄT Ä‘ang nghiên cá»©u trienr khai thí Ä‘iá»ƒm má»™t sá»‘ dá»± án theo mô hình này và tren cÆ¡ sá»Ÿ Ä‘ó, trong quá trình triá»ƒn khai sáº½ cùng tham kháº£o ý kiesn cá»a các nhà tài trá»£, các tá»• chá»©c quá»‘c táº¿, sáº½ hoàn thiá»‡n cÆ¡ cháº¿ há»£p tác công – tÆ°…
Public Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects
Viet Nam is one of the best performing economies in the world over the last decade. Viet Nam has become increasingly integrated with the world economy. Exports have been the main drivers for growth, and foreign investments have been buoyant in recent years. Growth is driven by the rising importance of the private sector. Back to the mid of 1980s’ when Vietnam change from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy, the country faces a dilemma in terms of satisfying growing demands for infrastruture combined with serious constraints in public funding and the Private sector provises a critical way of filling this gap. The nation’s infrastructure network has fallen into disrepair and require large infusions of investment capital in order to remain serviceable. In addition, the public infrastructure in most urban areas are inadequate to serve their businesses and citizens. As a result of what some have termed a “crisis” in Vietnam infrastructure, public and private sector leaders are calling for alternative approaches to repair and build facilities.
Types of PPP projects in Vietnam:
ƒ-BOT BOT projects: Private contractors to build the infrastructure exploit in a projects: Private contractors to build the infrastructure, exploit in a specific period of time, and then, transfer to the State
– BT projects: Private contractors to build the infrastructure and transfer to the State
– Transferring the right to use/exploit infrastructure projects: Private contractors to use/exploit the infrastructure and pay the state a specific amount of money during a specific period in the contract.
ƒ – Land- for-infrastructure projects: the State assign a specific area of land to the private contractors with the value of land use right equal to that of BT infrastructure projects
– People participation projects: usually for small projects at the local (commune) levels to meet the requirement of local infrastructure development
á»ž Viá»‡t Nam, theo thá»‘ng kê cá»a Ngân hàng Tháº¿ giá»›i, trong giai Ä‘oáº¡n 1990-2011 Ä‘ã có 66 dá»± án háº¡ táºng Ä‘Æ°á»£c thá»±c hiá»‡n vá»›i sá»± tham gia cá»a khu vá»±c tÆ° nhân. CÅ©ng giá»‘ng nhÆ° các nÆ°á»›c khác, mô hình BOT và BOO chiáº¿m tá»· pháºn chá» yáº¿u. Hai lÄ©nh vá»±c chiáº¿m tá»· pháºn lá»›n nháº¥t là Ä‘iá»‡n và viá»…n thông. Ngoài ra, có thá»ƒ ká»ƒ Ä‘áº¿n nhiá»u dá»± án há»£p tác công – tÆ° khác Ä‘ã và Ä‘ang Ä‘Æ°á»£c triá»ƒn khai tá»« tháºp niên 1990 Ä‘áº¿n nay nhÆ°: BOT cáºu Cá» May, BOT cáºu Phú Má»¹, Ä‘iá»‡n Phú Má»¹, và ráº¥t nhiá»u nhà máy Ä‘iá»‡n nhá» và vá»«a khác Ä‘ang Ä‘Æ°á»£c thá»±c hiá»‡n theo phÆ°Æ¡ng thá»©c BOO.
Riêng nÄƒm 2010, theo thá»‘ng kê cá»a cá»¥c Ä‘áºu tÆ° nÆ°á»›c ngoài, tá»•ng sá»‘ dá»± án cáº¥p má»›i Ä‘Æ°á»£c Ä‘áºu tÆ° trá»±c tiáº¿p tá»« nÆ°á»›c ngoài là 969 dá»± án, trong Ä‘ó theo mô hình Ä‘áºu tÆ° BOT, BT, BTO có 6 dá»± án chiáº¿m 1% trên tá»•ng sá»‘ dá»± án cáº¥p má»›i. NhÆ°ng sá»‘ lÆ°á»£ng dá»± án cáº¥p má»›i chiáº¿m 55% so vá»›i sá»‘ dá»± án Ä‘áºu tÆ° theo hình thá»©c BOT,BTO,BT là 11 dá»± án, chiáº¿m % cao nháº¥t trong sá»‘ táº¥t cáº£ các hình thá»©c Ä‘áºu tÆ°, so vá»›i nÄƒm 2009 không có dá»± án má»›i nào Ä‘áºu tÆ° theo hình thá»©c BOT,BT,BTO Ä‘ó là má»™t sá»± khá»Ÿi sáº¯c tá»‘t.
Vá» hình thá»©c 100% vá»‘n nÆ°á»›c ngoài chá»‰ chiáº¿m 8% trên tá»•ng sá»‘ dá»± án, sá»‘ dá»± án cáº¥p má»›i chá»‰ có 799 dá»± án trong khi tá»•ng sá»‘ dá»± án Ä‘Äƒng ký là 9.599 ( tính háº¿t ngày 21/12/2010), còn vá» hình thá»©c liên doanh chá»‰ chiáº¿m 7% trên tá»•ng sá»‘ dá»± án cáº¥p má»›i Ä‘Äƒng ký, hình thá»©c cá»• pháºn và há»£p Ä‘á»“ng há»£p tác vá»‘n Ä‘áºu tÆ° chiáº¿m láºn lÆ°á»£t là 4% và 1% trên tá»•ng sá»‘ dá»± án cáº¥p má»›i. Ta tháº¥y ráº±ng hình thá»©c Ä‘áºu tÆ° theo há»£p Ä‘á»“ng BOT, BT, BTO Ä‘ang phát triá»ƒn theo chiá»u hÆ°á»›ng tích cá»±c. Váºy dÆ°á»›i sá»± giám sát và há»- trá»£ cá»a nhà nÆ°á»›c, hình thá»©c Ä‘áºu tÆ° theo mô hình PPP Ä‘ã báº¯t Ä‘áºu có sá»± tiáº¿n triá»ƒn so vá»›i các hình thá»©c Ä‘áºu tÆ° khác
Hochi minh city : Before the decree was issued, about 100 projects under PPP, which were either BOT or BT (Build – Transfer), were not successful because there was an insufficient legal foundation, which easily discouraged investors.
Many seminar participants said the private sector should partner with the State in developing infrastructure, as the State budget for basic development was limited and funds from Official Development Assistance had decreased.
Investment demand, especially for the transport sector, is very high in HCM City and the country in general.
Between 2011 and 2025, the city needs about VND880 trillion (US$42 billion) for infrastructure development, while the entire country needs US$160 billion for building transport system from the 2010 – 2020 period.
Nguyen Trong Hoa, head of the HCM City Institute for Development Studies, said it was necessary to develop measures to attract investment funds from other sources, as the State budget and ODA funds were shrinking.
An expert at the institute, Hoang Thi Kim Chi, agreed, saying that the Government should develop a comprehensive legal framework as well as clear and appropriate policies to encourage investors.
Several public projects have been carried out under PPP in HCM City, including Binh An, BOO Thu Duc, Kenh Dong and Can Gio water treatment plants. The Phu My Bridge, Dau Giay – Phan Thiet Freeway and HCM City – Trung Luong Freeway projects were all public-private partnerships. – VNS
Table1: Total Projects by Primary Sector and Subsector (US$ million) 1990-2011
Number of Projects
Water and sewerage
Total Water and sewerage
Table2: Total Investment in Projects by Type and Primary Sector (US$ million) 1990-2011
Management and lease contract
Water and sewerage
Most infrastructure projects with private participation fit in one of above four categories. But the boundaries between these categories are not always clear, and some projects have features of more than one category. In these cases projects have been classified in the category that better reflects the risk borne by the private sector.
There have been some successes in the power sector: The Phu My 2-2 and Phu My 3 projects are the leading examples of what can be done. 1500MW of power were financed entirely by the private sector. These plants become the property of the government after 12 years and at no cost to the State budget. But the Phu My 2-2 and Phu My 3 projects were isolated. No follow-on project has been licensed, despite the best efforts of numerous developers (though some are rumored to be closed) and despite the collabora-tive work of IFC and the MOIT to develop the Nghi Son 2 project for bid. 5.3 In addition, Hiep Phuoc, Bourbon Tay Ninh and Formosa are examples of successful ‘captive’ power production schemes, allowing private companies to generate their own electricity for use in their factories or industrial zones and to sell excess output to EVN.
There have also recently been some successes in the private sector with ports, for example at Cai Mep and Hiep Phuoc. The public sector has had to provide roads and will have t
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