Development Of Towns And Cities
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UK cities have been continuously grow through centuries. Planning in 1930 and 1940s base on primary legislation, new planning system develop more then 70% of England was subject to interim development control. In early 1950s, UK economics start downturn and looking back to the 17 century the Industrial Revolution break out, size, transport link and wealth of British rapidly increase. New town planning starting from 19 century, national legislation and policy of land development were introduced. Even though actual growth of the new town development in city like London had not been checked, the new town did attract employment and provide over 2million accommodated for people in UK. It is quite successful as show by today social and economy, planning legislation is based on EU legislation.
Most of the population before the 1750 in England was rural, population in 1551 ââ‚¬" 1751 was doubled from 3 million to 6 million. Urban growth in England happen making a movement from most of the population was rural move to urban area, which location from small market town to more regional centers and occupation people are not only working as farm, town and cities was growth England start to change from world society to urban society.
As industrial revolution spread throughout UK, new industry develop increase in factories which dispersed in town, workers form countryside migrate into cities and towns to search for employment therefore population growth as high migration focused on towns form 1801. Instance of Great London, H.G. Well's Anticipations (1902) envisaged a future London extending up to 70 miles from the centre. In real life, he was not far wrong the capital and the provincial cities were expending in territorial size at a rate faster than population growth itself should indicate. London become the earliest and largest in an industrializing world but hand-in-hand went the perception of urban degeneration. (Gordon E. Cherry and Alan Rogers, 1996,p.29). Population trends reflected a looser housing spread since overcrowding in cities and towns leads to the problem of living condition, diseases spared. Until railways, one of the significant factor promote UK growth, social scale was spread down to suburban living. Coil the other significant factor promote UK growth which had replace the water power . Small firms can operate on its own, many new production process and invention. Other ways to consider both social and economic is like Philanthropic factory owners improve their worker living condition in rural surroundings . Many Industry develop as mechanisation in the factory system after industrial revolution. As a long term authority, local government appear to solve those problem which include the control of new housing and rebuilt with standard condition . All these are economic development making population grow from agriculture change.
By 1909, the permissive power provide the Housing, Town Planning Act, during that time a committee was sponsored to consider the provision of dwellings for the working class to the chair, Sir John Tudor Walters, own career. Successful initiative was done on 1735, first green belt were concerned. A discontinuous ring of green belt estates around London was acquired in preserving open space and farmland by the counties around the metropolitan fringe, Thomas (1970). Following the war in 1945, a fundamental change with the Town and Country planning Act In 1947, direct planning of urban area and countryside will be to protect rural settlement from building encroachment and to safeguard agricultural land. The objective was strategic hold over land planning in rural area for many years, up to now, which is examined of settlement planning, village design and green belts.
The major feature of the strategy for settlement was for the green belts. In 1947, the Town and Country Planning Act enable local authorities to the use of land from development. Local Authorities outside London was ask to consider establishing clearly defined green belt in 1955 Duncan Sandts, issued on hos own initiative a Departmental Circular (42/55) . A continuous setting for conflict has been provided by the green belt, the development industry, typified by the volume house builders, has been ranged against local householder interests and the countryside. (Gordon E. Cherry and Alan Rogers, 1996,p.191). Therefore after 1947 statutory development plans for all their area and not just for the urban area which make UK countryside now firmly within the remit of professional activity.
When a rural area is transformed into an urban area, habitat condition will be changed, which may negatively impact preserved vegetation. The main problem is that natural vegetation cannot be replaced by planning replacement species. Preservation should be secured by the use of legislation, planning, design, contracts and economic measure. In 1995, Government policy on Green Belt is in the revised Planning Policy Guidance (PPG2). The main purposes is the openness and permanence of the Green Belt.
A plan was launched by the Deputy Prime Mister in 2003, referred to as,'Substanable Communities: Building for the Future(2003), (Cullingworth & Nadin, 2006, p277). Government announced to continue to protect robustly the land designed as Green Belt in 1997. Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 (PCPA) amended Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (TCPA). UK housing supply crisis, land supply were restricts as Green belt policy provide government a degree of certainty and support for profitable investment. Green Belt land could provide more local produce to reduce unnecessary food miles, improve self sufficiency and healthier diets. Planning application is system to ensure land is use for the benefit of all the community. The planning system in Britain follow s a plan-led system. The regional development plan cover the whole local authority area to effective poverty reduction and urban renewal. The regional planning is an indispensable tool to foster the rational for inter-agency and intergovernmental condition. As local planning, to have a balance, certainty, long term view the Local Development Framework has last 10 years which is do by the development of communities and Local Government and Local Planning Authorities for sustainable development.
Living and working condition, population, post war strategy and other reason like inflation is take as consideration of UK growth, new towns created by E Howard 1906 and the creation of his garden cities of Letchworth and Welwyn were a source of inspiration for planners, legislators and politicians involved in the New Town initiative. 'The New Towns remain the most important exercise in town planning in the 20 years following the Abercrombie Plan, since they have absorbed a population slightly larger than the 383000 envisaged by the town planner in1994', P Merlin 1971. Site with good transport link, agriculture land which is not in good condition were choose to use for new town. New town was one of the successful urban policy of UK which provide over million home and more than one million jobs. Socially and economically successful communities. Looking at the new city Milton Keynes, for example, a balanced community were create in delivering homes, jobs, facilities and services. One of the option being consider is new settlements for managing growth in the south and east of the UK and so towns like Milton Keynes will provide many valuable templates for future large-scale development.
Application of existing Green Belt enable the edge of towns and cities in Uk continue to growth. Around 60% of the population surrounding green Belts, Green belt policy can help to achieve sustain able development, Eric Pickles, inspiring place was provide to people which let them to relex and take exercise. Countryside around need to have easy access and information. The character of area in UK need to be ensure land use and maintain is in keeping with local character, therefore more detailed investigation if landscape quality in Green Belt and urban area is needed in the future.
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