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Qualitative and Quantitative Research Method
The research methods were formed within a movement whose origin goes back to the 16th and 18th centuries and that valued the ability of rational thinking. It was believed that by the use of reason it would be possible for men not only to know the world but beyond that, transform it. This discernment that associated men’s reason with the possibility to provoke changes in social life already meant the questioning of dilettante knowledge and contemplative (Walliman, 2017). This essay is going to compare and contrast the qualitative and quantitative research methods, and their impact in research will also be examined in this essay.
Quantitative research and qualitative research are the two main strands of educational research. By comparing the two research methods and explaining the differences and relationships between the two research methods, we can understand both methods more precisely and accurately. Familiarise yourself with each other’s strengths and limitations. Push education research methods deeper. Since Herbar’s time, theories of educational science have been proposed and feasible. What is interesting, however, is that the educational research brand for education researchers has not found a suitable place since then (Brennen, 2017). Thus, educational research with such a long history is confronted with a very strange situation: on the one hand, it is accused of being called research, in fact, it is a philosophical work which deviates significantly from practice and the necessary educational and scientific research method. On the other hand, anti-science scholars argued that it was influenced by the scientific nature of education. Over time, it became a testing ground for other disciplines, so that educational theory was in danger of colonisation.
Those who demand an earlier position believe that the lack of educational theory should play a leading role in educational practice, teaching, and leadership because of the rigor and science of the basic concepts and the theoretical system that it forms. This is because these years did not find or formulate their research system, which led to the tyranny of educational theory (Iosifides, 2016). Promoting educational research should, therefore, boldly introduce other disciplines, in particular, psychology and other research methods, for the introduction. Unique research method; The latter introduces the public’s objections to the science education slogan and believes that making science scientific is a detrimental slogan and emphasises that there is another effective understanding of the world in addition to the scientific method. Method – human or philosophical approach (Almalki, 2016).
Two seemingly contradictory positions define two main research methods: educational research methods, quantitative research and qualitative research. Educational research involves both quantitative and qualitative research. Two main points: first, imitation of science, emphasis on experience in analysing mathematical tools, measurable research. The purpose of the study was to identify and elucidate the causal relationship (Colorafi et al., 2016). The second model comes from the humanities, focusing on holistic and qualitative information and communication methods. Qualitative and quantitative research is also irrelevant; it is only a research method. However, due to an overemphasis on quantitative research, an understanding of the limits of quantitative research, and a disregard for qualitative research, there is too much to explore in educational research. The purpose of this article is to compare the two research methods and to clarify the differences and relationships between the two research methods so that we can gain a deeper and more accurate understanding of the two research methods and overcome the limitations of their advantages, which defines that the research methods can be used to gain detailed education (Rahman, 2017).
Quantitative research employs some testing tools to quantify and analyse researchers ‘predefined hypotheses and identify a variety of causal variables and then validate scientists’ proposed hypotheses. Science and technology, produced in the West since the Enlightenment, have enabled humanity to make great strides in transcending and transforming nature. Faced with great achievements, people have always been worshiped by love and then shaped by science (Park et al., 2016). Under the guidance of science, nature and humanity became the objects of scientific methods, and science became the master of the world. “Science is not only a criterion for assessing the rationality of knowledge but also a standard for measuring the legitimacy of knowledge. Knowledge can only be meaningful and legal if it reaches the field of science. Lığı The prevalence of science in education has led to the avoidance of quantitative research in educational research.
Malterud (2016) proposed and established experimental training in the early 20th century. They believe that the purpose of experimental educational research is to draw different educational principles from experimental research and case studies. The application is used to guide and obtain tests. At the same time, while emphasising the development of children’s research and thought theory, people emphasise the use of rigorous observation, statistics and experimentation in educational education. The “intellectual scale” published by the French psychologist Binet Simon in 1905 marked the birth of the intelligence tests movement. By quantifying human intelligence, it has profound implications for the “scientific” process of modern education. Rahman (2017) suggests that varlık should express all assets with a certain amount of layarak, emphasising correct quantitative processing. Information collected. From the early 20th century until the 1930s, most educational research was quantitatively centralised, and it can be said that this period was at the height of quantitative research. Later, with the advancement of science and technology, many modern technological advances have been made in the field of educational research, and the situation of quantitative research has again improved. Skinner’s “machine learning” theory maximises the number of training studies (Walliman, 2017).
There is currently no common position of the definition of qualitative research. Overseas scientists often mean that qualitative research “utilises natural experience, industry experience, open interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, literature analysis, case studies, and other methods to conduct detailed and in-depth long-term research. Social events; analysis; The method is set. During this time, on-the-spot information was collected, and their behavioral meanings and perceptions of events were understood from the perspective of all parties (Iosifides, 2016). Hypotheses were then established on this basis. Using Theory and Counterfeiting Techniques and Related Tests This method is used to test research results; The primary research tool should be the researcher himself / herself, taking into account the personal history and relationships of the researchers and the researchers; The investigation process is essential. The component must be registered and reported in detail. The qualitative research method that has existed in recent years is actually within the scope of qualitative research.
Qualitative research began in the 19th century and began to develop in the 1920s and 1930s thanks to social studies. Early qualitative research began with the study of practical social problems. In the social research movement, qualitative research is still a random study, and its value is not understood by anyone. But this has changed because of the rise of anthropology. The rise of anthropology marks the beginning of qualitative research as an independent social practice. Anthropological research has gradually introduced qualitative research, emphasising sectoral and ethnographic research (Colorafi et al., 2016).
With the development of anthropological research, the role of qualitative research in educational research has begun to emerge. Rye suggested emphasising quantitative and qualitative aspects when studying classes. Wooler poses a real challenge to quantitative bias in educational research. He believes that children and teachers are not machines for teaching and learning, but a whole person who cannot be distinguished from complex social relationships. The school itself is society because it is where it lives. Therefore, he advises against using statistical and quantitative methods in education. In 1965, Piaget criticised the “psychological test” and concluded that quantitative research without qualitative inefficiency analysis was meaningless. At the same time, American researchers have presented papers using several qualitative methods (Park et al., 2016). There have been many dialogues between qualitative and quantitative researchers. Some researchers who are renowned in quantitative research have begun to study and encourage the application and properties of qualitative research.
The theoretical basis of quantitative research is the development of positive philosophy for more than one hundred years in the history of Western philosophy. The theoretical foundations of qualitative research include a variety of theoretical schools, such as constructivism, positivism, commentary, and phenomenology. Although these theoretical schools differ in their views, they are fundamentally different from positivism. This is mainly reflected in the following three aspects:
First, there are different assumptions about ontology. Positivism believes that real things are not conveyed by the will of man; they are objective and are not subject to subjective subjective factors. Subjects and objects are two separate entities that can be understood by many tools. The understanding of the object must be based on experience (Brennen, 2017). Social events can be seen through experience. All concepts should be restored to guide the experience. The truth of the theory must be confirmed by experience. The philosophical school represented by phenomenology believes that the nature of social reality does not exist objectively because different people give different meanings at different times and places. Understanding an object from an object is the reconstruction of an object in the interaction between the subject and the object. Object and object are common subjects.
Second, positivism strongly supports the role of experience in epistemology. He believes that his understanding of the subject must be based on experience. All concepts should be restored to guide the experience. The truth of the theory must be confirmed by experience. “Information amaç has purpose laws and can be repeated. As long as researchers follow certain methodologies, they will be able to advance their research. The philosophical school, represented by phenomenology, rejects facts and values as independent objects (Colorafi et al., 2016). They do not think that intelligence is the only constant. It creates a specific social and cultural context and is achieved through different aspects of participation. Interim Consensus. Knowledge is a matter of restructuring and creation. There is no abstract information on the general interest and specific circumstances.
Third, in terms of methodology, positivism tends to exaggerate the role of scientific methods based on the methodological logic of science as the basis for the rationality of scientific theory, and its purpose is to apply scientific methods in philosophy, humanities, and social sciences. All areas of research. In education and research, the strong development of science leads people to believe that educational research is an objective law that randomly promotes a change in people’s subjective will and emphasises the need to improve and measure educational research (Malterud et al., 2016). The philosophical school represented by phenomenology strongly criticised it. People believe that everything is a criterion. So, focus on value, understanding, attitude and understanding of life, focus on the world of values, focus on emotions, create wisdom and experience life. Not all of them can be expressed as data in mathematical language and can only be in the explanatory and interpretive language. The use of scientific methods to investigate educational cases can only lead to impurities and educational activities of people.
Qualitative and quantitative research methods are two of the techniques used while conducting research. However, this essay defines the number of philosophies associated with these research methods, and the processes are also defined, which highlights how a researcher select and use this method while conducting research.
- Almalki, S., 2016. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research–Challenges and Benefits. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(3), pp.288-296.
- Brennen, B.S., 2017. Qualitative research methods for media studies. Routledge.
- Colorafi, K.J. and Evans, B., 2016. Qualitative descriptive methods in health science research. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 9(4), pp.16-25.
- Iosifides, T., 2016. Qualitative methods in migration studies: A critical realist perspective. Routledge.
- Malterud, K., Siersma, V.D. and Guassora, A.D., 2016. Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power. Qualitative health research, 26(13), pp.1753-1760.
- Park, J. and Park, M., 2016. Qualitative versus quantitative research methods: Discovery or justification?. Journal of Marketing Thought, 3(1), pp.1-8.
- Rahman, M.S., 2017. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Language” Testing and Assessment” Research: A Literature Review. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1), pp.102-112.
- Walliman, N., 2017. Research methods: The basics. Routledge.
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